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1.
Neuron ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585809

RESUMO

In humans, disruption of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the mechanism by which deficient NMD leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction remains unknown, preventing development of targeted therapies. Here we identified novel protein-coding UPF2 (UP-Frameshift 2) variants in humans with NDD, including speech and language deficits. In parallel, we found that mice lacking Upf2 in the forebrain (Upf2 fb-KO mice) show impaired NMD, memory deficits, abnormal long-term potentiation (LTP), and social and communication deficits. Surprisingly, Upf2 fb-KO mice exhibit elevated expression of immune genes and brain inflammation. More importantly, treatment with two FDA-approved anti-inflammatory drugs reduced brain inflammation, restored LTP and long-term memory, and reversed social and communication deficits. Collectively, our findings indicate that impaired UPF2-dependent NMD leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction and suggest that anti-inflammatory agents may prove effective for treatment of disorders with impaired NMD.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3922, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477727

RESUMO

More than 7 million individuals have been conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and there is clear evidence that ART is associated with a range of adverse early life outcomes, including rare imprinting disorders. The periconception period and early embryogenesis are associated with widespread epigenetic remodeling, which can be influenced by ART, with effects on the developmental trajectory in utero, and potentially on health throughout life. Here we profile genome-wide DNA methylation in blood collected in the newborn period and in adulthood (age 22-35 years) from a unique longitudinal cohort of ART-conceived individuals, previously shown to have no differences in health outcomes in early adulthood compared with non-ART-conceived individuals. We show evidence for specific ART-associated variation in methylation around birth, most of which occurred independently of embryo culturing. Importantly, ART-associated epigenetic variation at birth largely resolves by adulthood with no direct evidence that it impacts on development and health.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

5.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439621

RESUMO

Girls with pathogenic variants in FMR1, the gene responsible for Fragile X syndrome, have received relatively little attention in the literature. The reports of girls with trinucleotide expansions or deletions affecting FMR1 describe variable phenotypes; having normal intelligence and no severe neurologic sequelae is not uncommon. We reviewed epilepsy genetics research databases for girls with FMR1 pathogenic variants and seizures to characterize the spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes. We identified 4 patients, 3 of whom had drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Two had severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with late-onset epileptic spasms. Our findings demonstrate that FMR1 loss-of-function variants can result in severe neurologic phenotypes in girls. Similar cases may be missed because clinicians may not always perform Fragile X testing in girls, particularly those with severe neurodevelopmental impairment or late-onset spasms.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405222

RESUMO

Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a hypermethylated full mutation (FM) expansion with ≥200 cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeats, and a decrease in FMR1 mRNA and its protein (FMRP), incomplete silencing has been associated with more severe autism features in FXS males. This study reports on brothers (B1 and B2), aged 5 and 2 years, with autistic features and language delay, but a higher non-verbal IQ in comparison to typical FXS. CGG sizing using AmplideX PCR only identified premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs) alleles in blood. Similarly, follow-up in B1 only revealed PM alleles in saliva and skin fibroblasts; whereas, an FM expansion was detected in both saliva and buccal DNA of B2. While Southern blot analysis of blood detected an unmethylated FM, methylation analysis with a more sensitive methodology showed that B1 had partially methylated PM alleles in blood and fibroblasts, which were completely unmethylated in buccal and saliva cells. In contrast, B2 was partially methylated in all tested tissues. Moreover, both brothers had FMR1 mRNA ~5 fold higher values than those of controls, FXS and PM cohorts. In conclusion, the presence of unmethylated FM and/or PM in both brothers may lead to an overexpression of toxic expanded mRNA in some cells, which may contribute to neurodevelopmental problems, including elevated autism features.

