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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804411

RESUMO

Joint estimation of the human body is suitable for many fields such as human-computer interaction, autonomous driving, video analysis and virtual reality. Although many depth-based researches have been classified and generalized in previous review or survey papers, the point cloud-based pose estimation of human body is still difficult due to the disorder and rotation invariance of the point cloud. In this review, we summarize the recent development on the point cloud-based pose estimation of the human body. The existing works are divided into three categories based on their working principles, including template-based method, feature-based method and machine learning-based method. Especially, the significant works are highlighted with a detailed introduction to analyze their characteristics and limitations. The widely used datasets in the field are summarized, and quantitative comparisons are provided for the representative methods. Moreover, this review helps further understand the pertinent applications in many frontier research directions. Finally, we conclude the challenges involved and problems to be solved in future researches.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Computadores , Humanos
2.
Water Res ; 194: 116964, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652228

RESUMO

Drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) produce filter backwash water (FBW) and sedimentation sludge water (SSW) that may be partially recycled to the head of DWTPs. The impacts of key disinfection conditions, water quality parameters (e.g., disinfection times, disinfectant types and doses, and pH values), and bromide concentration on controlling the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetamides (HAMs) during disinfection of FBW and SSW were investigated. Concentrations of most disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and associated calculated toxicity increased with extended chlorination for both FBW and SSW. During chlorination of both FBW and SSW, elevated chlorine doses significantly increased THM yields per unit dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but decreased HAN and HAM yields, with minimum effect on HAA yields. Chloramine disinfection effectively inhibited C-DBP formation but promoted N-DBPs yields, which increased with chloramine dose. Calculated toxicities after chloramination increased with chloramine dose, which was opposite to the trend found after free chlorine addition. An examination of pH effects demonstrated that C-DBPs were more readily generated at alkaline pH (pH=8), while acidic conditions (pH=6) favored N-DBP formation. Total DBP concentrations increased at higher pH levels, but calculated DBP toxicity deceased due to lower HAN and HAM concentrations. Addition of bromide markedly increased bromo-THM and bromo-HAN formation, which are more cytotoxic than chlorinated analogues, but had little impact on the formation of HAAs and HAMs. Bromide incorporation factors (BIFs) for THMs and HANs from both water samples all significantly increased as bromide concentrations increased. Overall, high bromide concentrations increased the calculated toxicity values in FBW and SSW after chlorination. Therefore, while currently challenging, technologies capable of removing bromide should be explored as part of a strategy towards controlling cumulative toxicity burden (i.e., hazard) while simultaneously lowering individual DBP concentrations (i.e., exposure) to manage DBP risks in drinking water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Esgotos , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734497

RESUMO

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that low-tannin sorghum grain produced in China as a potential substitute for corn in diets could not impair the performance of nursery pigs. A total of 60 pigs (7.2 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 2 diets with 5 replicate pens per treatment. Corn-based diet (CBD) included 60% corn grain during the overall experimental period, and sorghum-based diet (SBD) consisted of 30% (d 1 to 14) or 60.55% (d 15 to 28) sorghum grain in partial or total replacement of corn grain. Both diets were formulated to contain the same amount of digestible energy and indispensable amino acids. The results demonstrated no differences in growth performance or apparent digestibility of gross energy between treatments over the whole period. However, the substitution of corn by sorghum reduced (p < 0.05) or tended to reduce (p = 0.09) apparent digestibility of crude protein associated with an increased faecal nitrogen excretion per weight gain (p < 0.05). Pigs fed SBD had higher contents of urea nitrogen, total triglyceride and insulin in serum than those fed CBD (p < 0.05). Visceral organ weights or antioxidant enzyme activities in serum or liver were not different between treatments. Compared with CBD, SBD increased or tended to increase amylase activity in jejunal mucosa (p < 0.05) or trypsin activity in duodenal mucosa (p = 0.08). Replacement of corn by the low-tannin sorghum in diets did not influence the microbiota community based on alpha and beta diversity in caecal and colonal digesta. Overall, the home-grown low-tannin sorghum could be an alternative energy source in diets for pigs without adverse effects on growth performance.

