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1.
Plant Physiol ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983053

RESUMO

Light affects many physiological and developmental processes of plants by regulating the expression and activity of light responsive proteins. Among them, phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and hypocotyl growth. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood, especially in woody plants, such as apple (Malus × domestica). In this study, we identified a light responsive PIF protein, MdPIF7, in apple and investigated the molecular mechanism of its regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and hypocotyl growth. We found that overexpression of MdPIF7 decreased anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic apple materials and promoted hypocotyl elongation in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Further investigation showed that MdPIF7 functioned by interacting with B-box 23 (MdBBX23), a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple and hypocotyl growth inhibition in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis, and attenuating the transcriptional activation of MdBBX23 on LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (MdHY5). In addition, MdPIF7 interacted with basic region leucine zipper 44 (MdbZIP44) and ethylene response factor 38 (MdERF38), two positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and it negatively regulated MdbZIP44- and MdERF38-promoted anthocyanin accumulation by interfering with the interaction between MdbZIP44/MdERF38 and MdMYB1. Taken together, our results reveal that MdPIF7 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple and hypocotyl growth in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis through MdPIF7-MdBBX23-MdHY5 and MdPIF7-MdbZIP44/MdERF38-MdMYB1 modules. Our findings enrich the functional studies of PIF proteins and provide insights into the molecular mechanism of PIF-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis and hypocotyl growth.

3.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 16913-16923, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647449

RESUMO

The advent of localization-based super-resolution ultrasound (SRUS) imaging creates a vista for precision vasculature and hemodynamic measurements in brain science, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. As blinking fluorophores are crucial to super-resolution optical imaging, blinking acoustic contrast agents enabling ultrasound localization microscopy have been highly sought, but only with limited success. Here we report on the discovery and characterization of a type of blinking acoustic nanodroplets (BANDs) ideal for SRUS. BANDs of 200-500 nm diameters comprise a perfluorocarbon-filled core and a shell of DSPC, Pluronic F68, and DSPE-PEG2000. When driven by clinically safe acoustic pulses (MI < 1.9) provided by a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, BANDs underwent reversible vaporization and reliquefaction, manifesting as "blinks", at rates of up to 5 kHz. By sparse activation of perfluorohexane-filled BANDs-C6 at high concentrations, only 100 frames of ultrasound imaging were sufficient to reconstruct super-resolution images of a no-flow tube through either cumulative localization or temporal radiality autocorrelation. Furthermore, the use of high-density BANDs-C6-4 (1 × 108/mL) with a 1:9 admixture of perfluorohexane and perfluorobutane supported the fast SRUS imaging of muscle vasculature in live animals, at 64 µm resolution requiring only 100 frames per layer. We anticipate that the BANDs developed here will greatly boost the application of SRUS in both basic science and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Meios de Contraste , Acústica , Animais , Imagem Óptica , Ultrassonografia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ketone body oxidation yields more ATP per mole of consumed oxygen than glucose. However, whether an increased ketone body supply in hypoxic cardiomyocytes and ischemic hearts is protective or not remains elusive. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of ß-hydroxybutyrate (ß-OHB), the main constituent of ketone bodies, on cardiomyocytes under hypoxic conditions and the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on cardiac function in a myocardial infarction (MI) mouse model. METHODS: Human peripheral blood collected from patients with acute myocardial infarction and healthy volunteers was used to detect the level of ß-OHB. N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) were measured to study the relationship between plasma ß-OHB and cardiac function. Adult mouse cardiomyocytes and MI mouse models fed a KD were used to research the effect of ß-OHB on cardiac damage. qPCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the interaction between ß-OHB and glycolysis. Live/dead cell staining and imaging, lactate dehydrogenase, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, echocardiography, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were performed to evaluate the cardiomyocyte death, cardiac function, and infarct sizes. RESULTS: ß-OHB level was significantly higher in acute MI patients and MI mice. Treatment with ß-OHB exacerbated cardiomyocyte death and decreased glucose absorption and glycolysis under hypoxic conditions. These effects were partially ameliorated by inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) degradation via roxadustat administration in hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, ß-OHB metabolisms were obscured in cardiomyocytes under hypoxic conditions. Additionally, MI mice fed a KD exhibited exacerbated cardiac dysfunction compared with control chow diet (CD)-fed MI mice. CONCLUSION: Elevated ß-OHB levels may be maladaptive to the heart under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Administration of roxadustat can partially reverse these harmful effects by stabilizing HIF-1α and inducing a metabolic shift toward glycolysis for energy production.

