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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(5): 1077-1086, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of PD-L1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is incompletely understood. Our objectives were to evaluate the evidence for tumor PD-L1 as a prognostic biomarker in MPM through meta-analysis and to determine if tumor PD-L1 expression is associated with survival in MPM patients undergoing macroscopic complete resection. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed to determine the association of PD-L1 with overall survival (OS) in MPM (n=1,655) from fourteen studies containing OS and tumor PD-L1 expression. Univariable and multivariable analyses tested the relationship of tumor PD-L1 with OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in an institutional cohort of MPM patients treated by macroscopic complete resection (n=75). To validate the association of PD-L1 with OS, we utilized two independent MPM cohorts (n=284). RESULTS: Meta-analysis demonstrated that high tumor PD-L1 expression was associated with poor OS. Among 75 patients undergoing macroscopic complete resection, 49 tumors (65%) expressed PD-L1 (≥1%), and high PD-L1 (≥50%) was more commonly expressed on non-epithelial (29%) compared with epithelial tumors (14%). High tumor PD-L1 expression was independently associated with poor OS (P<0.001, HR=5.67) and RFS (P=0.003, HR=3.28). The association of PD-L1 overexpression with unfavorable survival was more significant in epithelial MPMs than non-epithelial MPMs. These findings were validated in RNA sequencing analyses in two independent cohorts. Exploratory transcriptome analysis revealed that MPM tumors with PD-L1 overexpression displayed co-expression of other immune regulatory molecules, PD-L2 and TIM-3. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor PD-L1 expression is a prognostic biomarker in patients undergoing surgical resection for MPM and may be useful in perioperative decision making.

3.
Am J Cancer Res ; 10(10): 3382-3394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163277

RESUMO

Endosomes regulate cell polarity, adhesion, signaling, immunity, and tumor progression, which may influence cancer outcomes. Here we evaluated associations between 36,068 genetic variants of 228 endosome-related pathway genes and cutaneous melanoma disease-specific survival (CMSS) using genotyping data from two previously published genome-wide association studies. The discovery dataset included 858 CM patients with 95 deaths from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and the replication dataset included 409 CM patients with 48 deaths from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, we found that two novel SNPs (PIP5K1C rs11666894 A>C and MVB12B rs12376285 C>T) predicted CMSS, with adjusted hazards ratios of 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.15-1.89 and P = 0.002) and 1.73 (1.30-2.31 and 0.0002), respectively. Combined analysis of risk genotypes of these two SNPs revealed a dose-dependent decrease in CMSS associated with an increased number of risk genotypes (P trend = 0.0002). Subsequent expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis revealed that PIP5K1C rs11666894 was associated with mRNA expression levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines from 373 European descendants (P<0.0001) and that MVB12B rs12376285 was associated with mRNA expression levels in cultured fibroblasts from 605 European-Americans (P<0.0001). Our findings suggest that novel genetic variants of PIP5K1C and MVB12B in the endosome-related pathway genes may be promising prognostic biomarkers for CMSS, but these results need to be validated in future larger studies.

4.
Prev Med Rep ; 20: 101209, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072497

RESUMO

Over 43 million U.S. residents rely on private unregulated wells for their drinking water, raising public health concerns, particularly in regions like northern New England where widespread groundwater arsenic contamination is now recognized. Children are particularly vulnerable to adverse health effects from arsenic exposure. Despite AAP Guidelines, approaches to engage pediatric clinicians in promoting private well testing have not been previously described. We sought to determine the most effective practice approaches to achieve successful well water testing in routine pediatric care. 12 primary care clinics were block randomized to one of four study arms. Two intervention variables were assessed: (1) test results access (parent only vs. parent and clinic) and (2) follow up approaches (yes/no). Parents of children under 12 months using a private well were eligible. Prepaid water tests were provided. Primary outcome was parental water test completion. Eleven clinics successfully implemented processes identifying well users. 240 testing kits were dispensed. Completion rates averaged 29% (range 10 to 61%). The study arm with both clinic results access and staff follow up system was 2.3 times more likely to achieve test completion than other arms (95% CI 1.12-4.86, p = .03). Kit distribution by clinicians versus nursing staff, irrespective of study arm, had 2.4 times greater completion (95% CI 1.13-5.11, p = .02). Systematic drinking water source screening can be improved in pediatric care. Higher testing completion was found in practices randomized to reminders and structured follow up versus single visit discussion, but clinician involvement was the most predictive factor.