4.
Investig Clin Urol ; 62(2): 172-179, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660444

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to define the feasibility of the omission of routine insertion of a drain after pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (PLDN). We compared the outcomes between those with and without routine drain insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2014 to October 2018, 178 PLDN were consecutively performed by a single surgeon. Since October 2016, we stopped routine insertion of a drain after PLDN. Thus, the former 80 drained routinely were defined as the Drainage group and the latter 98 were defined as the Non-drainage group. One patient drained non-routinely in the Non-drainage group was excluded from the final analysis. Operative and convalescence parameters and intra- and postoperative complications were compared between the groups. Intra- and postoperative complications within 90 days of surgery were graded using the Satava and Clavien-Dindo classifications, respectively. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups, except for concomitant surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and preoperative glomerular filtration rate. All operative and convalescence parameters were similar between the groups, except for postoperative glomerular filtration rate. The rates of overall intra- (22.5% versus 28.9%, p=0.337) and postoperative (62.5% versus 59.8%, p=0.713) complications were similar between the groups. The rates of potentially drain-related postoperative complications were also similar between the groups (36.3% versus 33.0%, p=0.650). Two patients per group suffered from major drain-related complications (2.5% versus 2.1%). CONCLUSIONS: PLDN without routine drainage can be performed safely without an increase in postoperative morbidity.

5.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(3): e337, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits the poorest prognosis of all solid tumors with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10% and a median survival of 6 months after diagnosis. Numerous targeted agents have been developed and evaluated to improve the survival benefit in patients with PDAC. Unfortunately, most agents have been proven futile mainly owing to the dense stroma and the sophisticated signaling pathways of PDAC. Here, we show the potent effectiveness of Aptamer-SH2 superbinder-(Arg)9 conjugate on the treatment of PDAC. In this conjugate, DNA aptamer selected against PDAC cell line confers the function of specifically recognizing and binding to the PDAC cells and activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in stroma; cell penetrating peptide (Arg)9 facilitates the intracellular delivery of fused proteins; SH2 superbinder conducts the drastic blockade of multiple phosphotyrosines (pY)-based signaling pathways in tumor cells. METHODS: PDAC-associated pY were reanalyzed by bioinformatics screen. XQ-2d and SH2 superbinder-(Arg)9 were crosslinked with BMH to form XQ-2d-SH2 CM-(Arg)9 conjugate. Immunofluorescence was utilized to assess the potency of the conjugate entering cells. MTT and wound healing assays were performed to evaluate the proliferation or migration of PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, respectively. Western blot and Pulldown assays revealed that conjugate influenced several pY-based signaling pathways. Tumor-bearing mice were used to validate XQ-2d-SH2 CM-(Arg)9, which restrained the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. RESULTS: XQ-2d-His-SH2 CM-(Arg)9 conjugate restrained proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of PDAC cells with potent efficacy via blocking the activity of several pY-related signaling cascades. XQ-2d-His-SH2 CM-(Arg)9 could eliminate the dense stroma of PDAC and then arrive at tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS: XQ-2d-SH2 CM-(Arg)9 conjugate may efficiently destroy the pancreatic stroma and show potent antitumor efficacy with minimal toxic effect by regulating tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, which makes it to be a promising targeted therapy of PDAC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686389

RESUMO

AIMS: In order to determine acute cardiac involvement in patients with COVID-19, we quantitatively evaluated tissue characteristics and mechanics by non-invasive cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in a cohort of patients within the first 10 days of the onset of COVID symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and at least one marker of cardiac involvement [cardiac symptoms, abnormal electrocardiograph (ECG), or abnormal cardiac biomarkers] and 25 healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited to the study. Patients were divided into those with elevated (n = 8) or normal TnI (n = 17). There were significant differences in global longitudinal strain among patients who were positive and negative for hs-TnI, and controls [-12.3 (-13.3, -11.5)%, -13.1 (-14.2, -9.8)%, and -15.7 (-18.3, -12.7)%, P = 0.004]. Native myocardial T1 relaxation times in patients with positive and negative hs-TnI manifestation (1169.8 ± 12.9 and 1113.2 ± 31.2 ms) were significantly higher than the normal (1065 ± 57 ms) subjects, respectively (P < 0.001). The extracellular volume (ECV) of patients who were positive and negative for hs-TnI was higher than that of the normal controls [32 (31, 33)%, 29 (27, 30)%, and 26 (24, 27.5)%, P < 0.001]. In our study, quantitative T2 mapping in patients who were positive and negative for hs-TnI [51 (47.9, 52.8) and 48 (47, 49.4) ms] was significantly higher than the normal [42 (41, 45.2) ms] subjects (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with early-stage COVID-19, myocardial oedema, and functional abnormalities are a frequent finding, while irreversible regional injury such as necrosis may be infrequent.