5.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592723

RESUMO

Objective:Microvasculature is highly relevant to the occurrence and development of pathologies such as cancer and diabetes. Ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) has bypassed the diffraction limit and demonstrated its great potential to provide new imaging modality and establish new diagnostic criteria in clinical application. However, sparse microbubble distribution can be a significant bottleneck for improving temporal resolution, even for further clinical translation. Other important challenges for ULM to tackle in clinic also include high microbubble concentration and low frame rate.Approach:As part of the efforts to facilitate clinical translation, this paper focused on the low frame rate and the high microbubble distribution issue and proposed a new super-resolution imaging strategy called entropy-based radiality super-resolution (ERSR). The feasibility of ERSR is validated with simulations, phantom experiment and contrast-enhanced ultrasound scan of rabbit sciatic nerve with clinical accessible ultrasound system.Main results:ERSR can achieve 10 times improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional ultrasound imaging, higher temporal resolution (∼10 times higher) and contrast-to-noise ratio under high-density microbubbles, compared with ULM under low-density microbubbles.Significance:We conclude ERSR could be a valuable imaging tool with high spatio-temporal resolution for clinical diagnosis and assessment of diseases potentially.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 646577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513661

RESUMO

Introduction: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19del and L858R mutation are known as "common mutations" in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and predict sensitivities to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), whereas 20ins and T790M mutations confer drug-resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The role of the remaining uncommon EGFR mutations remains elusive. Methods: We retrospectively screened a group of NSCLC patients with uncommon EGFR mutations other than 20ins and T790M. The mutation patterns, use of different generations of EGFR-TKIs, and concurrent genetic alterations were analyzed. Meanwhile, a cohort of patients with single 19del or L858R were included for comparison. Results: A total of 180/1,300 (13.8%) patients were identified. There were 102 patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC that received first-line therapy of gefitinib/erlotinib/icotinib and afatinib and were eligible for analysis. The therapeutic outcomes among patients with common mutations (EGFRcm, n = 97), uncommon mutation plus common mutations (EGFRum+EGFRcm, n = 52), complex uncommon mutations (complex EGFRum, n = 22), and single uncommon mutations (single EGFRum, n = 28) were significantly different (ORRs: 76.3%, 61.5%, 54.5%, and 50.0%, respectively, p = 0.023; and mPFS: 13.3, 14.7, 8.1, and 6.0 months, respectively, p = 0.004). Afatinib showed superior efficacy over gefitinib/erlotinib/icotinib in EGFRcm (ORR: 81.0% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.773; mPFS: 19.1 vs. 12.0m, p = 0.036), EGFRum+EGFRcm (ORR: 100% vs. 54.5%, p = 0.017; mPFS: NE vs. 13.6m, p = 0.032), and single EGFRum (ORR: 78.6% vs. 21.4%, p = 0.007; mPFS: 10.1 vs. 3.0m, p = 0.025) groups. Comprehensive genomic profiling by Next Generation Sequencing encompassing multiple cancer-related genes was performed on 51/102 patients; the mPFS of patients without co-mutation (n = 16) and with co-mutations of tumor-suppressor genes (n = 31) and driver oncogenes (n = 4) were 31.1, 9.2, and 12.4 months, respectively (p = 0.046). TP53 mutation was the most common co-alteration and showed significantly shorter mPFS than TP53 wild-type patients (7.0 vs. 31.1m, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that concurrent 19del/L858R and tumor-suppressor gene alterations independently predicted better and worse prognosis in patients with uncommon mutations, respectively. Conclusions: Uncommon EGFR mutations constitute a highly heterogeneous subgroup of NSCLC that confer different sensitivities to EGFR-TKIs with regard to the mutation patterns. Afatinib may be a better choice for most uncommon EGFR mutations. Concurrent 19del/L858R and tumor-suppressor gene alterations, especially TP53, can be established as prognostic biomarkers.

