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1.
Environ Res ; 178: 108673, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between cadmium levels in the body and diabetes has been extensively studied, with sometimes contrasting results. Smoking is the primary non-occupational source of cadmium, and constitutes a risk factor for diabetes. One can therefore hypothesize that the putative association with cadmium is actually explained by tobacco. To fully control for this confounding factor, we studied the relationship between blood cadmium and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels separately in never-, former and current smokers. METHODS: We studied a sample of 2749 middle-aged adults from the cross-sectional ELISABET survey in and around the cities of Lille and Dunkirk; none had chronic kidney disease or a history of haematological disorders, and none were taking antidiabetic medication. The blood cadmium level-HbA1c associations in never-, former and current smokers were studied in separate multivariate models. The covariables included age, sex, city, educational level, tobacco consumption (or passive smoking, for the never-smokers), body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and (to take account of the within-batch effect) the cadmium batch number. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, a significant association between cadmium and HbA1c levels was found in all three smoking status subgroups. A 0.1 µg/L increment in blood cadmium was associated with an HbA1c increase [95% confidence interval] of 0.016% [0.003; 0.029] among never-smokers, 0.024% [0.010; 0.037] among former smokers, and 0.020% [0.012; 0.029] among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The observation of a significant association between the blood cadmium concentration and HbA1c levels in a group of never-smokers strengthens the hypothesis whereby diabetes is associated with cadmium per se and not solely with tobacco use. The small effect size observed in our population of never smokers with low levels of exposure to cadmium suggested that the risk attributable to this metal is not high. However, the impact of exposure to high cadmium levels (such as occupational exposure) on the risk of diabetes might be of concern.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(8): 608, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406108

RESUMO

Clusterin (CLU) is induced in many organs after tissue injury or remodeling. Recently, we show that CLU levels are increased in plasma and left ventricle (LV) after MI, however, the mechanisms involved are not yet elucidated. On the other hand, it has been shown that the activity of the protein degradation systems (PDS) is affected after MI with a decrease in ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and an increase in macroautophagy. The aim of this study was to decipher if the increased CLU levels after MI are in part due to the alteration of PDS activity. Rat neonate cardiomyocytes (NCM) were treated with different modulators of UPS and macroautophagy in order to decipher their role in CLU expression, secretion, and degradation. We observed that inhibition of UPS activity in NCM increased CLU mRNA levels, its intracellular protein levels (p-CLU and m-CLU) and its secreted form (s-CLU). Macroautophagy was also induced after MG132 treatment but is not active. The inhibition of macroautophagy induction in MG132-treated NCM increased CLU mRNA and m-CLU levels, but not s-CLU compared to NCM only treated by MG132. We also demonstrate that CLU can be degraded in NCM through proteasome and lysosome by a macroautophagy independent pathway. In another hand, CLU silencing in NCM has no effect either on macroautophagy or apoptosis induced by MG132. However, the overexpression of CLU secreted isoform in H9c2 cells, but not in NCM decreased apoptosis after MG132 treatment. Finally, we observed that increased CLU levels in hypertrophied NCM and in failing human hearts are associated with proteasome inhibition and macroautophagy alteration. All these data suggest that increased CLU expression and secretion after MI is, in part, due to a defect of UPS and macroautophagy activities in the heart and may have a protective effect by decreasing apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibition.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

6.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(4): 631-652, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065832

RESUMO

The bridging integrator 1 gene (BIN1) is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this report, we investigated how BIN1-dependent pathophysiological processes might be associated with Tau. We first generated a cohort of control and transgenic mice either overexpressing human MAPT (TgMAPT) or both human MAPT and BIN1 (TgMAPT;TgBIN1), which we followed-up from 3 to 15 months. In TgMAPT;TgBIN1 mice short-term memory deficits appeared earlier than in TgMAPT mice; however-unlike TgMAPT mice-TgMAPT;TgBIN1 mice did not exhibit any long-term or spatial memory deficits for at least 15 months. After killing the cohort at 18 months, immunohistochemistry revealed that BIN1 overexpression prevents both Tau mislocalization and somatic inclusion in the hippocampus, where an increase in BIN1-Tau interaction was also observed. We then sought mechanisms controlling the BIN1-Tau interaction. We developed a high-content screening approach to characterize modulators of the BIN1-Tau interaction in an agnostic way (1,126 compounds targeting multiple pathways), and we identified-among others-an inhibitor of calcineurin, a Ser/Thr phosphatase. We determined that calcineurin dephosphorylates BIN1 on a cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation site at T348, promoting the open conformation of the neuronal BIN1 isoform. Phosphorylation of this site increases the availability of the BIN1 SH3 domain for Tau interaction, as demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and in primary neurons. Finally, we observed that although the levels of the neuronal BIN1 isoform were unchanged in AD brains, phospho-BIN1(T348):BIN1 ratio was increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism. In conclusion, our data support the idea that BIN1 modulates the AD risk through an intricate regulation of its interaction with Tau. Alteration in BIN1 expression or activity may disrupt this regulatory balance with Tau and have direct effects on learning and memory.