7.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncontrast cardiac T1 times are increased in dialysis patients which might indicate fibrotic alterations in uremic cardiomyopathy. PURPOSE: To explore the application of the texture analysis (TA) of T1 images in the assessment of myocardial alterations in dialysis patients. STUDY TYPE: Case-control study. POPULATION: A total of 117 subjects, including 22 on hemodialysis, 44 on peritoneal dialysis, and 51 healthy controls. FIELD STRENGTH: A 3 T, steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence, modified Look-Locker imaging (MOLLI). ASSESSMENT: Two independent, blinded researchers manually delineated endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle (LV) on midventricular T1 maps for TA. STATISTICAL TESTS: Texture feature selection was performed, incorporating reproducibility verification, machine learning, and collinearity analysis. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the independent associations between the selected texture features and left ventricular function in dialysis patients. Texture features' performance in discrimination was evaluated by sensitivity and specificity. Reproducibility was estimated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Dialysis patients had greater T1 values than normal (P < 0.05). Five texture features were filtered out through feature selection, and four showed a statistically significant difference between dialysis patients and healthy controls. Among the four features, vertical run-length nonuniformity (VRLN) had the most remarkable difference among the control and dialysis groups (144 ± 40 vs. 257 ± 74, P < 0.05), which overlap was much smaller than Global T1 times (1268 ± 38 vs. 1308 ± 46 msec, P < 0.05). The VRLN values were notably elevated (cutoff = 170) in dialysis patients, with a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 88%, compared with T1 times (specificity = 76%, sensitivity = 60%). In dialysis patients, VRLN was significantly and independently associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.05), global longitudinal strain (P < 0.05), radial strain (P < 0.05), and circumferential strain (P < 0.05); however, T1 was not. DATA CONCLUSION: The texture features obtained by TA of T1 images and VRLN may be a better parameter for assessing myocardial alterations than T1 times. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144698, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493910

RESUMO

Although the influence of environmental factors on the microbial community in water sources is crucial, it is seldom evaluated. The seasonal relationship between microbial diversity of bacteria and fungi and environmental factors was investigated in a large drinking-water reservoir using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Forty-one bacterial phyla and nine fungal phyla were analyzed in the Qingcaosha Reservoir, Shanghai, China. The predominant bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria, with the maximum relative abundance of 46%, 36.6%, 16.1%, and 14.9%, respectively. Actinobacteria were observed to be the predominant bacterial phylum during spring and summer. The maximum relative abundance of unclassified fungi appeared in summer (98.8%), which was higher than that of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (11.7% and 8.2%, respectively). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) results showed that the structural similarity in the bacterial community was greater during summer and winter; however, the fungal community exhibited a greater similarity during spring and summer. 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB), an olfactory compound produced by microorganisms, was detected at a concentration of 8.97 ng/L during summer, which was slightly lower than the olfactory threshold (10 ng/L). The positive correlation between Actinobacteria and unclassified fungi and 2-MIB (p < 0.05) confirmed that Actinobacteria and unclassified fungi produced 2-MIB. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 1.48-1.94 mg/L, and the maximum concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 2.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Chloroflexi were negatively correlated with COD (p < 0.05) but positively correlated with TP (p < 0.01). Nitrospirae were negatively correlated with COD (p < 0.05), but positively correlated with TN (p < 0.05). Among the classified fungi, Rozellomycota, Basidiomycota (p < 0.05), and Chytridiomycota (p < 0.01) were positively correlated with TP. Therefore, the relative abundance of predominant bacteria was affected by various environmental factors; however, fungi were mainly influenced by TP.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , China , Água
9.
J Neurosci Res ; 99(3): 914-926, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393091