7.
J Pain Res ; 14: 2893-2905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548816

RESUMO

Purpose: It is unclear whether neuropathological structural changes in the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system can occur in the spared nerve injury model. In this study, we investigated the pathological changes in the nervous system in a model of neuropathic pain as well as the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and pregabalin (PGB) administration as regards pain relief and tissue repair. Patients and Methods: Forty adult male SD rats were equally and randomly divided into 4 groups: spared nerve injury group (SNI, n = 10), SNI with electroacupuncture group (EA, n = 10), SNI with pregabalin group (PGB, n =10) and sham-operated group (Sham, n=10). EA and PGB were given from postoperative day (POD) 14 to 36. EA (2 Hz and 100 Hz alternating frequencies, intensities ranging from 1-1.5-2 mA) was applied to the left "zusanli" (ST36) and "Yanglingquan" (GB34) acupoints for 30 minutes. The mechanical withdrawal thresholds (MWTs) were tested with von Frey filaments. Moreover, the organizational and structural alterations of the bilateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, sciatic nerves and the thoracic, lumbar spinal cords and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) were examined via light and electron microscopy. Results: MWTs of left hind paw demonstrated a remarkable decrease in the SNI model (P < 0.05). In the SNI model, ultrastructural changes including demyelination and damaged neurons were observed at all levels of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). In addition, EA improved MWTs and restored the normal structure of neurons. However, the effect was not found in the PGB treatment group. Conclusion: Chronic pain can induce extensive damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Meanwhile, EA and PGB can both alleviate chronic pain syndromes in rats, but EA also restores the normal cellular structures, while PGB is associated with no improvement.

8.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555166

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of cold stress response, but its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF) family protein MdABI4 positively regulates ABA-mediated cold tolerance in apple. We found that MdABI4 interacts with MdICE1, a key regulatory protein involved in the cold stress response, and enhances the transcriptional function of MdICE1 on its downstream target gene MdCBF1, thus improving ABA-mediated cold tolerance. Apple jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 negatively modulate MdABI4-improved cold tolerance by interacting with the MdABI4 protein. Further research showed that MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 interfere with the interaction between the MdABI4 and MdICE1 proteins. Together, our data revealed that MdABI4 integrates jasmonic acid (JA) and ABA signals to delicately modulate cold tolerance through the JAZ-ABI4-ICE1-CBF regulatory cascade in apple. These findings will provide insights into the crosstalk between JA and ABA signals in the cold stress response.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108066, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492536

RESUMO

Severe acute lung injury (ALI) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ALI. We aimed to explore the role of miR-762, a known oncogenic factor, in the pathogenesis of ALI. Levels of miR-762 in lung tissues of LPS-treated ALI mice and blood cells of patients with lung injury were measured. Injury of human lung epithelial cell line A549 was induced by LPS stimulation. A downstream target of miR-762, NFIX, was predicted using online tools. Their interactions were validated by luciferase reporter assay. Effects of targeted regulation of the miR-762/NFIX axis on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses were tested in vitro in A549 cells in vivo with an ALI mouse model. We found that upregulation of miR-762 expression and downregulation of NFIX expression were associated with lung injury. Either miR-762 inhibition or NFIX overexpression in A549 lung cells significantly attenuated LPS-mediated impairment of cell proliferation and viability. Notably, increasing expressions of miR-762 inhibitor or NFIX in vivo via airway lentivirus infection alleviated the LPS-induced ALI in mice. Further, targeted downregulation of miR-762 expression or upregulation of NFIX expression in A549 cells markedly down-regulates NF-κB/IRF3 activation, and substantially reduces the production of inflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8. This study reveals a novel role for the miR-762/NFIX pathway in ALI pathogenesis and sheds new light on targeting this pathway for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy.