7.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(4): 169-174, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274575

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in DDX3X have recently been identified to be a relatively common cause of intellectual disability in females. In this study, we describe six female probands, from five unrelated families, with five novel heterozygous variants in DDX3X, and the identification of potential germline mosaicism. Consistent features between this cohort and previously described cases include developmental delay or intellectual disability, growth disturbance and movement disorder. Common facial dysmorphism within the cohort include short palpebral fissures, micrognathia, bulbous nasal tip, protruding ears, high arched palate, thin upper vermillion and smooth philtrum. Novel clinical features identified from this cohort include facial dysmorphisms, perinatal complications, valgus feet deformity, lipoatrophy, dystonic episodes, and cutaneous mastocytosis. This case series attempts to expand the phenotype of the DDX3X syndrome; however, it remains heterogeneous. Description of further cases is required to more accurately identify the significance of novel phenotypes within this cohort.

8.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335548

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: The incidence of explicit recall of intraoperative events, or awareness with recall, is less than 0.2%Anesthetic dosing is apparently adequate in 10 to 25% of awareness with recall patientsThe awareness with recall phenotype only reveals itself when patients are exposed to anesthesia WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: A preliminary study sought to determine whether there is evidence that awareness with recall is caused by a few rare variants with high penetrance in 12 patients who had experienced awareness with recall in the presence of apparently adequate anesthesiaWhole exome sequencing was conducted and identified variants were filtered and prioritized to identify a candidate list that might be suitable for further investigation of causes of awareness with recallNo candidate gene(s) suggestive of a monogenic etiology were identified, possibly because of the application of a filtering strategy, the small sample size, or use of exome sequencing, which does not interrogate potentially important regulatory noncoding sequences BACKGROUND:: Intraoperative awareness with recall while under apparently adequate general anesthesia is a rare, unexplained, and often very distressing phenomenon. It is possible that a relatively small number of genetic variants might underlie the failure of general anesthetic drugs to adequately suppress explicit memory formation and recall in the presence of apparently adequate anesthesia concentrations. METHODS: The authors recruited 12 adult patients who had experienced an episode of intraoperative awareness with recall (compared with 12 controls), performed whole exome sequencing, and applied filtering to obtain a set of genetic variants that might be associated with intraoperative awareness with recall. The criteria were that the variant (1) had a minor allele frequency less than 0.1% in population databases, (2) was within exonic or splicing regions, (3) caused a nonsynonymous change, (4) was predicted to be functionally damaging, (5) was expressed in the top 50% of genes expressed in the brain, and (6) was within genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways associated with general anesthesia, drug metabolism, arousal, and memory. RESULTS: The authors identified 29 rare genetic variants in 27 genes that were absent in controls and could plausibly be associated with this disorder. One variant in CACNA1A was identified in two patients and two different variants were identified in both CACNA1A and CACNA1S. Of interest was the relative overrepresentation of variants in genes encoding calcium channels and purinergic receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Within the constraints of the filtering process used, the authors did not find any single gene variant or gene that was strongly associated with intraoperative awareness with recall. The authors report 27 candidate genes and associated pathways identified in this pilot project as targets of interest for future larger biologic and epidemiologic studies.

9.
Brain ; 142(8): e40, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243445
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 151-165, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230722

RESUMO

Genomic technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) are revolutionizing molecular diagnostics and clinical medicine. However, these approaches have proven inefficient at identifying pathogenic repeat expansions. Here, we apply a collection of bioinformatics tools that can be utilized to identify either known or novel expanded repeat sequences in NGS data. We performed genetic studies of a cohort of 35 individuals from 22 families with a clinical diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). Analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data with five independent algorithms identified a recessively inherited intronic repeat expansion [(AAGGG)exp] in the gene encoding Replication Factor C1 (RFC1). This motif, not reported in the reference sequence, localized to an Alu element and replaced the reference (AAAAG)11 short tandem repeat. Genetic analyses confirmed the pathogenic expansion in 18 of 22 CANVAS-affected families and identified a core ancestral haplotype, estimated to have arisen in Europe more than twenty-five thousand years ago. WGS of the four RFC1-negative CANVAS-affected families identified plausible variants in three, with genomic re-diagnosis of SCA3, spastic ataxia of the Charlevoix-Saguenay type, and SCA45. This study identified the genetic basis of CANVAS and demonstrated that these improved bioinformatics tools increase the diagnostic utility of WGS to determine the genetic basis of a heterogeneous group of clinically overlapping neurogenetic disorders.