RESUMO

Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) can increase hippocampal neuronal excitability. TRPV4 has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGPCs) play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability and abnormal VGPCs expression or function is related to epilepsy. Here, we examined the effect of TRPV4 activation on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK ) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and on the Kv subunits expression in male mice. We also explored the role of TRPV4 in changes in Kv subunits expression in male mice following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). Application of TRPV4 agonists, GSK1016790A and 5,6-EET, markedly reduced IK in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and shifted the voltage-dependent inactivation curve to the hyperpolarizing direction. GSK1016790A- and 5,6-EET-induced inhibition of IK was blocked by TRPV4 specific antagonists, HC-067047 and RN1734. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IK was markedly attenuated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) antagonist. Application of GSK1016790A for up to 1 hr did not change the hippocampal protein levels of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, or Kv2.1. Intracerebroventricular injection of GSK1016790A for 3 d reduced the hippocampal protein levels of Kv1.2 and Kv2.1, leaving that of Kv1.1 unchanged. Kv1.2 and Kv2.1 protein levels as well as IK reduced markedly in hippocampi on day 3 post PISE, which was significantly reversed by HC-067047. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits IK in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, possibly by activating CaMKII. TRPV4-induced decrease in Kv1.2 and Kv2.1 expression and IK may be involved in the pathological changes following PISE.

10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 981-984, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480578

RESUMO

The control and elimination of pseudorabies (PR) is one of the most important goals in the pig industry. After the first PR outbreak in Korea in 1986, all pigs infected with PR virus (PRV) were removed, and a vaccination program for pigs was implemented. No PR has occurred in Korea since 2010, and vaccination was discontinued after 2013. Information on the seroprevalence of PRV in pigs, including wild boars (Sus scrofa), is important for evaluating the PR status in a country. In this study, 2.65% (28/1057) of the wild boars tested had antibodies against PRV in 2018, indicating that PRV has been circulating continuously in the wild boar population in Korea. Effective means should be implemented to prevent the transmission of PRV between wild and domestic pigs, because the wild boar is a potential reservoir host for PRV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/imunologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , Testes de Neutralização , Pseudorraiva/epidemiologia , Pseudorraiva/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142073, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911175

RESUMO

The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by waste zero-valent iron (ZVI) regulating microbial community in sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was investigated. Compared with SBBR-BPA, the acclimation time of microorganisms in the presence of waste ZVI and BPA (SBBR-ZVI+BPA) decreased from 56 d to 49 d. During stable operation period, BPA was removed completely at 150th min and 100th min in the SBBR-BPA and SBBR-ZVI+BPA, respectively. The optimal initial pH and BPA concentration in the SBBRs were respectively 8.0 and 10 mg/L. The composition and content analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) using fluorescence spectrometer showed that the yield of EPS was enhanced by the addition of ZVI. The analysis of microbial community structure in the SBBRs using Illumina Miseq sequencing method indicated that the indexes of ACE, Chao1 and Shannon were higher and Simpson index was lower in the SBBR-ZVI+BPA. Moreover, the abundance of BPA biodegradation strains was increased in the presence of ZVI. This study provided a promising method with low cost of effectively removing BPA from wastewater.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Ferro , Fenóis , Águas Residuárias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143200, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213910

RESUMO

Air pollution has side effects on human health. Epidemiology studies indicate a positive association between ambient fine particle (PM2.5, or particles less than 2.5 µm in diameter) concentration and lung cancer. However, how fine particles affect lung cancer at the molecular level and related therapeutic methods to address these diseases are unclear. Here, the multi-omics analysis (DNA methylation and transcriptomic) was used to detect human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE), that were exposed to PM2.5 using a quantified, small, portable, and organ-level air-liquid interface microfluidic system that mimics lung functions. The results indicate that 36,838 differentially methylated genes were detected. Of these 33,796 genes were hypomethylated (beta < 0), and 2862 genes were hypermethylated (beta > 0). RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that 19,489 genes were upregulated (log2FC > 0), and 16,659 were downregulated. Furthermore, the calcium and apoptosis pathways were activated according to multi-omics analysis. The change in EGFR gene expression after PM2.5 exposure was the result of alterations of the cellular DNA methylome in the promoter. Inhibition or down-regulation of EGFR could result in the regulation of the downstream intracellular Ca2+ concentration and apoptosis via the EGFR/PLCγ and EGFR/STAT/Bcl-XL pathways after PM2.5 exposure. EGFR inhibitors decrease the Ca2+ concentration of cells, thereby strengthening the effects of fine particles on apoptosis. In short, the Ca2+ concentration and the apoptosis of cells can be regulated via EGFR related pathway after PM2.5 exposure. The EGFR may be a potentially promising therapeutic target for the treatment of air pollution-induced lung cancer through regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and apoptosis.