10.
Onco Targets Ther ; 14: 4879-4890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588782

RESUMO

Purpose: Cisplatin is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs but has limited therapeutic effects due to nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the possible renoprotective effect of the antioxidant raloxifene on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin-induced acute renal injury was established in female C57 mice that were treated with saline (normal control) or raloxifene over a 7-day period. The body weight of the mice was recorded. Histopathological examinations of the kidney tissues were performed using H&E, PAS staining and TEM. The histomorphology of liver and other organs was observed by H&E staining. The serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) were analyzed by specific kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activity, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidney, liver homogenates and HK-2 cells were measured by WST-8 and thiobarbituric acid colorimetric methods. Moreover, the mitochondrial structures of HK-2 cells were performed using TEM. The viability and proliferation of HK-2 cells were examined by CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 fluorescence. Results: Raloxifene significantly reduced the levels of serum creatinine, urea, ALT and AST in the cisplatin-treated mice, and alleviated cisplatin-induced renal and hepatic tissue injury. Furthermore, raloxifene also increased the activity of GSH and SOD in the renal tissues and HK-2 cells, and reduced MDA levels, thereby limiting oxidative stress in the kidney. Conclusion: Raloxifene protected against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by activating the antioxidant system, along with alleviating liver damage. It should be considered as a potential adjuvant in cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic protocols.

11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 390-399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404010

RESUMO

Various abiotic stressors, particularly drought stress, affect plant growth and yield. Zinc finger proteins play an important role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we isolated the apple MdZAT10 gene, a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis STZ/ZAT10. MdZAT10 was localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in leaves and fruit. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT10 contained several response elements and the transcription level of MdZAT10 was induced by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdZAT10 was responsive to drought treatment both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. MdZAT10-overexpressing apple calli decreased the expression level of MdAPX2 and increased sensitivity to PEG 6000 treatment. Moreover, ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis reduced the tolerance to drought stress, and exhibited higher water loss, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. In addition, MdZAT10 reduced the sensitivity to abscisic acid in apple. Ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis promoted seed germination and seedling growth. These results indicate that MdZAT10 plays a negative regulator in the drought resistance, which can provide theoretical basis for further molecular mechanism research.


Assuntos
Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2 , Malus , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(21): 5900-5908, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For parturients with paroxysmal uterine contraction pain, rapid analgesia is needed. We used preprocedure ultrasound imaging combined with the palpation technique in epidural analgesia for labor, and evaluated the usefulness of this technique in epidural labor analgesia. AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of preprocedure ultrasound imaging in epidural analgesia for labor. METHODS: In this prospective randomized observational study, 72 parturients were assigned to two groups (combined or palpation group). The target interspace of all parturients was first identified by the palpation technique. Then in the combined group, preprocedure ultrasound imaging was used before epidural puncture. In the palpation group, only the traditional anatomical landmarks technique (palpation technique) was performed. The primary outcome was total duration of the epidural procedure (for the ultrasound group, the duration of the preprocedure ultrasound imaging was included). The secondary outcomes were the number of skin punctures, the success rate at first needle pass, the number of needle passes, the depth from the skin to epidural space, and the complications of the procedure. RESULTS: Total duration of the epidural procedure was similar between the two groups (406.5 ± 92.15 s in the combined group and 380.03 ± 128.2 s in the palpation group; P = 0.318). A significant improvement was demonstrated for epidural puncture and catheterization in the combined group. The number of needle passes was 1.14 in the combined group and 1.72 in the palpation group (P = 0.001). The number of skin puncture sites was 1.20 in the combined group and 1.25 in the palpation group (P = 0.398). The success rate at first needle pass was 88.89% in the combined group and 66.67% in the palpation group (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the total duration of epidural procedures with preprocedure ultrasound imaging combined with the palpation technique was not longer than the traditional anatomical landmarks technique, which were performed by six experienced anesthesiologists in parturients with normal weights undergoing labor analgesia.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 728368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393804

RESUMO

Background: Although multiple metabolic pathways are involved in the initiation, progression, and therapy of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the tumor microenvironment (TME) for immune cell infiltration that is regulated by metabolic enzymes has not yet been characterized. Methods: 517 LUAD samples and 59 non-tumor samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database as the training cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Univariate Cox analysis were applied to screen the candidate metabolic enzymes for their role in relation to survival rate in LUAD patients. A prognostic metabolic enzyme signature, termed the metabolic gene risk score (MGRS), was established based on multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and was verified in an independent test cohort, GSE31210. In addition, we analyzed the immune cell infiltration characteristics in patients grouped by their Risk Score. Furthermore, the prognostic value of these four enzymes was verified in another independent cohort by immunohistochemistry and an optimized model of the metabolic-immune protein risk score (MIPRS) was constructed. Results: The MGRS model comprising 4 genes (TYMS, NME4, LDHA, and SMOX) was developed to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups. Patients with a high-risk score had a poor prognosis and exhibited activated carbon and nucleotide metabolism, both of which were associated with changes to TME immune cell infiltration characteristics. In addition, the optimized MIPRS model showed more accurate predictive power in prognosis of LUAD. Conclusion: Our study revealed an integrated metabolic enzyme signature as a reliable prognostic tool to accurately predict the prognosis of LUAD.

