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Diabetes Ther ; 11(3): 585-606, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981212


AIM: To develop an evidence-based expert group opinion on the role of insulin motivation to overcome insulin distress during different stages of insulin therapy and to propose a practitioner's toolkit for insulin motivation in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). BACKGROUND: Insulin distress, an emotional response of the patient to the suggested use of insulin, acts as a major barrier to insulin therapy in the management of DM. Addressing patient-, physician- and drug-related factors is important to overcome insulin distress. Strengthening of communication between physicians and patients with diabetes and enhancing the patients' coping skills are prerequisites to create a sense of comfort with the use of insulin. Insulin motivation is key to achieving targeted goals in diabetes care. A group of endocrinologists came together at an international meeting held in India to develop tool kits that would aid a practitioner in implementing insulin motivation strategies at different stages of the journey through insulin therapy, including pre-initiation, initiation, titration and intensification. During the meeting, emphasis was placed on the challenges and limitations faced by both physicians and patients with diabetes during each stage of the journey through insulinization. REVIEW RESULTS: After review of evidence and discussions, the expert group provided recommendations on strategies for improved insulin acceptance, empowering behavior change in patients with DM, approaches for motivating patients to initiate and maintain insulin therapy and best practices for insulin motivation at the pre-initiation, initiation, titration and intensification stages of insulin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the management of DM, bringing in positive behavioral change by motivating the patient to improve treatment adherence helps overcome insulin distress and achieve treatment goals.

Diabetes Ther ; 11(1): 53-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667706


INTRODUCTION: The associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and insulin with the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk are not known. This secondary, pooled analysis of data from the DEVOTE trial examined whether baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) categories were associated with a higher risk of these outcomes. METHODS: DEVOTE was a treat-to-target, double-blind trial involving 7637 patients with T2D at high CV risk who were randomized to once-daily treatment with either insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). Patients with estimated GFR data at baseline (n = 7522) were analyzed following stratification into four GFR categories. RESULTS: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality increased with worsening baseline GFR category (P < 0.05), with a trend towards higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with prior CVD, CKD (estimated GFR < 60 mL/min/m2), or both were at higher risk of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality. Only CKD was associated with a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia, and the risk of MACE was higher in patients with CVD than in those with CKD (P  = 0.0003). There were no significant interactions between randomized treatment and GFR category. CONCLUSION: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality were higher with lower baseline GFR and with prior CVD, CKD, or both. The relative effects of degludec versus glargine U100 on outcomes were consistent across baseline GFR categories, suggesting that the lower rate of severe hypoglycemia associated with degludec use versus glargine U100 use was independent of baseline GFR category. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.

Lancet ; 394(10192): 39-50, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186120


BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective treatments for type 2 diabetes, lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but are currently only approved for use as subcutaneous injections. Oral semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 agonist, was compared with subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3a trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 100 sites in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with HbA1c of 7·0-9·5% (53-80·3 mmol/mol), on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg or maximum tolerated) with or without a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) with an interactive web-response system and stratified by background glucose-lowering medication and country of origin, to once-daily oral semaglutide (dose escalated to 14 mg), once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (dose escalated to 1·8 mg), or placebo for 52 weeks. Two estimands were defined: treatment policy (regardless of study drug discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (assumed all participants were on study drug without rescue medication) in all participants who were randomly assigned. The treatment policy estimand was the primary estimand. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and non-inferiority [margin: 0·4%] and superiority vs subcutaneous liraglutide) and the confirmatory secondary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in bodyweight (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and liraglutide). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered on, number NCT02863419, and the European Clinical Trials registry, number EudraCT 2015-005210-30. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2016, and Feb 7, 2017, 950 patients were screened, of whom 711 were eligible and randomly assigned to oral semaglutide (n=285), subcutaneous liraglutide (n=284), or placebo (n=142). 341 (48%) of 711 participants were female and the mean age was 56 years (SD 10). All participants were given at least one dose of study drug, and 277 (97%) participants in the oral semaglutide group, 274 (96%) in the liraglutide group, and 134 (94%) in the placebo group completed the 52-week trial period. Mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26 was -1·2% (SE 0·1) with oral semaglutide, -1·1% (SE 0·1) with subcutaneous liraglutide, and -0·2% (SE 0·1) with placebo. Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide in decreasing HbA1c (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0·1%, 95% CI -0·3 to 0·0; p<0·0001) and superior to placebo (ETD -1·1%, -1·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) by use of the treatment policy estimand. By use of the trial product estimand, oral semaglutide had significantly greater decreases in HbA1c than both subcutaneous liraglutide (ETD -0·2%, 95% CI -0·3 to -0·1; p=0·0056) and placebo (ETD -1·2%, -1·4 to -1·0; p<0·0001) at week 26. Oral semaglutide resulted in superior weight loss (-4·4 kg [SE 0·2]) compared with liraglutide (-3·1 kg [SE 0·2]; ETD -1·2 kg, 95% CI -1·9 to -0·6; p=0·0003) and placebo (-0·5 kg [SE 0·3]; ETD -3·8 kg, -4·7 to -3·0; p<0·0001) at week 26 (treatment policy). By use of the trial product estimand, weight loss at week 26 was significantly greater with oral semaglutide than with subcutaneous liraglutide (-1·5 kg, 95% CI -2·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) and placebo (ETD -4·0 kg, -4·8 to -3·2; p<0·0001). Adverse events were more frequent with oral semaglutide (n=229 [80%]) and subcutaneous liraglutide (n=211 [74%]) than with placebo (n=95 [67%]). INTERPRETATION: Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide and superior to placebo in decreasing HbA1c, and superior in decreasing bodyweight compared with both liraglutide and placebo at week 26. Safety and tolerability of oral semaglutide were similar to subcutaneous liraglutide. Use of oral semaglutide could potentially lead to earlier initiation of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in the diabetes treatment continuum of care. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 30(1): 15-23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720848


