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1.
Water Res ; 174: 115600, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088385

RESUMO

A hierarchically assembled superomniphobic membrane with three levels of reentrant structure was designed and fabricated to enable effective treatment of low surface tension, hypersaline oily wastewaters using direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The overall structure is a combination of macro corrugations obtained by surface imprinting, with the micro spherulites morphology achieved through the applied phase inversion method and nano patterns obtained by fluorinated Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) coating. This resulted in a superomniphobic membrane surface with remarkable anti-wetting properties repelling both high surface tension water and low surface tension oils. Measurements of contact angle (CA) with DI water, an anionic surfactant, oil, and ethanol demonstrated a robust wetting resistance against low surface tension liquids showing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. CA values of 160.8 ± 2.3° and 154.3 ± 1.9° for water and oil were obtained, respectively. Calculations revealed a high liquid-vapor interface for the fabricated membrane with more than 89% of the water droplet contact area being with air pockets entrapped between adjacent SiNPs and only 11% come into contact with the solid membrane surface. Moreover, the high liquid-vapor interface imparts the membrane with high liquid repellency, self-cleaning and slippery effects, characterized by a minimum droplet-membrane interaction and complete water droplet bouncing on the surface within only 18 ms. When tested in DCMD with synthetic hypersaline oily wastewaters, the fabricated superomniphobic membrane demonstrated stable, non-wetting MD operation over 24 h, even at high concentrations of low surface tension 1.0 mM Sodium dodecyl sulfate and 400 ppm oil, potentially offering a sustainable option for treatment of low surface tension oily industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Destilação , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Óleos , Tensão Superficial , Águas Residuárias
2.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 226: 113471, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078924

RESUMO

There is an increasing trend of developing various low-cost biogenic sorbents for the efficient and economical removal of noxious metals . Curry leaf powder (CLP), a promising non-toxic biosorbent containing several bioactive compounds was prepared by the pulverization of the dried leaves for the effective removal of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd). Various batch sorption experiments were carried out under constant temperature (25 °C), different pH (4.5-10.5), initial concentrations (50-200 mg L-1), adsorbent dosages (0.10-0.40 g) and contact times (0-60 min) to understand the optimum experimental conditions and simultaneously evaluate the adsorption isotherms and removal kinetics of CLP. Adsorption equilibrium was established in less than an hour interval (50 min). The pseudo-equilibrium process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic (R2 ≥ 0.99), Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model (R2 ≥ 0.94). The removal rate of Pb and Cd gradually increased (15.7 and 12.7 mg g-1 for Pb and Cd) at 100 mg L-1 of initial concentration till 60 min of contact period in a single contaminant system, the effect was non-significant for multiple adsorbent dosage systems (p > 0.05; t-test) though. The regeneration potential of the exhausted biosorbent was excellent upto 5 cycles with the better efficiency observed for Pb. The obtained results explicitly validated the probable utilization of CLP as a promising green adsorbent for metal removal . Future study may highlight the decontamination aspects of emerging contaminants with such green bio sorbents in large scale as well as mimicing the stomach conditions.

3.
Water Res ; 165: 114982, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473356

RESUMO

In this study, an omniphobic membrane was fabricated by electrospraying fluorinated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) mixed with polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) on the surface of an organosilane functionalized polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. Our results revealed that the functionalized ZnO NPs membrane exhibited a rough hierarchical re-entrant morphology with low surface energy which allowed it to achieve high omniphobic characteristics. It was observed that the addition of 30% ZnO (w/w of PVDF-HFP) was found to be optimal and imparted a high repulsive characteristic. The optimized PVDF/ZnO(30)/FAS/PVDF-HFP referred as cPFP-30Z membrane exhibited a high contact angle values of 159.0 ±â€¯3.1°, 129.6 ±â€¯2.2°, 130.4 ±â€¯4.1° and 126.1 ±â€¯1.2° for water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) saline solution (0.3 mM SDS in 3.5% NaCl), ethanol, and vegetable oil, respectively. The low surface energy and high surface roughness (Ra) of optimised membrane was assessed as 0.78 ±â€¯0.14 mN m-1 and 1.37 µm, respectively. Additionally, in contrast with the commercial PVDF membrane, the cPFP-30Z membrane exhibited superior anti-wetting/anti-fouling characteristics and high salt rejection performance (>99%) when operated with a saline oil solution (0.015 v/v) and SDS (0.4 mM) feed solutions.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Purificação da Água , Óxido de Zinco , Destilação , Membranas Artificiais , Polivinil , Água do Mar , Tensão Superficial
4.
J Environ Manage ; 240: 343-351, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953987