14.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 1893882, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239941

RESUMO

Multidimensional sleep trait, which is related to circadian rhythms closely, affects some cancers predominantly, while the relationship between sleep and lung cancer is rarely illustrated. We aimed to investigate whether sleep is causally associated with risk of lung cancer, through a two-sample Mendelian randomization study. The main analysis used publicly available GWAS summary data from two large consortia (UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium). Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was used to examine whether chronotype, getting up in the morning, sleep duration, nap during the day, or sleeplessness was causally associated with the risk of lung cancer. Additionally, multivariate MR analysis was also conducted to estimate the direct effects between sleep traits and lung cancer risks independent of smoking status including pack years of smoking or current tobacco smoking. There was no evidence of causal association between chronotype, getting up in the morning, or nap during the day and lung cancer. Sleeplessness was associated with higher risk of lung adenocarcinoma (odds ratio 5.75, 95% confidence intervals 2.12-15.65), while sleep duration played a protective role in lung cancer (0.46, 0.26-0.83). In multivariate MR analysis, sleeplessness and sleep duration remained to have similar results. In conclusion, we found robust evidence for effect of sleeplessness on lung adenocarcinoma risk and inconsistent evidence for a protective effect of sleep duration on lung cancer risk.

15.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1733-1745, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the utility of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study. A total of 60 non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected PJP patients and 134 patients diagnosed with non-PJP pneumonia were included. P. jirovecii and other co-pathogens identified by mNGS in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or blood samples were analyzed. Using clinical composite diagnosis as the reference standard, we compared the diagnostic performance of mNGS in PJP with conventional methods, including Gomori methenamine silver staining and serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan. Modifications of antimicrobial treatment for PJP patients after the report of mNGS results were also reviewed. RESULTS: mNGS reached a sensitivity of 100% in diagnosing PJP, which was remarkably higher than Gomori methenamine silver staining (25.0%) and serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (67.4%). The specificity of mNGS (96.3%) significantly surpassed serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (81.4%). Simultaneous mNGS of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood samples was performed in 21 out of 60 PJP patients, and it showed a concordance rate of 100% in detecting P. jirovecii. Besides, mNGS showed good performance in identifying co-pathogens of PJP patients, among which cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus were most commonly seen. Initial antimicrobial treatment was modified in 71.7% of PJP patients after the report of mNGS results. CONCLUSION: mNGS is a useful diagnostic tool with good performance for the diagnosis of PJP and the detection of co-pathogens. mNGS of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or blood samples is suggested in patients with presumptive diagnosis of PJP. Blood samples may be a good alternative to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for mNGS when bronchoscopic examination is not feasible.

16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(1): 100-105, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilation and curettage (D&C) is a basic, but important procedure with many applications in obstetrics and gynecology. Fractional D&C provides comprehensive sampling of the endocervix and subsequently the uterus. This study designs and validates a novel fractional D&C training simulator visualizing the intrauterine operation in real time and quantitatively assessing technical skills. METHOD: The fractional D&C training simulator, consisting of measurement hardware and visual software, can display the curette tip's trajectory and force in the uterus in real time. The simulator also presents assessment indices (the cervical coverage index, cervical overlap index, uterine coverage index, uterine overlap index) to indicate the completion degree and quality of surgical performance. EXPERIENCE: Seventy-five participants with three levels of D&C experience, including 26 novices, 24 intermediates, and 25 experts, were recruited to perform fractional D&C using the training simulator and asked to fill in a postprocedure questionnaire. All assessment indices of the novices were significantly lower than those of experienced surgeons (experts and intermediates) (P<.05). The simulator was highly regarded as a teaching tool and identified frequent areas of incomplete curettage even by experienced surgeons. CONCLUSION: The fractional D&C training simulator provides valuable visualized force-position feedback and quantitative evaluation and may be beneficial for surgical training.