The International Cholesterol Management Practice Study (ICLPS) South Africa investigated achievement of European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) guideline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in real-world clinical practice. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-modifying medications, lipid values and investigator's assessment of cardiovascular risk were recorded for 396 patients on stable lipid-modifying therapy. Most (98.7%) patients received statins; 25.1% of statin-treated patients were receiving high-intensity statins. Overall, 41.4% of patients achieved their LDL-C target; among 354 (89.4%) patients in whom cardiovascular disease risk, based on ESC Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation (SCORE) was calculated, achievement rate was 14.3% for moderate-risk (n = 7), 59.3% for high-risk (n = 123) and 32.3% for very high-risk patients (n = 223). Half of Asian (54.7%) and black African (53.2%) patients were at LDL-C target compared with 29.8% of European/Caucasian and 27.3% of 'other' patients. Improved guideline adherence and greater use of combination therapy may increase LDL-C goal achievement.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
Endocr Pract ; 20(11): 1143-50, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24936555


OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of 500 U/mL (U-500) regular insulin + metformin with U-500 regular insulin + metformin + exenatide in improving glycemic control in patients with severely insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Thirty patients with T2DM and severe insulin resistance were screened, and 28 were randomized to regular insulin U-500 + metformin or the GLP-1 analog exenatide, U-500, and metformin. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, body weight, and insulin doses were documented at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. The number and severity hypoglycemic episodes were noted. RESULTS: There were 7 males and 7 females in each group (U-500 + metformin and U-500 + metformin + exenatide). Overall, U-500 insulin + metformin, either alone or with the addition of exenatide, resulted in a significant improvement in HbA1c in both groups, with no significant difference between the 2 groups. There was no meaningful weight change in those utilizing exenatide. Those on U-500 insulin and metformin alone had a tendency toward some weight gain. No severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study period. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was more common in the group on exenatide, but this occurred in only 5 patients, and the clinical significance of this is uncertain. Insulin dosage changes on U-500 regular insulin were variable but tended to be lower in those subjects on exenatide. CONCLUSIONS: U-500 regular insulin + metformin is effective for the treatment of T2DM patients with severe insulin resistance. The addition of exenatide may ameliorate potential weight gain but provides no additional improvement in glycemia.

Diabetes Care ; 33(3): 605-7, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20009090


OBJECTIVE To examine the efficacy and safety of rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid receptor type-1 antagonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients (n = 368; A1C > or =7%) were randomized to 20 mg/day rimonabant or placebo in this 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Change in baseline A1C to week 48 (primary outcome) and changes in body weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels (secondary outcomes) were assessed. RESULTS Rimonabant significantly reduced baseline A1C versus placebo (-0.89 vs. -0.24%; P < 0.0001), and significantly greater improvements were observed in cardiometabolic risk factors. More rimonabant patients achieved >10% reduction in mean total daily insulin dose versus placebo (P = 0.0012), and fewer required rescue medication (P < 0.0001). Hypoglycemia, nausea, dizziness, anxiety, and depression were more frequent with rimonabant. CONCLUSIONS Rimonabant improved glycemic control and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin.

Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Placebos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Rimonabanto , Adulto Jovem