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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(9): 4921-4925, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691891

RESUMO

The high manganese steel was developed to improve the fracture toughness and safety at cryogenic temperatures, the austenite structure was formed by increasing the manganese (Mn) content. The developed weld high manganese steel was alloyed with austenite stabilizing elements (e.g., C, Mn, and Ni) for cryogenic toughness and fluxes contained less than 10% of acidic slag formers such as rutile (TiO2) and silica (SiO2). This paper describes the work carried out to enhance the fracture toughness of Mn contents in an economical way by means of increase of manganese up to 23% instead of using nickel (Ni) which has unique element to improve fracture toughness especially at cryogenic steel. The new cryogenic steels should be carefully evaluated in terms of safety for application in real structures including LNG ships. In this study, the fracture toughness performance was evaluated for recently developed cryogenic steels (high-Mn steels), especially the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) parameter was evaluated using the prediction formula proposed by conventional equation. The CTOD value was investigated the effect of microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-C-Mn and Fe-C-Mn-Ni high manganese steel, it was revealed that the e-martesnsite phase formed in high manganese steel of 0.2C-20Mn and 0.4C-20Mn as a result of a low stability of austenite upon strain-induced phase transformation.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(9): 4926-4930, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691892

RESUMO

The 460-MPa-class steel was developed by thermomechanical control process for shipbuilding, and the maximum plate thickness was 100 mm, which has the fine grain size as 5-20 µm. The surfaces were studied in terms of micro and nano structures, surface roughness, and surface energy to evaluate the effect of fracture toughness in large steel structure. The thick steel plate has possibility to occur unstable fracture because the fracture toughness will be decrease with increase of thickness. The increase in the temperature in thermomechanical control process accelerated the surface energy and created both micro and nano structures on the surfaces more effectively. It was effective to avoid brittle fracture in the base metal when the brittle crack was deviated into base metal. The developed 460-MPa-class steel plate improves the brittle fracture safety despite being a thick steel plate through the fine grain size. They had to be designed in such a manner as to avoid crack initiation, especially in welded joints. In this study, brittle crack arrest designs were developed for large weld construction using arrest design concept and micro and nano structures in high strength steel plate.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(4): 2323-2328, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486992

RESUMO

The thickness of steel plates used for large structures has been increasing with the rapid increase in the size of welding structures. The growing capacity of large-scale ships, such as container ships, has led to an increase in the thickness and strength of steel plates for shipbuilding. The steel plate toughness and resistance to brittle fractures tend to decrease for thick plates because of the so-called thickness effect. This study uses 80-mm-thick steel plates and two welding processes (i.e., flux cored arc welding process and electron gas welding process) to produce full-thickness weld joints. The welding residual stress in both welded joints is measured to evaluate the brittle crack propagation path. This study aims to investigate the effect of welding variables on the crack arrest toughness and crack propagation path of thick steel-plate welds. The thick steel plate has a high possibility in brittle fracture. A quantitative analysis is conducted through a temperature-gradient ESSO test to clarify the effect of the welding variables on the flux cored arc welding and electron gas welding process joints of steel plates with 50 and 80 mm thicknesses. The welding residual stress is also measured to evaluate the welding residual stress effect in both welding processes on the brittle crack propagation path using a neutron science analysis.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(3): 2252-2257, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448756

RESUMO

Brittle failure of high toughness steel structures tends to occur after ductile crack initiation/propagation. Damages to steel structures were reported in the Hanshin Great Earthquake. Several brittle failures were observed in beam-to-column connection zones with geometrical discontinuity. It is widely known that triaxial stresses accelerate the ductile fracture of steels. The study examined the effects of geometrical heterogeneity and strength mismatches (both of which elevate plastic constraints due to heterogeneous plastic straining) and loading rate on critical conditions initiating ductile fracture. This involved applying the two-parameter criterion (involving equivalent plastic strain and stress triaxiality) to estimate ductile cracking for strength mismatched specimens under static and dynamic tensile loading conditions. Ductile crack initiation testing was conducted under static and dynamic loading conditions using circumferentially notched specimens (Charpy type) with/without strength mismatches. The results indicated that the condition for ductile crack initiation using the two parameter criterion was a transferable criterion to evaluate ductile crack initiation independent of the existence of strength mismatches and loading rates.

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