Assuntos
Dilatação e Curetagem/educação , Avaliação Educacional , Feedback Formativo , Modelos Anatômicos , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
17.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 159, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193837

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) plays an important role in regulating leaf senescence. However, the molecular mechanisms of leaf senescence in apple (Malus domestica) remain elusive. In this study, we found that MdZAT10, a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor (TF) in apple, markedly accelerates leaf senescence and increases the expression of senescence-related genes. To explore how MdZAT10 promotes leaf senescence, we carried out liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening. We found that MdABI5 physically interacts with MdZAT10. MdABI5, an important positive regulator of leaf senescence, significantly accelerated leaf senescence in apple. MdZAT10 was found to enhance the transcriptional activity of MdABI5 for MdNYC1 and MdNYE1, thus accelerating leaf senescence. In addition, we found that MdZAT10 expression was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which accelerated JA-induced leaf senescence. We also found that the JA-responsive protein MdBT2 directly interacts with MdZAT10 and reduces its protein stability through ubiquitination and degradation, thereby delaying MdZAT10-mediated leaf senescence. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which MdZAT10 positively regulates JA-induced leaf senescence in apple.

18.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(8): 1737-1742, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165072

RESUMO

The authors present the clinical case of a 67-year-old man with severe insomnia for 5 years with an exacerbation about 1 year before consultation. He did not have enough concentration and energy for his daily work and developed depression and anxiety because of his excessive daytime sleepiness. During his insomniac state, a drug treatment provided partial relief, but the effects were not long-lasting. Consequently, the drug dosage increased, and major side effects gradually manifested. We decided to use a completely new therapeutic strategy for this patient to improve his sleep quality and mental symptoms. In time, the patient could stop oral medications and that is multimodal sleep. After the end of multimodal sleep, the patient typically experiences improvement in sleep quality and architecture. Additionally, the dosage of hypnotics used before multimodal sleep is discontinued without severe withdrawal symptoms. CITATION: Zhang J-F, Williams JP, Zhao Q-N, et al. Multimodal sleep, an innovation for treating chronic insomnia: case report and literature review. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(8):1737-1742.

19.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2087-2094, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079349

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of temporary ligation of the bilateral uterine arteries during laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy in the treatment of caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Patients and Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of 83 patients who had initially undergone laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy for CSP between 2012 and 2018 at Xiamen Women and Children's Hospital. Patients were assigned to the ligation group or the no ligation group according to whether they underwent temporary ligation of the bilateral uterine arteries. Factors extracted from the database included general preoperative information, surgical indicators (intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and blood transfusion), postoperative recovery indicators (ß-hCG on day 3 after surgery, time to ß-hCG normalization), and postoperative complications (decrease in menstrual bleeding, alteration in the menstrual cycle) and were compared between the two groups. Results: The intraoperative blood loss of patients in the ligation group was significantly less than that of patients in the no ligation group (P=0.027), especially in patients with higher serum ß-hCG level (P=0.030). No significant differences in the operation time, blood transfusion, decline ratio of hCG on day 3 after surgery, reduction in haemoglobin and haematocrit value, decrease in menstrual bleeding, or alteration in the menstrual cycle were observed between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: For CSP patients, temporary ligation of the bilateral uterine arteries during laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy achieved better clinical outcomes than laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy without ligation with respect to intraoperative blood loss. This approach offers effective and safe surgical management for CSP in clinical practice.

20.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(3): 885-889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104183

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the correlation between monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: In this retrospective study, 120 ACS patients who received PCI in our hospital from September 2014 to August 2019 were selected and divided into MACE group and normal discharge (ND) group. Their clinical data were collected, and MHR values were compared. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the correlations between various factors and ACS. The correlation between MHR and Gensini score was subjected to Pearson's analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to analyze the diagnostic value of MHR for MACE. Results: Hypertension degree, white cell count, Gensini score, MHR and the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), ApoB, lipoprotein (a) [LP(a)] and uric acid (UA) in MACE group were significantly higher than those in ND group (P<0.05). HDLC, ApoA1, TC, MHR, LDLC and ApoB were independent risk factors for MACE of ACS patients after PCI (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between MHR and Gensini score (r=0.832, P<0.05), and the optimal cutoff value of MHR for diagnosing MACE was 9.45. Conclusion: Serum MHR is positively correlated with Gensini score in ACS patients after PCI, which can be used as an independent predictor for MACE in hospital.

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