7.
Mov Disord ; 34(7): 1049-1059, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative tauopathy manifesting clinically as a progressive akinetic-rigid syndrome. In this study, we sought to identify genetic variants influencing PSP susceptibility through a genome-wide association analysis of a cohort of well-characterized patients who had participated in the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes and Blood Brain Barrier in Parkinson Plus Syndromes studies. METHODS: We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 283 PSP cases from the United Kingdom, Germany, and France and compared these with genotypes from 4472 controls. Copy number variants were identified from genotyping data. RESULTS: We observed associations on chromosome 17 within or close to the MAPT gene and explored the genetic architecture at this locus. We confirmed the previously reported association of rs1768208 in the MOBP gene (P = 3.29 × 10-13 ) and rs1411478 in STX6 (P = 3.45 × 10-10 ). The population-attributable risk from the MAPT, MOBP, and STX6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be 0.37, 0.26, and 0.08, respectively. In addition, we found 2 instances of copy number variants spanning the MAPT gene in patients with PSP. These copy number variants include tau but few other genes within the chromosome 17 haplotype region, providing additional support for the direct pathogenicity of MAPT in PSP. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should also be aware of MAPT duplication as a possible genetic cause of PSP, especially in patients presenting with young age at onset. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
9.
Neurology ; 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI. RESULTS: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, p = 1.77 × 10-8; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, p = 5.82 × 10-9. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up sample or show associations with related phenotypes. Age- and sex-adjusted associations with BI and SSBI were observed for BP traits (p value for BI, p [BI] = 9.38 × 10-25; p [SSBI] = 5.23 × 10-14 for hypertension), smoking (p [BI] = 4.4 × 10-10; p [SSBI] = 1.2 × 10-4), diabetes (p [BI] = 1.7 × 10-8; p [SSBI] = 2.8 × 10-3), previous cardiovascular disease (p [BI] = 1.0 × 10-18; p [SSBI] = 2.3 × 10-7), stroke (p [BI] = 3.9 × 10-69; p [SSBI] = 3.2 × 10-24), and MRI-defined white matter hyperintensity burden (p [BI] = 1.43 × 10-157; p [SSBI] = 3.16 × 10-106), but not with body mass index or cholesterol. GRS of BP traits were associated with BI and SSBI (p ≤ 0.0022), without indication of directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis, including over 20,000 population-based participants, we identified genetic risk loci for BI requiring validation once additional large datasets become available. High BP, including genetically determined, was the most significant modifiable, causal risk factor for BI.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(3): 227-238, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic variants cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the contribution of common genetic variation to disease risk and natural history is poorly characterised. We tested for genome-wide association for pulmonary arterial hypertension in large international cohorts and assessed the contribution of associated regions to outcomes. METHODS: We did two separate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These GWAS used data from four international case-control studies across 11 744 individuals with European ancestry (including 2085 patients). One GWAS used genotypes from 5895 whole-genome sequences and the other GWAS used genotyping array data from an additional 5849 individuals. Cross-validation of loci reaching genome-wide significance was sought by meta-analysis. Conditional analysis corrected for the most significant variants at each locus was used to resolve signals for multiple associations. We functionally annotated associated variants and tested associations with duration of survival. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint in survival analyses. FINDINGS: A locus near SOX17 (rs10103692, odds ratio 1·80 [95% CI 1·55-2·08], p=5·13 × 10-15) and a second locus in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 (collectively referred to as HLA-DPA1/DPB1 here; rs2856830, 1·56 [1·42-1·71], p=7·65 × 10-20) within the class II MHC region were associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The SOX17 locus had two independent signals associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (rs13266183, 1·36 [1·25-1·48], p=1·69 × 10-12; and rs10103692). Functional and epigenomic data indicate that the risk variants near SOX17 alter gene regulation via an enhancer active in endothelial cells. Pulmonary arterial hypertension risk variants determined haplotype-specific enhancer activity, and CRISPR-mediated inhibition of the enhancer reduced SOX17 expression. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 rs2856830 genotype was strongly associated with survival. Median survival from diagnosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with the C/C homozygous genotype was double (13·50 years [95% CI 12·07 to >13·50]) that of those with the T/T genotype (6·97 years [6·02-8·05]), despite similar baseline disease severity. INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to report that common genetic variation at loci in an enhancer near SOX17 and in HLA-DPA1/DPB1 is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Impairment of SOX17 function might be more common in pulmonary arterial hypertension than suggested by rare mutations in SOX17. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping and survival, and to determine whether HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping improves risk stratification in clinical practice or trials. FUNDING: UK NIHR, BHF, UK MRC, Dinosaur Trust, NIH/NHLBI, ERS, EMBO, Wellcome Trust, EU, AHA, ACClinPharm, Netherlands CVRI, Dutch Heart Foundation, Dutch Federation of UMC, Netherlands OHRD and RNAS, German DFG, German BMBF, APH Paris, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, and French ANR.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17584, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498227