11.
Mol Autism ; 10: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073396

RESUMO

Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common monogenic cause of intellectual disability with autism features. While it is caused by loss of the FMR1 product (FMRP), mosaicism for active and inactive FMR1 alleles, including alleles termed premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs), is not uncommon. Importantly, both PM and active full mutation (FM: ≥ 200 CGGs) alleles often express elevated levels of mRNA that are thought to be toxic. This study determined if complete FMR1 mRNA silencing from FM alleles and/or levels of FMR1 mRNA (if present) in blood are associated with intellectual functioning and autism features in FXS. Methods: The study cohort included 98 participants (70.4% male) with FXS (FM-only and PM/FM mosaic) aged 1-43 years. A control group of 14 females were used to establish control FMR1 mRNA reference range. Intellectual functioning and autism features were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning or an age-appropriate Wechsler Scale and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd Edition (ADOS-2), respectively. FMR1 mRNA was analysed in venous blood collected at the time of assessments, using the real-time PCR relative standard curve method. Results: Females with FXS had significantly higher levels of FMR1 mRNA (p < 0.001) than males. FMR1 mRNA levels were positively associated with age (p < 0.001), but not with intellectual functioning and autistic features in females. FM-only males (aged < 19 years) expressing FM FMR1 mRNA had significantly higher ADOS calibrated severity scores compared to FM-only males with completely silenced FMR1 (p = 0.011). However, there were no significant differences between these subgroups on intellectual functioning. In contrast, decreased levels of FMR1 mRNA were associated with decreased intellectual functioning in FXS males (p = 0.029), but not autism features, when combined with the PM/FM mosaic group. Conclusion: Incomplete silencing of toxic FM RNA may be associated with autistic features, but not intellectual functioning in FXS males. While decreased levels of mRNA may be more predictive of intellectual functioning than autism features. If confirmed in future studies, these findings may have implications for patient stratification, outcome measure development, and design of clinical and pre-clinical trials in FXS.

12.
Genet Med ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to characterize the clinical features of a novel cohort of affected individuals with variants in ZNF142, a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. METHODS: Four independent research centers used exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic basis of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in four unrelated families. Following bioinformatic filtering, query of control data sets, and secondary variant confirmation, we aggregated findings using an online data sharing platform. We performed in-depth clinical phenotyping in all affected individuals. RESULTS: We identified seven affected females in four pedigrees with likely pathogenic variants in ZNF142 that segregate with recessive disease. Affected cases in three families harbor either nonsense or frameshifting likely pathogenic variants predicted to undergo nonsense mediated decay. One additional trio bears ultrarare missense variants in conserved regions of ZNF142 that are predicted to be damaging to protein function. We performed clinical comparisons across our cohort and noted consistent presence of intellectual disability and speech impairment, with variable manifestation of seizures, tremor, and dystonia. CONCLUSION: Our aggregate data support a role for ZNF142 in nervous system development and add to the emergent list of zinc finger proteins that contribute to neurocognitive disorders.

