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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(2): 89-100, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506594

RESUMO

Blood eosinophil count is associated with a variety of common complex outcomes in epidemiological observation. The aim of this study was to explore the causal association between determined blood eosinophil count and 20 common complex outcomes (10 metabolic, 6 cardiac, and 4 pulmonary). Through Mendelian randomization, we investigated genetic evidence for the genetically determined eosinophil in association with each outcomes using individual-level LifeLines cohort data (n = 13,301), where a weighted eosinophil genetic risk score comprising five eosinophil associated variants was created. We further examined the associations of the genetically determined eosinophil with those outcomes using summary statistics obtained from genome-wide association study consortia (6 consortia and 14 outcomes). Blood eosinophil count, by a 1-SD genetically increased, was not statistically associated with common complex outcomes in the LifeLines. Using the summary statistics, we showed that a higher genetically determined eosinophil count had a significant association with lower odds of obesity (odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.74, 0.89]) but not with the other traits and diseases. To conclude, an elevated eosinophil count is unlikely to be causally associated to higher risk of metabolic, cardiac, and pulmonary outcomes. Further studies with a stronger genetic risk score for eosinophil count may support these results.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 375-400, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455858

RESUMO

Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10-8). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(9): 1499-1509, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777099

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at birth, the cumulative effect of different environmental exposures combined with a predetermined genetic susceptibility is thought to cause inflammatory bowel disease. All these environmental factors are part of a Western lifestyle, suiting the high incidence rates in Europe and the United States. Whereas receiving breastfeeding, evidence of a Helicobacter pylori infection and vitamin D are important protective factors in Crohn's disease as well as ulcerative colitis, increased hygiene, experiencing a bacterial gastroenteritis in the past, urban living surroundings, air pollution, the use of antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and oral contraceptives are likely to be the most important risk factors for both diseases. Current cigarette smoking yields a divergent effect by protecting against ulcerative colitis but increasing risk of Crohn's disease, whereas former smoking increases chances of both diseases. This review gives a clear overview of the current state of knowledge concerning the exposome. Future studies should focus on measuring this exposome yielding the possibility of combining all involved factors to one exposome risk score and our knowledge on genetic susceptibility.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aleitamento Materno , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
7.
Nat Genet ; 49(6): 834-841, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436984

RESUMO

The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10-8) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Menarca/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Puberdade/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171502, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the largest population-based cohort to date. METHODS: Biochemical characteristics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were determined in the Lifelines Cohort Study (N = 167,729), a population-based cohort in the North of the Netherlands. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI)≥60. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, immigrants, missing data to assess FLI and metabolic syndrome, excessive alcohol use, previous-diagnosed hepatitis or cirrhosis and non-fasting blood sampling. RESULTS: Out of 37,496 included participants (median age 44 years, 62.1% female), 8,259 (22.0%) had a FLI≥60. Individuals with a FLI≥60 were more often male, older, obese, had higher levels of hemoglobinA1c, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein and leucocytes and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.0001). Participants with a FLI≥60 showed higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (9.3% vs. 1.4%), metabolic syndrome (54.2% vs. 6.2%), impaired renal function (20.1% vs. 8.7%) and cardiovascular disease (4.6% vs. 1.6%) (all P<0.0001). Multivariable logistic analysis showed that smoking, hemoglobin, leucocytes, c-reactive protein, platelets, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, impaired renal function (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.15-1.41), metabolic syndrome (OR 11.89, 95%CI 11.03-12.82) and its individual components hyperglycemia (OR 2.53, 95%CI 2.34-2.72), hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.77-2.01) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 3.44, 95%CI 3.22-3.68) were independently associated with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (all P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Twenty-two percent (22.0%) of the population in the North of the Netherlands is suspected to suffer from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coinciding with a significant increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and impaired renal function.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Metabolism ; 67: 62-71, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28081779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. RESULTS: FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional adjustment for the presence of MetS. In subjects with enlarged waist circumference, TSH and FT4 were lower while FT3 was higher, resulting in an increased FT3/FT4 ratio (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Euthyroid subjects with suspected NAFLD are characterized by higher FT3, lower FT4 and higher FT3/FT4 ratio, probably consequent to central obesity.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Glândula Tireoide , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0168480, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27978545