5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 467, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic profiling of solid human tumors by projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has provided important information regarding the somatic alterations that drive cancer progression and patient survival. Although researchers have successfully leveraged TCGA data to build prognostic models, most efforts have focused on specific cancer types and a targeted set of gene-level predictors. Less is known about the prognostic ability of pathway-level variables in a pan-cancer setting. To address these limitations, we systematically evaluated and compared the prognostic ability of somatic point mutation (SPM) and copy number variation (CNV) data, gene-level and pathway-level models for a diverse set of TCGA cancer types and predictive modeling approaches. RESULTS: We evaluated gene-level and pathway-level penalized Cox proportional hazards models using SPM and CNV data for 29 different TCGA cohorts. We measured predictive accuracy as the concordance index for predicting survival outcomes. Our comprehensive analysis suggests that the use of pathway-level predictors did not offer superior predictive power relative to gene-level models for all cancer types but had the advantages of robustness and parsimony. We identified a set of cohorts for which somatic alterations could not predict prognosis, and a unique cohort LGG, for which SPM data was more predictive than CNV data and the predictive accuracy is good for all model types. We found that the pathway-level predictors provide superior interpretative value and that there is often a serious collinearity issue for the gene-level models while pathway-level models avoided this issue. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive analysis suggests that when using somatic alterations data for cancer prognosis prediction, pathway-level models are more interpretable, stable and parsimonious compared to gene-level models. Pathway-level models also avoid the issue of collinearity, which can be serious for gene-level somatic alterations. The prognostic power of somatic alterations is highly variable across different cancer types and we have identified a set of cohorts for which somatic alterations could not predict prognosis. In general, CNV data predicts prognosis better than SPM data with the exception of the LGG cohort.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico
6.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 162, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proven successful in predicting genetic risk of disease using single-locus models; however, identifying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions at the genome-wide scale is limited due to computational and statistical challenges. We addressed the computational burden encountered when detecting SNP interactions for survival analysis, such as age of disease-onset. To confront this problem, we developed a novel algorithm, called the Efficient Survival Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (ES-MDR) method, which used Martingale Residuals as the outcome parameter to estimate survival outcomes, and implemented the Quantitative Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method to identify significant interactions associated with age of disease-onset. METHODS: To demonstrate efficacy, we evaluated this method on two simulation data sets to estimate the type I error rate and power. Simulations showed that ES-MDR identified interactions using less computational workload and allowed for adjustment of covariates. We applied ES-MDR on the OncoArray-TRICL Consortium data with 14,935 cases and 12,787 controls for lung cancer (SNPs = 108,254) to search over all two-way interactions to identify genetic interactions associated with lung cancer age-of-onset. We tested the best model in an independent data set from the OncoArray-TRICL data. RESULTS: Our experiment on the OncoArray-TRICL data identified many one-way and two-way models with a single-base deletion in the noncoding region of BRCA1 (HR 1.24, P = 3.15 × 10-15), as the top marker to predict age of lung cancer onset. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of our extensive simulations and analysis of a large GWAS study, we demonstrated that our method is an efficient algorithm that identified genetic interactions to include in our models to predict survival outcomes.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

8.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889700

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.

9.
Cancer Cell ; 38(6): 757-760, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976775

RESUMO

Cancer biomarker research has become a data-intensive discipline requiring innovative approaches for data analysis that can combine traditional and data-driven methods. Significant leveraging can be done transferring methodologies and capabilities across scientific disciplines, such as planetary science and astronomy, each of which are grappling with and developing similar solutions for the analysis of massive scientific data.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2180-2186, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The smoking behavior of American Indians (AI) differs from that of non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Typically light smokers, cessation interventions in AIs are generally less effective. To develop more effective cessation programs for AIs, clinicians, researchers, and public health workers need a better understanding of the genetic factors involved in their smoking behavior. Our aim was to assess whether SNPs associated with smoking behavior in NHWs are also associated with smoking in AIs. METHODS: We collected questionnaire data on smoking behaviors and analyzed blood and saliva samples from two Tribal populations with dramatically different cultures and smoking prevalence, one in the Northern Plains (n = 323) and the other in the Southwest (n = 176). A total of 384 SNPs were genotyped using an Illumina custom GoldenGate platform. Samples were also assessed for cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine as markers of nicotine intake and nicotine metabolite ratio. RESULTS: Among 499 participants, we identified, in the Northern Plains sample only, a variant of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 (GABRA2) (rs2119767) on chromosome 4p that was associated with many of the intake biomarkers of smoking we examined, suggesting a role for this gene in modifying smoking behavior in this population. We also identified three SNPs, in the Southwest sample only, as significant correlates of only cigarettes per day: rs4274224, rs4245147 (both dopamine receptor D2 gene), and rs1386493 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene). CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of many genes known to underlie smoking behaviors in NHWs may differ in AIs. IMPACT: Once validated, these variants could be useful in developing more effective cessation strategies.