13.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(5): 767-778, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) has a heterogeneous presentation and is often identified late or misdiagnosed. Diagnosis is prompted by speech, resonance or feeding symptoms associated with velopharyngeal insufficiency. However, the broader impacts of SMCP on communication have rarely been examined and therefore are poorly understood. AIM: To describe the communicative profile of individuals with non-syndromic SMCP by examining speech, language and pragmatics (social language). METHODS & PROCEDURES: Fifteen participants with SMCP aged 5;1-12;8, without a genetic diagnosis, participated in the study. Participants completed standardized assessments examining language, resonance, speech and non-verbal intellect. Parents also completed the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2), which provided a measure of overall communicative ability, including pragmatic skills. Formal language outcomes were compared with two cohorts: 36 individuals with overt non-syndromic clefts and 129 individuals with no history of clefting. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Speech intelligibility was reduced secondary to hypernasality, disordered articulation and/or impaired phonology (n = 7) in children with SMCP. Poorer overall language outcomes were observed for children with SMCP compared with both those with overt clefts and no history of clefting (p < 0.001). Language scores for children with SMCP ranged from impaired (n = 6) to above the standardized mean (n = 4). Receptive and expressive language performance were independently correlated with non-verbal IQ (p < 0.01). Those with severe language impairment (n = 4) also had borderline or impaired non-verbal IQ. Parents reported that speech and semantics were the most affected sub-domains of communication, while scores were the highest for the initiation domain. Speech and language skills were correlated strongly with pragmatics (r = 0.877, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Overall, performance was variable within the SMCP group across speech, language and pragmatic assessments. In addition to well-documented speech difficulties, children with SMCP may have language or pragmatic impairments, suggesting that further neurodevelopmental influences may be at play. As such, for individuals with SMCP, additional clinical screening of language and pragmatic abilities may be required to ensure accurate diagnosis and guide both cleft and non-cleft related therapy programmes.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 914-924, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982611

RESUMO

Glypicans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that regulate growth-factor signaling during development and are thought to play a role in the regulation of morphogenesis. Whole-exome sequencing of the Australian family that defined Keipert syndrome (nasodigitoacoustic syndrome) identified a hemizygous truncating variant in the gene encoding glypican 4 (GPC4). This variant, located in the final exon of GPC4, results in premature termination of the protein 51 amino acid residues prior to the stop codon, and in concomitant loss of functionally important N-linked glycosylation (Asn514) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (Ser529) sites. We subsequently identified seven affected males from five additional kindreds with novel and predicted pathogenic variants in GPC4. Segregation analysis and X-inactivation studies in carrier females provided supportive evidence that the GPC4 variants caused the condition. Furthermore, functional studies of recombinant protein suggested that the truncated proteins p.Gln506∗ and p.Glu496∗ were less stable than the wild type. Clinical features of Keipert syndrome included a prominent forehead, a flat midface, hypertelorism, a broad nose, downturned corners of mouth, and digital abnormalities, whereas cognitive impairment and deafness were variable features. Studies of Gpc4 knockout mice showed evidence of the two primary features of Keipert syndrome: craniofacial abnormalities and digital abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that GPC4 is most closely related to GPC6, which is associated with a bone dysplasia that has a phenotypic overlap with Keipert syndrome. Overall, we have shown that pathogenic variants in GPC4 cause a loss of function that results in Keipert syndrome, making GPC4 the third human glypican to be linked to a genetic syndrome.

15.
Fertil Steril ; 112(1): 130-139, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the health outcomes for adults aged 22-35 years old who were conceived via assisted reproduction technology (ART) compared with adults of the same age conceived without use of ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Adult men and women aged 22-35 years who were conceived with and without use of ART. INTERVENTION(S): Questionnaire and clinical review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Vascular structure (carotid artery intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity), vascular function (blood pressure), metabolic markers (fasting blood glucose, insulin, and standard lipid profiles), anthropometric measurements, and respiratory function (spirometry). RESULT(S): The mean age of the 193 ART and 86 non-ART participants was 27.0 and 26.9 years, respectively. There were no substantial intragroup differences in demographics or vascular intermediate phenotypes, metabolic parameters, or anthropometric measures, before or after adjusting for perinatal factors and a quality of life measure with four domains. Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the ART men than the non-ART men (adjusted mean difference -4.4 mm Hg, 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.1). The ART group reported a higher prevalence of ever having asthma, (40.8% vs. 28.6%; odds ratio 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0), but expiratory flow rates were similar. CONCLUSION(S): This study of the health of 193 adults conceived via ART, the largest to date globally, found no evidence of increased vascular or cardiometabolic risk, or growth or respiratory problems in the ART group compared with a non-ART group from the same source population. Follow-up observation for reproductive and later-onset adverse health effects remains important.