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Polymorphisms in coagulation genes have been associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. Here we pursue an a priori hypothesis that genetic variation in the endothelial-based receptors of the thrombomodulin-protein C system (THBD and PROCR) may similarly be associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. We explored this hypothesis utilizing a multi-stage design of discovery and replication. METHODS: Discovery was performed in the Genetics-of-Early-Onset Stroke (GEOS) Study, a biracial population-based case-control study of ischemic stroke among men and women aged 15-49 including 829 cases of first ischemic stroke (42.2% African-American) and 850 age-comparable stroke-free controls (38.1% African-American). Twenty-four single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) in THBD and 22 SNPs in PROCR were evaluated. Following LD pruning (r2≥0.8), we advanced uncorrelated SNPs forward for association analyses. Associated SNPs were evaluated for replication in an early-onset ischemic stroke population (onset-age<60 years) consisting of 3676 cases and 21118 non-stroke controls from 6 case-control studies. Lastly, we determined if the replicated SNPs also associated with older-onset ischemic stroke in the METASTROKE data-base. RESULTS: Among GEOS Caucasians, PROCR rs9574, which was in strong LD with 8 other SNPs, and one additional independent SNP rs2069951, were significantly associated with ischemic stroke (rs9574, OR = 1.33, p = 0.003; rs2069951, OR = 1.80, p = 0.006) using an additive-model adjusting for age, gender and population-structure. Adjusting for risk factors did not change the associations; however, associations were strengthened among those without risk factors. PROCR rs9574 also associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in the replication sample (OR = 1.08, p = 0.015), but not older-onset stroke. There were no PROCR associations in African-Americans, nor were there any THBD associations in either ethnicity. CONCLUSION: PROCR polymorphisms are associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in Caucasians.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476079

RESUMO

Aims: There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after 'recalibration', a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied. Methods and results: Using individual-participant data on 360 737 participants without CVD at baseline in 86 prospective studies from 22 countries, we compared the Framingham risk score (FRS), Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), pooled cohort equations (PCE), and Reynolds risk score (RRS). We calculated measures of risk discrimination and calibration, and modelled clinical implications of initiating statin therapy in people judged to be at 'high' 10 year CVD risk. Original risk algorithms were recalibrated using the risk factor profile and CVD incidence of target populations. The four algorithms had similar risk discrimination. Before recalibration, FRS, SCORE, and PCE over-predicted CVD risk on average by 10%, 52%, and 41%, respectively, whereas RRS under-predicted by 10%. Original versions of algorithms classified 29-39% of individuals aged ≥40 years as high risk. By contrast, recalibration reduced this proportion to 22-24% for every algorithm. We estimated that to prevent one CVD event, it would be necessary to initiate statin therapy in 44-51 such individuals using original algorithms, in contrast to 37-39 individuals with recalibrated algorithms. Conclusion: Before recalibration, the clinical performance of four widely used CVD risk algorithms varied substantially. By contrast, simple recalibration nearly equalized their performance and improved modelled targeting of preventive action to clinical need.