RESUMO

There is ongoing debate on the association between eosinophil count and diseases, as previous studies were inconsistent. We studied the relationship of eosinophil count with 22 complex metabolic, cardiac, and pulmonary traits and diseases. From the population-based LifeLines Cohort Study (N = 167,729), 13,301 individuals were included. We focused on relationship of eosinophil count with three classes of metabolic (7 traits, 2 diseases), cardiac (6 traits, 2 diseases), and pulmonary (2 traits, 2 diseases) outcomes. Regression analyses were applied in overall, women and men, while adjusted for age, sex, BMI and smoking. A p-value of <0.00076 was considered statistically significant. 58.2% of population were women (mean±SD 51.3±11.1 years old). In overall, one-SD higher of ln-eosinophil count was associated with a 0.04 (±SE ±0.002;p = 6.0×10-6) SD higher levels in ln-BMI, 0.06 (±0.007;p = 3.1×10-12) SD in ln-TG, 0.04 (±0.003;p = 7.0×10-6) SD in TC, 0.04 (±0.004;p = 6.3×10-7) SD in LDL, 0.04 (±0.006;p = 6.0×10-6) SD in HbA1c; and with a 0.05 (±0.004;p = 1.7×10-8) SD lower levels in HDL, 0.05 (±0.007;p = 3.4×10-23) SD in FEV1, and 0.09 (±0.001;p = 6.6×10-28) SD in FEV1/FVC. A higher ln-eosinophil count was associated with 1.18 (95%CI 1.09-1.28;p = 2.0×10-5) odds ratio of obesity, 1.29 (1.19-1.39;p = 1.1×10-10) of metabolic syndrome, 1.40 (1.25-1.56;p = 2.7×10-9) of COPD and 1.81 (1.61-2.03;p = 1.0×10-23) of asthma. Similar results were found in women. We found no association between ln-eosinophil count either with blood pressure indices in overall, women and men; or with BMI, LDL, HbA1c and obesity in men. In a large population based cohort, we confirmed eosinophil count as a potential factor implicated in metabolic and pulmonary outcomes.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/fisiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/sangue , Asma/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Oncotarget ; 6(30): 29818-32, 2015 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26337083

RESUMO

Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/sangue , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína A-I/genética , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/sangue , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sinaptotagminas/sangue , Sinaptotagminas/genética , Sinaptotagminas/metabolismo
12.
Viral Immunol ; 25(4): 241-8, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22823386

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common chronic viral infections in the world. Approximately 80-90% of acutely infected individuals develop persistent infection, which is a major risk for liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. However, a small portion of patients (10-20%) clear the virus. Clinical outcomes of HCV infection are determined by the interplay between the host immune response, and viral and environmental factors. In regulating immune responses, cytokines play an indispensable role that controls the underlying pathogenesis and the resulting outcome of HCV infection. Cytokines themselves are manipulated by polymorphisms in their genes. In fact, the majority of genetic variants that apparently confer a significant risk for chronic HCV infection have been localized in genes involved in cytokine synthesis and the ultimate immune response. So far, treatment strategies for HCV infection have remained controversial. Genotyping of different polymorphisms will aid clinical decision making for both current standard and personalized care. Genotyping can potentially be useful for future integration of other agents, which provides an opportunity for clinicians to personalize treatment regimens for HCV patients. This review summarizes findings of different studies on host immune responses after HCV infection and the association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and the likelihood of HCV clearance.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Carga Viral
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(2): 83-85, Apr. 2009. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-538209

RESUMO

Several enzymes that contribute to immune system responses require zinc and copper as trace elements for their activity. We examined zinc and copper levels in two susceptible Balb/c mouse lines and resistant C57bl/6 mice infected with Leishmania major MRHO/IR/75/ER, a prevalent strain that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Serum Zn and Cu were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Higher Cu levels were found in infected C57bl/6 mice and higher Zn levels were found in infected Balb/c mice. Also, Cu/Zn ratios were increased in both the Balb/c and the C57bl/6 mice. We conclude that concentrations of essential trace elements vary during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection and that this variation is associated with susceptibility/resistance to Leishmania major in Balb/c and C57bl/6 mice. We detected Zn deficiency in the plasma of infected Balb/c mice; possibly, therapeutic administration of Zn would be useful for treating this form of leishmaniasis. Increases in Cu level might increase resistance to leishmaniasis. Based on our findings, the Cu/Zn ratio could be a useful marker for the pathophysiology of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Cobre/sangue , Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
14.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 13(2): 83-5, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20140348

RESUMO

Several enzymes that contribute to immune system responses require zinc and copper as trace elements for their activity. We examined zinc and copper levels in two susceptible Balb/c mouse lines and resistant C57bl/6 mice infected with Leishmania major MRHO/IR/75/ER, a prevalent strain that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Serum Zn and Cu were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Higher Cu levels were found in infected C57bl/6 mice and higher Zn levels were found in infected Balb/c mice. Also, Cu/Zn ratios were increased in both the Balb/c and the C57bl/6 mice. We conclude that concentrations of essential trace elements vary during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection and that this variation is associated with susceptibility/resistance to Leishmania major in Balb/c and C57bl/6 mice. We detected Zn deficiency in the plasma of infected Balb/c mice; possibly, therapeutic administration of Zn would be useful for treating this form of leishmaniasis. Increases in Cu level might increase resistance to leishmaniasis. Based on our findings, the Cu/Zn ratio could be a useful marker for the pathophysiology of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Cobre/sangue , Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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