16.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2162-2163, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944416

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, the affiliation details for Lei Zhang were given as Monash University. While working on the Article Dr. Zhang was also affiliated with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PR China. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

17.
J Child Neurol ; 34(8): 472-476, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963790

RESUMO

High throughput sequencing is discovering many likely causative genetic variants in individuals with cerebral palsy. Some investigators have suggested that this changes the clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy and that these individuals should be removed from this diagnostic category. Cerebral palsy is a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed on clinical signs, not etiology. All nonprogressive permanent disorders of movement and posture attributed to disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal and infant brain can be described as "cerebral palsy." This definition of cerebral palsy should not be changed, whatever the cause. Reasons include stability, utility and accuracy of cerebral palsy registers, direct access to services, financial and social support specifically offered to families with cerebral palsy, and community understanding of the clinical diagnosis. Other neurodevelopmental disorders, for example, epilepsy, have not changed the diagnosis when genomic causes are found. The clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy should remain, should prompt appropriate genetic studies and can subsequently be subclassified by etiology.

18.
J Commun Disord ; 78: 84-96, 2019 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Speech and language deficits are frequent in males with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), yet the research base is slim and specific strengths and deficits in communication have not been well characterised. Nor have studies examined communication abilities across a wide age-range from infancy to adolescence. OBJECTIVE: To characterise communication in children and adolescents with KS. METHOD: Twenty-six males, aged 1;1-17;4 years, took part in the study. Oromotor, speech, language, literacy and pragmatic abilities were assessed. RESULTS: Communication impairment was seen in 92% of cases (24/26), with salient findings being impairments in social-pragmatic language (15/18; 83%), language-memory (12/15; 80%) and literacy (13/17; 76%). Mild to severe receptive and expressive language deficits were common (16/23; 70%), although performance was varied across linguistic domains of semantics, syntax, and morphology. Oromotor impairment (21/21; 100%) and speech impairments were evident from preschool through to adolescence. Whilst speech was highly intelligible (22/26; 85%), articulation errors (12/26; 46%), phonological delay (12/26; 46%), phonological disorder (5/26; 19%) and dysarthria (2/23 8.7%) were observed. Other atypical, yet mild, speech features were noted such as hyponasality (16/23; 70%). CONCLUSIONS: Language, literacy and social-pragmatic deficits are common in KS. Data suggested a trend for more notable deficits with age and increasing academic and social demands. We added novel data on the nature of speech production deficits, including persistent phonological errors in a number of cases. Earlier detection and intervention of phonological errors may reduce the risk for later language and literacy challenges and optimise academic, and ultimately social and behavioural difficulties later in life.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756437

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and service impact of chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective medical record review of NICU patients referred for genetics consultation at three time points over a 9-year period at a single centre to determine referral indications, genetic consultation outcomes and time to diagnosis. RESULTS: The number of NICU patients referred for genetics consultation increased from 44 in 2007 to 95 in 2015. The proportion of NICU patients suspected of having a genetic condition following clinical geneticist assessment remained stable, averaging 5.3% of all admissions. The proportion of patients receiving a confirmed diagnosis rose from 21% in 2007 to 53% in 2015, with a shift from primarily chromosomal abnormalities to a broad range of monogenic disorders, increasingly diagnosed by WES as a first-tier test. The average age at diagnosis in 2015 was 19 days (range 12-38 days) for chromosomal abnormalities and 138 days (range 10-309 days) for monogenic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of new genetic technologies at our centre has increased the proportion of patients receiving a confirmed genetic diagnosis. This study provides important benchmark data to measure further improvements as turn-around times for genomic testing decrease.

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