13.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 52, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generation of neurons is essential in cell replacement therapy for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Several studies have reported the generation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mouse and human fibroblasts by ectopic expression of transcription factors, in which genetic manipulation is associated with potential risks. METHODS: The small molecules and protein factors were selected based on their function to directly induce human fetal lung IMR-90 fibroblasts into DA neuron-like cells. Microscopical, immunocytochemical, and RT-qPCR analyses were used to characterize the morphology, phenotype, and gene expression features of the induced cells. The whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were exploited to measure the electrophysiological properties. RESULTS: Human IMR-90 fibroblasts were rapidly converted into DA neuron-like cells after the chemical induction using small molecules and protein factors, with a yield of approximately 95% positive TUJ1-positive cells. The induced DA neuron-like cells were immunopositive for pan-neuronal markers MAP2, NEUN, and Synapsin 1 and DA markers TH, DDC, DAT, and NURR1. The chemical induction process did not involve a neural progenitor/stem cell intermediate stage. The induced neurons could fire single action potentials, which reflected partially the electrophysiological properties of neurons. CONCLUSION: We developed a chemical cocktail of small molecules and protein factors to convert human fibroblasts into DA neuron-like cells without passing through a neural progenitor/stem cell intermediate stage. The induced DA neuron-like cells from human fibroblasts might provide a cellular source for cell-based therapy of Parkinson's disease in the future.

14.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019706

RESUMO

Two new indole alkaloids, Bufotenidine B (2) and Bufocarboline A (6), along with seven known indole alkaloids (1, 3-5, and 7-9) and three organic acids (10-12), were isolated from the water extract of toad venom. The structures of the new alkaloids were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 4, 6, and 8 were determined for the first time by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The cytotoxic activity of all compounds was tested against human malignant melanoma cells A375 by the MTT method, and no antitumor activity was observed.

16.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109333, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic value of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in the assessment of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. METHODS: Fifty-five HCM patients underwent IVIM diffusion-weighted cardiovascular resonance imaging; Cine, T1 mapping, IVIM and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were performed. The relationship of strain, pre T1, extracellular volume (ECV), IVIM-derived parameters (D, D* and f) and LGE were analyzed based on 16 American Heart Association segments. Abnormal segments of myocardial fibrosis were defined as: the presence of LGE (LGE+) or ECV ≥ 29.6 %. RESULTS: D parameter was significantly increased in LGE + vs LGE- (1.89 ± 0.14 µm2/ms vs. 1.63 ± 0.12 µm2/ms, p < 0.001) and ECV ≥ 29.6 % vs ECV < 29.6 % (1.84 ± 0.13 µm2/ms vs. 1.61 ± 0.12 µm2/ms, p < 0.001), respectively. D* and f parameters were significantly decreased in LGE + vs LGE- (D*: 34.9 ± 6.6 µm2/m vs 55.2 ± 11.4 µm2/m, p < 0.001; f: 10.8 ± 1.29 % vs 12.5 ± 1.26 %, p < 0.001) and ECV ≥ 29.6 % vs ECV < 29.6 % (D*: 37.5 ± 6.9 µm2/m vs 59.6 ± 9.2 µm2/m, p < 0.001; f: 10.9 ± 1.1 % vs 13.00 ± 1.0 %, p = 0.021), respectively. Moreover, significant correlations were demonstrated between D and ECV, as well as D* and f. CONCLUSIONS: IVIM DW-CMR has proven to be ingenious in the investigation of myocardial fibrosis; D* and f parameters may have potential value to assess the perfusion status of fibrotic regions in HCM patients.