11.
Immunotherapy ; 12(14): 1083-1100, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787587

RESUMO

About a fifth of individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with disease metastasis at the time of diagnosis. While the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in governing CRC progression is undeniable, the role of the TME in either establishing or suppressing the formation of distant metastases of CRC is less well established. Despite advances in immunotherapy, many individuals with metastatic CRC do not respond to standard-of-care therapy. Therefore, understanding the role of the TME in establishing distant metastases is essential for developing new immunological agents. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the TME of CRC metastases, describe differences between the TME of primary tumors and their distant metastases, and discuss advances in the design and combinations of immunotherapeutic agents.

12.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(8): 880-892, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779232

RESUMO

It is of great scientific interest to identify interactions between genetic variants and environmental exposures that may modify the risk of complex diseases. However, larger sample sizes are usually required to detect gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) than required to detect genetic main association effects. To boost the statistical power and improve the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, we incorporate functional genomics information, specifically, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), into a data-adaptive G × E test, called aGEw. This test adaptively chooses the best eQTL weights from multiple tissues and provides an extra layer of weighting at the genetic variant level. Extensive simulations show that the aGEw test can control the Type 1 error rate, and the power is resilient to the inclusion of neutral variants and noninformative external weights. We applied the proposed aGEw test to the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (discovery cohort of 3,585 cases and 3,482 controls) and the PanScan II genome-wide association study data (replication cohort of 2,021 cases and 2,105 controls) with smoking as the exposure of interest. Two novel putative smoking-related pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, TRIP10 and KDM3A, were identified. The aGEw test is implemented in an R package aGE.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3765-3769, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646967

RESUMO

Observational studies have suggested that physical activity might lower the risk of lung cancer in former and current smokers, but not in never-smokers. Using genetic instruments for self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity traits implemented through two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR), we sought to strengthen the evidence for causality. We used 18 genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and seven SNP for accelerometer-measured ("average acceleration") physical activity from up to 377,234 UK Biobank participants and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell carcinoma, and 2,664 small-cell carcinoma cases) and 56,450 controls. MR analysis suggested no effect of self-reported physical activity [OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.67 (0.42-1.05); P = 0.081; Q-value = 0.243] and accelerometer-measured activity [OR (95% CI) = 0.98 (0.93-1.03); P = 0.372; Q-value = 0.562] on lung cancer. There was no evidence for associations of physical activity with histologic types and lung cancer in ever and never smokers. Replication analysis using genetic instruments from a different genome-wide study and sensitivity analysis to address potential pleiotropic effects led to no substantive change in estimates. Collectively, these findings do not support a protective relationship between physical activity and the risk of lung cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: A new genetic study provides little evidence that recommending physical activity would help prevent lung cancer.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643855

RESUMO

We hypothesized that human genes differ by their sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) exposure. We used somatic mutations detected by genome-wide screens in melanoma and reported in the Catalog Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer. As a measure of UV sensitivity, we used the number of silent mutations generated by C>T transitions in pyrimidine dimers of a given transcript divided by the number of potential sites for this type of mutations in the transcript. We found that human genes varied by UV sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. We noted that the melanoma-associated tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A was among the top five most UV-sensitive genes in the human genome. Melanoma driver genes have a higher UV-sensitivity compared with other genes in the human genome. The difference was more prominent for tumor suppressors compared with oncogene. The results of this study suggest that differential sensitivity of human transcripts to UV light may explain melanoma specificity of some driver genes. Practical significance of the study relates to the fact that differences in UV sensitivity among human genes need to be taken into consideration whereas predicting melanoma-associated genes by the number of somatic mutations detected in a given gene.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 84-94, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal type of skin cancers. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) plays an important role in anabolic reactions and tumorigenesis, but many genes are involved in the NADPH system. METHODS: We used 10,912 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (2018 genotyped and 8894 imputed) in 134 NADPH-related genes from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 858 patients from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in a single-locus analysis to predict CM survival. We then replicated the results in another GWAS data set of 409 patients from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). RESULTS: There were 95 of 858 (11.1%) and 48 of 409 (11.7%) patients who died of CM, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, we identified two independent SNPs (TKT rs9864057 G > A and deoxyribose phosphate aldolase (DERA) rs12297652 A > G) to be significantly associated with CM-specific survival [hazards ratio (HR) of 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-1.96, P = 1.06 × 10-3 and 1.51 (1.19-1.91, 5.89 × 10-4)] in the meta-analysis, respectively. Furthermore, an increasing number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs was associated with a higher risk of death in the MDACC, the NHS/HPFS, and their combined data sets (Ptrend<0.001, = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). In the expression quantitative trait loci analysis, TKT rs9864057 G > A and DERA rs12297652 A > G were also significantly associated with higher mRNA expression levels in sun-exposed lower-leg skin (P = 0.043 and 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that these two potentially functional SNPs may be valuable prognostic biomarkers for CM survival, but larger studies are needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Aldeído Liases/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , NADP/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Transcetolase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(6): 1315-1325, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602170