15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353266

RESUMO

The EUROASPIRE surveys (EUROpean Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) demonstrated that most European coronary patients fail to achieve lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic targets. Here we report on the 2-year incidence of hard cardiovascular (CV) endpoints in the EUROASPIRE IV cohort. EUROASPIRE IV (2012-2013) was a large cross-sectional study undertaken at 78 centres from selected geographical areas in 24 European countries. Patients were interviewed and examined at least 6 months following hospitalization for a coronary event or procedure. Fatal and non-fatal CV events occurring at least 1 year after this baseline screening were registered. The primary outcome in our analyses was the incidence of CV death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure. Cox regression models, stratified for country, were fitted to relate baseline characteristics to outcome. Our analyses included 7471 predominantly male patients. Overall, 222 deaths were registered of whom 58% were cardiovascular. The incidence of the primary outcome was 42 per 1000 person-years. Comorbidities were strongly and significantly associated with the primary outcome (multivariately adjusted hazard ratio HR, 95% confidence interval): severe chronic kidney disease (HR 2.36, 1.44-3.85), uncontrolled diabetes (HR 1.89, 1.50-2.38), resting heart rate ≥ 75 bpm (HR 1.74, 1.30-2.32), history of stroke (HR 1.70, 1.27-2.29), peripheral artery disease (HR 1.48, 1.09-2.01), history of heart failure (HR 1.47, 1.08-2.01) and history of acute myocardial infarction (HR 1.27, 1.05-1.53). Low education and feelings of depression were significantly associated with increased risk. Lifestyle factors such as persistent smoking, insufficient physical activity and central obesity were not significantly related to adverse outcome. Blood pressure and LDL-C levels appeared to be unrelated to cardiovascular events irrespective of treatment. In patients with stabilized CHD, comorbid conditions that may reflect the ubiquitous nature of atherosclerosis, dominate lifestyle-related and other modifiable risk factors in terms of prognosis, at least over a 2-year follow-up period.

16.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 610-619, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air pollution impacts health by increasing mortality and the incidence of acute events in unhealthy individuals. In contrast, the acute effects of pollution in healthy individuals are less obvious. The present study was designed to evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution on one hand and lung function, and inflammatory markers on the other in middle-aged, non-smoking adults with no respiratory disease, in two urban areas in northern France. METHODS: A sample of 1506 non-smoking adults (aged from 40 to 65) with no respiratory disease was selected from the participants in the 2011-2013 cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement (ELISABET) survey in two urban areas in the northern France. We evaluated the associations between (i) mean levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) exposure on the day and the day before the study examination for each participant, and (ii) spirometry data and levels of inflammatory markers. Coefficients of multiple linear regression models were expressed (except for the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio) as the percentage change [95% confidence interval] per 10 µg increment in each pollutant. RESULTS: Levels of PM10, NO2 and O3 exposure were below or only close to the World Health Organization's recommended limits in our two study areas. An increment in NO2 levels was significantly associated with a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-0.38 [-0.64; -0.12]), a lower forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%) (-1.70 [-3.15; -0.23]), and a lower forced expiratory flow measured at 75% of FVC (FEF75%) (-3.07 [-4.92; -1.18]). An increment in PM10 levels was associated with lower FEF75% (-1.41 [-2.79; -0.01]) and a non-significant elevation in serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (+3.48 [-0.25; 7.36], p = 0.07). Lastly, an increment in O3 levels was associated with a significantly higher blood eosinophil count (+2.41 [0.10; 4.77]) and a non-significant elevation in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (+2.93 [-0.16; 6.13], p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: A short-term exposure to air pollution was associated with a subclinical decrement in distal lung function and increment in inflammatory markers in healthy inhabitants of two urban areas in France. If these exploratory results are confirmed, this could suggest that even moderate levels of air pollution could have an impact on respiratory health on the general population, and not solely on susceptible individuals.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289982