17.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(10): 5991-5998, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956587

RESUMO

We present a new stochastic extended Lagrangian molecular dynamics solution to charge equilibration that eliminates self-consistent field (SCF) calculations, thus eliminating the computational bottleneck in solving the charge distribution with standard SCF solvers. By formulating both charges and chemical potential as latent variables and introducing a holonomic constraint that satisfies charge conservation, the SC-XLMD method accurately reproduces thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural properties within the framework of ReaxFF for a bulk water system and highly reactive RDX molecules simulated at high temperature. The SC-XLMD method shows excellent computational performance and is available in the publicly available LAMMPS package.

18.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936465

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses highly pathogenic to humans. Some CoVs are known to cause respiratory and intestinal diseases, posing a threat to the global public health. Against this backdrop, it is of critical importance to develop safe and effective vaccines against these CoVs. This review discusses human vaccine candidates in any stage of development and explores the viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and immunology associated with CoV vaccine development. At present, there are many obstacles and challenges to vaccine research and development, including the lack of knowledge about virus transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response, absence of the most appropriate animal models.

19.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 42, 2020 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor neuron degeneration or loss in the spinal cord is the characteristic phenotype of motor neuron diseases or spinal cord injuries. Being proliferative and located near neurons, astrocytes are considered ideal cell sources for regenerating neurons. METHODS: We selected and tested different combinations of the small molecules for inducing the conversion of human and mouse astrocytes into neurons. Microscopic imaging and immunocytochemistry analyses were used to characterize the morphology and phenotype of the induced neurons while RT-qPCR was utilized to analyze changes in gene expression. In addition, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were measured to examine the electrophysiological properties of induced neurons. RESULTS: The results showed that human astrocytes could be rapidly and efficiently converted into motor neuron-like cells by treatment with defined small molecules, with a yield of over 85% motor neuron-like cells attained. The induced motor neuron-like cells expressed the pan-neuronal markers TUJ1, MAP2, NeuN, and Synapsin 1 and motor neuron markers HB9, ISL1, CHAT, and VAChT. During the conversion process, the cells did not pass through a proliferative neural progenitor cell intermediate. The induced motor neurons were functional, showing the electrophysiological properties of neurons. The same chemical cocktail could induce spinal cord astrocytes from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model carrying a SOD1 mutation to become motor neuron-like cells that exhibited a decrease in cell survival and an increase in oxidative stress compared to that observed in wild-type MNs derived from healthy mice. Moreover, the chemical induction reduced oxidative stress in the mutant astrocytes. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study demonstrated the feasibility of chemically converting human and mouse astrocytes into motor neuron-like cells that are useful for neurodegenerative disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903757

RESUMO

It has been suggested that there is a critical window for estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, supporting evidence is lacking. To address this issue, we investigated the effective period for estradiol (E2) treatment using a mouse model of AD. Four-month-old female APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with E2 for 2 months starting at the age of 4 months (early period), 6 months (mid-period), or 8 months (late period). We then evaluated hippocampal neurogenesis, ß-amyloid (Aß) accumulation, telomerase activity, and hippocampal-dependent behavior. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, APP/PS1 mice with intact ovaries showed increased proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) at 8 months of age and decreased proliferation of NSCs at 10 months of age; meanwhile, Aß accumulation progressively increased with age, paralleling the reduced survival of immature neurons. OVX-induced depletion of E2 in APP/PS1 mice resulted in elevated Aß levels accompanied by elevated p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) expression and increased NSC proliferation at 6 months of age, which subsequently declined; accelerated reduction of immature neurons starting from 6 months of age, and reduced telomerase activity and worsened memory performance at 10 months of age. Treatment with E2 in the early period post-OVX, rather than in the mid or late period, abrogated these effects, and p75NTR inhibition reduced the overproliferation of NSCs in 6-month-old OVX-APP/PS1 mice. Thus, E2 deficiency in young APP/PS1 mice exacerbates cognitive deficits and depletes the hippocampal NSC pool in later life; this can be alleviated by E2 treatment in the early period following OVX, which prevents Aß/p75NTR-induced NSC overproliferation and preserves telomerase activity.

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