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Sports Health ; 12(1): 74-79, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642726


BACKGROUND: Lower extremity overuse injuries are common among runners, especially first-time marathoners. Hip abductor and quadriceps strengthening is often recommended to reduce running-related injuries. HYPOTHESIS: A 12-week strength training program would decrease the rate of overuse injuries resulting in marathon noncompletion and improve race finishing time. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized trial. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2. METHODS: Twelve weeks before the New York City Marathon, first-time marathon runners age 18 years and older were randomized into a strength training group or an observation group. The strength training group was instructed to perform a 10-minute program 3 times weekly using written and video instruction. This program targeted the quadriceps, hip abductor, and core muscle groups. Injuries were self-reported through biweekly surveys, with major injuries being those that resulted in marathon noncompletion and minor injuries being those that impaired training or race performance. RESULTS: A total of 720 runners were enrolled (mean age, 35.9 ± 9.4 years; 69.4% female), of whom 583 runners started the marathon and 579 completed it. The incidence of major injury was 8.9% and minor injury was 48.5%. Fifty two of 64 major injuries were overuse, of which 20 were bone stress injuries. The incidence of overuse injury resulting in marathon noncompletion was 7.1% in the strength training group and 7.3% in the observation group (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.57-1.63; P = 0.90). The mean finishing time was 5 hours 1 ± 60 minutes in the strength training group and 4 hours 58 ± 55 minutes in the observation group (P = 0.35). CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of injury among first-time marathon runners, but this self-directed strength training program did not decrease overuse injury incidence resulting in marathon noncompletion. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Prevention strategies such as strength training need to be developed and evaluated through clinical trials to reduce the high prevalence of overuse injuries in runners, especially for high-risk populations such as first-time marathon runners.

Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Corrida/lesões , Adulto , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Corrida/fisiologia
Sports Health ; 11(6): 486-491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567052


CONTEXT: The incidence of sports-related concussion in females has been increasing in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis on sex-based differences in concussion incidence in various sports and to determine the effects of study design (retrospective vs prospective), setting (competition vs practice), and population (university and above vs high school and below) via a meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting sports-related concussion incidence data for both males and females (age ≥10 years) were included. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: The rate ratio was calculated as the concussion rate in females/males. Data were pooled using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Soccer and basketball demonstrated significantly higher incidence of concussions in females compared with males (rate ratio [95% CI], 1.76 [1.43-2.16] and 1.99 [1.56-2.54], respectively; P < 0.01). Sex-based differences in concussion incidence rates for baseball/softball, ice hockey, lacrosse, swimming/diving, and track and field were not statistically significant. In the meta-regression analysis, there were no significant effects on the rate ratio when evaluating study design, setting, and population. CONCLUSION: Concussion incidence rates were significantly higher in females than in males for soccer and basketball.

Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Basquetebol/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Futebol/lesões
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651591


BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence to suggest sex- and gender-based differences in the incidence of sports-related concussions. The mechanisms of concussion may vary between male and female athletes and contribute to this observed difference. Understanding the underlying etiology by pooling data from primary studies across different settings and sport types will inform interventions that can reduce concussion rates. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Specifically, we asked: (1) In which sports are female athletes less likely to experience concussions from player contact? (2) In which sports are female athletes more likely to experience concussions because of ball or equipment contact? METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify articles published from January 2000 to December 2018. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, which were studies that reported concussion incidence by mechanism for both male and female athletes. Exclusion criteria included non-English studies, conference abstracts, and studies on non-sports related concussions. The sports represented by the 10 studies included ice hockey (n = 4), soccer (n = 5), basketball (n = 4), baseball/softball (n = 4), and lacrosse (n = 5). The rate ratio was calculated as the incidence rate in female athletes/male athletes for each concussion mechanism or activity. Data were pooled using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Female athletes were at lower risk of player-contact-induced concussions in lacrosse (pooled rate ratio 0.33 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.43]; p < 0.001), basketball (pooled rate ratio 0.86 [95% CI 0.76 to 0.97]; p = 0.01), ice hockey (pooled rate ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.56 to 0.73]; p < 0.001), soccer (pooled rate ratio 0.70 [95% CI 0.66 to 0.75]; p < 0.001), and soccer heading (pooled rate ratio 0.80 [95% CI 0.72 to 0.90]; p < 0.001); in these sports, men were at higher risk of concussions from player contact. Female athletes were more likely to experience concussions because of ball or equipment contact in lacrosse (pooled rate ratio 3.24 [95% CI 2.10 to 4.99]; p < 0.001), soccer (pooled rate ratio 2.04 [95% CI 1.67 to 2.49]; p < 0.001), and soccer heading (pooled rate ratio 2.63 [95% CI 1.84 to 3.77]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism or activity underlying concussions differs between male and female athletes across different sports. This finding remains the same regardless of whether there are rule differences between the men's and women's games. The implementation of other interventions are required to further ensure player safety, including protective head equipment, concussion prevention training, or rules limiting player contact in the men's game. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective study.