RESUMO

"Smart Food Waste Recycling Bin" (S-FRB) systems have recently been developed to facilitate the transformation of food waste into an end-product suitable for use as an energy resource following circular economy principles. This decentralized waste decomposition system utilizes fermentative microorganisms for the treatment of organic food waste and has emerged as a possible solution for coping with both landfill capacity and greenhouse gas emissions issues. This paper utilizes Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine the environmental impacts associated with this S-FRB technology and identify environmental hotspots to reduce these impacts. In this paper, we have conducted an on-site pilot-scale study for 2 months at a canteen located at the City University of Hong Kong, which resulted in a 90% reduction in the mass of food waste treated in the S-FRB system. Based on this pilot-scale study hypothetical scenarios were developed to determine potential environmental impacts potential scaled-up deployments of the S-FRB instrument based on varied assumptions. Examination of the LCAs of these different scenarios demonstrated the potential for further reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions during food waste treatment. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and Energy Return on Investment (EROI) were also investigated to understand the energy balance energy of the S-FRB technology. Finally, using current waste treatment methods in Hong Kong as a benchmark, the environmental impacts of the S-FRB are compared with the conventional food waste treatment approaches such as landfilling and organic waste treatment facilities (OWTF).


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fermentação , Hong Kong , Reciclagem , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(9): 4948-4958, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978006

RESUMO

Electrospun nanofiber membranes (ENMs) have garnered increasing interest due to their controllable nanofiber structure and high void volume fraction properties in membrane distillation (MD). However, MD technology still faces limitations mainly due to low permeate flux and membrane wetting for feeds containing low surface tension compounds. Perfluorinated superhydrophobic membranes could be an alternative, but it has negative environmental impacts. Therefore, other low surface energy materials such as silica aerogel and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have great relevancy in ENMs fabrication. Herein, we have reported the high flux and nonwettability of ENMs fabricated by electrospraying aerogel/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) over electrospinning polyvinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) membrane (E-PH). Among various concentrations of aerogel, the 30% aerogel (E-M3-A30) dual layer membrane achieved highest superhydrophobicity (∼170° water contact angle), liquid entry pressure (LEP) of 129.5 ± 3.4 kPa, short water droplet bouncing performance (11.6 ms), low surface energy (4.18 ± 0.27 mN m-1) and high surface roughness ( Ra: 5.04 µm) with re-entrant structure. It also demonstrated nonwetting MD performance over a continuous 7 days operation of saline water (3.5% of NaCl), high antiwetting with harsh saline water containing 0.5 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 28.9 mN m-1), synthetic algal organic matter (AOM).


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Purificação da Água , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Destilação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais
6.
J Environ Manage ; 234: 290-296, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634121

RESUMO

Effective treatment of food waste is inherently difficult due to several factors, including its heterogeneous composition, high moisture content, and low heating value. To address these issues, this study aims to convert food waste into an energy resource using naturally occurring fermentative microorganisms embedded in wooden biochips (bio-catalysis), utilizing a "Smart Food Waste Recycling Bin" (S-FRB) system. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis identified the major aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria with alpha-diversity in terms of the Phylogenetic Diversity index ranging from 40.8 (initial stage) to 24.5 (mature stage), which indicates the microbial communities are relatively homogeneous and effective for use in the S-FBR. Operational results indicated that the organic content of food waste traded in the system increased from 53% up to 72% in the final end-product and achieved a mass reduction rate of approximately 80%. The heating value of the end-product, which was 3300 kcal/kg waste when measured by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) method, confirmed its high potential as a biofuel. Overall, the S-FRB system presents a practical approach for food waste treatment that solves the putrescible waste problem and maximizes utility through resource circulation.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Reciclagem , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 365: 64-73, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408688

RESUMO

In this work, a bench scale study was designed to investigate the removal of zinc (Zn2+) and regeneration efficiencies of functionalized-MWCNT (f-MWCNT) membranes. The f-MWCNTs were incorporated into polyvinylchloride (PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs), which acted as a substrate and a barrier for MWCNTs leaching to water. The results revealed that the removal capacity of Zn2+ through f-CNT membranes were above 98% for the synthetic water and over 70% for real wastewater effluents; predominantly involved surface complexation reaction. The acquired removal efficiency of CNT membrane is attributed to high absolute zeta potential followed by the hydrophilicity of the nanotubes coated the inside surface of HFMs and high concentration of oxygen functional groups on CNT surfaces. Later on, different regenerating solutions were used to desorb Zn2+ ions repeatedly from the inner surface of membranes and to recycle the CNT membranes for continuous removal of Zn2+ from water. The XPS analysis revealed that, Zn2+ ions were completely recovered owing to the ion exchange interactions. The results further confirmed that f-CNT membranes retained their original removal capacity after several successive cycles. Therefore, we recommend that, f-CNTs-based membranes have the potential to be used for large-scale removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from water or wastewater.