RESUMO

Few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim was to test the association between nine SNPs and HCC occurrence. SNPs in genes linked to HCC (DEPDC5, GRIK1, KIF1B, STAT4, MICA, DLC1, DDX18) or to liver damage (PNPLA3-rs738409, TM6SF2-rs58542926) in GWAS were genotyped in discovery cohorts including 1,020 HCC, 2,021 controls with chronic liver disease and 2,484 healthy individuals and replication was performed in prospective cohorts of cirrhotic patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, n = 249) and hepatitis C (n = 268). In the discovery cohort, PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 SNPs were associated with HCC (OR = 1.67 [CI95%:1.16-2.40], p = 0.005; OR = 1.45 [CI95%:1.08-1.94], p = 0.01) after adjustment for fibrosis, age, gender and etiology. In contrast, STAT4-rs7574865 was associated with HCC only in HBV infected patients (p = 0.03) and the other tested SNP were not linked with HCC risk. PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants were independently associated with HCC in patients with ALD (OR = 3.91 [CI95%:2.52-6.06], p = 1.14E-09; OR = 1.79 [CI95%:1.25-2.56], p = 0.001) but not with other etiologies. PNPLA3 SNP was also significantly associated with HCC developed on a nonfibrotic liver (OR = 2.19 [CI95%:1.22-3.92], p = 0.007). The association of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 with HCC risk was confirmed in the prospective cohort with ALD. A genetic score including PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 minor alleles showed a progressive significant increased risk of HCC in ALD patients. In conclusion, PNPLA3-rs738409 and TM6SF2-rs58542926 are inherited risk variants of HCC development in patients with ALD in a dose dependent manner. The link between PNPLA3 and HCC on nonfibrotic liver suggests a direct role in liver carcinogenesis.

18.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(5): 1280-1289, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are determined by diet and by endogenous synthesis via Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases (encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively). Genome-wide association studies have reported associations between FADS1-FADS2 polymorphisms and the plasma concentrations of PUFAs, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, much remains unknown regarding the molecular mechanisms explaining how variants affect the function of FADS1-FADS2 genes. OBJECTIVE: Here, we sought to identify the functional variant(s) within the FADS gene cluster. METHODS: To address this question, we (1) genotyped individuals (n = 540) for the rs174547 polymorphism to confirm associations with PUFA levels used as surrogate estimates of desaturase activities and (2) examined the functionality of variants in linkage disequilibrium with rs174547 using bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS: The rs174547 minor allele was associated with higher erythrocyte levels of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and lower levels of arachidonic acid, suggesting a lower Δ5-desaturase activity. In silico analyses suggested that rs174545 and rs174546, in perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs174547, might alter miRNA binding sites in the FADS1 3'UTR. In HuH7 and HepG2 cells transfected with FADS1 3'UTR luciferase vectors, the haplotype constructs bearing the rs174546T minor allele showed 30% less luciferase activity. This relative decrease reached 60% in the presence of miR-149-5p and was partly abolished by cotransfection with an miR-149-5p inhibitor. CONCLUSION: This study identifies FADS1 rs174546 as a functional variant that may explain the associations between FADS1-FADS2 polymorphisms and lipid-related phenotypes.

19.
Neurobiol Aging ; 72: 188.e3-188.e12, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201328

RESUMO

Systematic epistasis analyses in multifactorial disorders are an important step to better characterize complex genetic risk structures. We conducted a hypothesis-free sex-stratified genome-wide screening for epistasis contributing to Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility. We identified a statistical epistasis signal between the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs3733980 and rs7175766 that was associated with AD in males (genome-wide significant pBonferroni-corrected=0.0165). This signal pointed toward the genes WW and C2 domain containing 1, aka KIBRA; 5q34 and TLN2 (talin 2; 15q22.2). Gene-based meta-analysis in 3 independent consortium data sets confirmed the identified interaction: the most significant (pmeta-Bonferroni-corrected=9.02*10-3) was for the single nucleotide polymorphism pair rs1477307 and rs4077746. In functional studies, WW and C2 domain containing 1, aka KIBRA and TLN2 coexpressed in the temporal cortex brain tissue of AD subjects (ß=0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.30, p=0.01); modulated Tau toxicity in Drosophila eye experiments; colocalized in brain tissue cells, N2a neuroblastoma, and HeLa cell lines; and coimmunoprecipitated both in brain tissue and HEK293 cells. Our finding points toward new AD-related pathways and provides clues toward novel medical targets for the cure of AD.

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

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