RESUMO

It is unclear if genetic variants affect smoking cessation treatment response. This study tested whether variants in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 subunit (CHRNA5) predict response to smoking cessation medication by directly comparing the two most effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. In this genotype-stratified randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (May 2015-August 2019 in St Louis, Missouri), smokers were randomized by genotype in blocks of six (1:1:1 ratio) to three conditions: 12 weeks of placebo (n = 273), combination nicotine patch and lozenge (combination nicotine replacement therapy, cNRT, n = 275), or varenicline (n = 274). All participants received counseling and were followed for 12 months. The primary end point was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment (EOT, week 12). Trial registration and eligibility criteria are on clinicaltrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) (NCT02351167). We conducted the genetic analyses separately for 516 European ancestry (EA) smokers and 306 non-EA smokers (including 270 African American smokers). In African American smokers, there was a genotype-by-treatment interaction for EOT abstinence (χ2  = 10.7, degrees of freedom = 2. P = 0.0049): specifically, cNRT was more effective in smokers with rs16969968 GG genotype than was placebo, while varenicline was more effective in smokers of GA/AA genotypes. In EA ancestry smokers, there was no significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. In the whole sample, although both were effective at EOT, only varenicline, and not cNRT, was significantly effective relative to placebo at 6-month follow-up. Importantly, this study suggests that genetic information can further enhance smoking cessation treatment effectiveness.

18.
Carcinogenesis ; 41(10): 1353-1362, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681635

RESUMO

We hypothesized that a joint analysis of cancer risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and somatic mutations in tumor samples can predict functional and potentially causal SNPs from GWASs. We used mutations reported in the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). Confirmed somatic mutations were subdivided into two groups: (1) mutations reported as SNPs, which we call mutational/SNPs and (2) somatic mutations that are not reported as SNPs, which we call mutational/noSNPs. It is generally accepted that the number of times a somatic mutation is reported in COSMIC correlates with its selective advantage to tumors, with more frequently reported mutations being more functional and providing a stronger selective advantage to the tumor cell. We found that mutations reported ≥10 times in COSMIC-frequent mutational/SNPs (fmSNPs) are likely to be functional. We identified 12 cancer risk-associated SNPs reported in the Catalog of published GWASs at least 10 times as confirmed somatic mutations and therefore deemed to be functional. Additionally, we have identified 42 SNPs that are tightly linked (R2 ≥ 0.8) to SNPs reported in the Catalog of published GWASs as cancer risk associated and that are also reported as fmSNPs. As a result, 54 candidate functional/potentially causal cancer risk associated SNPs were identified. We found that fmSNPs are more likely to be located in evolutionarily conserved regions compared with cancer risk associated SNPs that are not fmSNPs. We also found that fmSNPs also underwent positive selection, which can explain why they exist as population polymorphisms.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1983-1992, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 15% to 20% occurring in never smokers. To assess genetic determinants for prognosis among never smokers, we conducted a genome-wide investigation in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). METHODS: Genomic and clinical data from 1,569 never-smoking patients with lung cancer of European ancestry from 10 ILCCO studies were included. HRs and 95% confidence intervals of overall survival were estimated. We assessed whether the associations were mediated through mRNA expression-based 1,553 normal lung tissues from the lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) dataset and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). For cross-ethnicity generalization, we assessed the associations in a Japanese study (N = 887). RESULTS: One locus at 13q22.2 was associated with lung adenocarcinoma survival at genome-wide level, with carriers of rs12875562-T allele exhibiting poor prognosis [HR = 1.71 (1.41-2.07), P = 3.60 × 10-8], and altered mRNA expression of LMO7DN in lung tissue (GTEx, P = 9.40 × 10-7; Lung eQTL dataset, P = 0.003). Furthermore, 2 of 11 independent loci that reached the suggestive significance level (P < 10-6) were significant eQTL affecting mRNA expression of nearby genes in lung tissues, including CAPZB at 1p36.13 and UBAC1 at 9q34.3. One locus encoding NWD2/KIAA1239 at 4p14 showed associations in both European [HR = 0.50 (0.38-0.66), P = 6.92 × 10-7] and Japanese populations [HR = 0.79 (0.67-0.94), P = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the largest genomic investigation on the lung cancer prognosis of never smokers to date, we observed that lung cancer prognosis is affected by inherited genetic variants. IMPACT: We identified one locus near LMO7DN at genome-wide level and several potential prognostic genes with cis-effect on mRNA expression. Further functional genomics work is required to understand their role in tumor progression.

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