8.
Chemosphere ; 206: 718-726, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787973

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the application of in situ ferrate (Fe(VI)) for the efficient removal of dissolved algal organic matter (AOM) from seawater. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ferric (Fe(III)) were used to produce in situ Fe(VI) by wet chemical oxidation. First, the removal efficiencies of two model AOM compounds, humic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (SA), were evaluated in the presence of sodium chloride with an initial influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of 5.0 mg C L-1 at different pH levels to establish the optimal doses for in situ Fe(VI) generation. The concentration of Fe(VI) was determined by the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry method. In the case of HA, 72% DOC removal was recorded when applied with 1.5 mg L-1 of Fe(III) and 1.5 mg L-1 of NaOCl (in situ Fe(VI) concentration of 1.46 mg L-1) while 42% DOC removal was observed for SA. Subsequently, the removal of AOM extracted from two bloom-forming algal species, Chaetoceros affinis (CA) and Hymenomonas (Hym), cultivated in seawater from the Red Sea, were tested with in situ generated Fe(VI) at the established optimum condition. In situ Fe(VI) recorded superior performance in removing AOM extracted from CA and Hym, showing 83% and 92% DOC removal when the influent DOC concentrations were 2.48 and 2.63 mg L-1, respectively. A detailed AOM characterization was conducted using liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Oxirredução
9.
Nanoscale ; 10(9): 4475-4487, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459912

RESUMO

While the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide (GO) has been well established, its bactericidal mechanism, however, has yet to be elucidated to advance GO-based biomedical and environmental applications. In an attempt to better understand the bactericidal action of GO, herein we studied the interactions of GO with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus cells using physical techniques and chemical probes, respectively. In particular, a novel laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based elemental fingerprint analysis revealed notable differences between viable and non-viable cells based on the difference in the concentration of trace inorganic elements in complex bacterial systems, which reflect cellular membrane integrity. Lower emission intensities from essential inorganic ions in the GO-treated cells offered explicit evidence on the efflux of intracellular molecules from the bacteria through damaged cell membranes. Furthermore, a detailed structural and morphological investigation of bacterial membrane integrity confirmed GO-induced membrane stress upon direct contact interactions with bacterial cells, resulting in the disruption of cellular membranes. Moreover, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of an added antioxidant underlined the role of GO-mediated oxidative stress in bacterial cell inactivation. Thus, by correlating the changes in the bacterial elemental compositions with the severe morphological alterations and the high ROS production witnessed herein, we propose that the bactericidal mechanism of GO is likely to be the synergy between membrane and oxidative stress towards both tested species. Our findings offer useful guidelines for the future development of GO-based antibacterial surfaces and coatings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers , Estresse Oxidativo , Óxidos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise Espectral
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(17): 10117-10126, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753303

RESUMO

To consolidate the position of membrane distillation (MD) as an emerging membrane technology that meets global water challenges, it is crucial to develop membranes with ideal material properties. This study reports a facile approach for a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane surface modification that is achieved through the coating of the surface with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymeric microspheres to lower the membrane surface energy. The hierarchical surface of the microspheres was built without any assistance of a nano/microcomposite by combining the rapid evaporation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the phase separation from condensed water vapor. The fabricated membrane exhibited superhydrophobicity-a high contact angle of 156.9° and a low contact-angle hysteresis of 11.3°-and a high wetting resistance to seawater containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Compared with the control PVDF-hexafluoropropylene (HFP) single-layer nanofiber membrane, the proposed fabricated membrane with the polymeric microsphere layer showed a smaller pore size and higher liquid entry pressure (LEP). When it was tested for the direct-contact MD (DCMD) in terms of the desalination of seawater (3.5% of NaCl) containing SDS of a progressively increased concentration, the fabricated membrane showed stable desalination and partial wetting for the 0.1 and 0.2 mM SDS, respectively.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Microesferas , Polivinil , Purificação da Água , Destilação
11.
Water Res ; 103: 362-371, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27486044

RESUMO

This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Destilação , Águas Residuárias/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Purificação da Água
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