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1.
Plant J ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560993

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) induces chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. B-box (BBX) proteins play important roles in the modulation of leaf senescence, but the molecular mechanism of BBX proteins-mediated leaf senescence remains to be further studied. Here, we identified the BBX protein MdBBX37 as a positive regulator of JA-induced leaf senescence in apple. Further studies showed that MdBBX37 interacted with the senescence regulatory protein MdbHLH93 to enhance its transcriptional activation on the senescence-associated gene MdSAG18, thereby promoting leaf senescence. And the JA signaling repressor MdJAZ2 interacted with MdBBX37 and interfered with the interaction between MdBBX37 and MdbHLH93, thereby negatively mediating MdBBX37-promoted leaf senescence. In addition, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MdSINA3 delayed MdBBX37-promoted leaf senescence through targeting MdBBX37 for degradation. The MdJAZ2-MdBBX37-MdbHLH93-MdSAG18 and MdSINA3-MdBBX37 modules realized the precise modulation of JA on leaf senescence. In parallel, our data demonstrated that MdBBX37 was involved in abscisic acid (ABA)- and ethylene-mediated leaf senescence through interacting with the ABA signaling regulatory protein MdABI5 and ethylene signaling regulatory protein MdEIL1, respectively. Taken together, our results not only reveal the role of MdBBX37 as an integration node in JA-, ABA-, and ethylene-mediated leaf senescence, but also provide new insights into the post-translational modification of BBX proteins.

2.
Plant Physiol ; 188(4): 2342-2363, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983053

RESUMO

Light affects many physiological and developmental processes of plants by regulating the expression and activity of light-responsive proteins. Among them, phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and hypocotyl growth. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood, especially in woody plants, such as apple (Malus × domestica). In this study, we identified a light-responsive PIF protein, MdPIF7, in apple and investigated the molecular mechanism of its regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and hypocotyl growth. We found that overexpression of MdPIF7 decreased anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic apple materials and promoted hypocotyl elongation in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Further investigation showed that MdPIF7 functioned by interacting with B-box 23 (MdBBX23), a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple and hypocotyl growth inhibition in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis, and attenuating the transcriptional activation of MdBBX23 on LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (MdHY5). In addition, MdPIF7 interacted with basic region leucine zipper 44 (MdbZIP44) and ethylene response factor 38 (MdERF38), two positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and it negatively regulated MdbZIP44- and MdERF38-promoted anthocyanin accumulation by interfering with the interaction between MdbZIP44/MdERF38 and MdMYB1. Taken together, our results reveal that MdPIF7 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple and hypocotyl growth in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis through MdPIF7-MdBBX23-MdHY5 and MdPIF7-MdbZIP44/MdERF38-MdMYB1 modules. Our findings enrich the functional studies of PIF proteins and provide insights into the molecular mechanism of PIF-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis and hypocotyl growth.


Assuntos
Malus , Fitocromo , Proteínas de Plantas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hipocótilo , Malus/metabolismo , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
J Exp Bot ; 73(3): 980-997, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555166

RESUMO

Abscisic acid is involved in the regulation of cold stress response, but its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF) family protein MdABI4 positively regulates abscisic acid-mediated cold tolerance in apple. We found that MdABI4 interacts with MdICE1, a key regulatory protein involved in the cold stress response, and enhances the transcriptional regulatory function of MdICE1 on its downstream target gene MdCBF1, thus improving abscisic acid-mediated cold tolerance. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 negatively modulate MdABI4-improved cold tolerance in apple by interacting with the MdABI4 protein. Further investigation showed that MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 interfere with the interaction between the MdABI4 and MdICE1 proteins. Together, our data revealed that MdABI4 integrates jasmonic acid and abscisic acid signals to precisely modulate cold tolerance in apple through the JAZ-ABI4-ICE1-CBF regulatory cascade. These findings provide insights into the crosstalk between jasmonic acid and abscisic acid signals in response to cold stress.


Assuntos
Malus , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 390-399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404010

RESUMO

Various abiotic stressors, particularly drought stress, affect plant growth and yield. Zinc finger proteins play an important role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we isolated the apple MdZAT10 gene, a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis STZ/ZAT10. MdZAT10 was localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in leaves and fruit. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT10 contained several response elements and the transcription level of MdZAT10 was induced by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdZAT10 was responsive to drought treatment both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. MdZAT10-overexpressing apple calli decreased the expression level of MdAPX2 and increased sensitivity to PEG 6000 treatment. Moreover, ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis reduced the tolerance to drought stress, and exhibited higher water loss, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. In addition, MdZAT10 reduced the sensitivity to abscisic acid in apple. Ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis promoted seed germination and seedling growth. These results indicate that MdZAT10 plays a negative regulator in the drought resistance, which can provide theoretical basis for further molecular mechanism research.


Assuntos
Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2 , Malus , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 159, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193837

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) plays an important role in regulating leaf senescence. However, the molecular mechanisms of leaf senescence in apple (Malus domestica) remain elusive. In this study, we found that MdZAT10, a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor (TF) in apple, markedly accelerates leaf senescence and increases the expression of senescence-related genes. To explore how MdZAT10 promotes leaf senescence, we carried out liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening. We found that MdABI5 physically interacts with MdZAT10. MdABI5, an important positive regulator of leaf senescence, significantly accelerated leaf senescence in apple. MdZAT10 was found to enhance the transcriptional activity of MdABI5 for MdNYC1 and MdNYE1, thus accelerating leaf senescence. In addition, we found that MdZAT10 expression was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which accelerated JA-induced leaf senescence. We also found that the JA-responsive protein MdBT2 directly interacts with MdZAT10 and reduces its protein stability through ubiquitination and degradation, thereby delaying MdZAT10-mediated leaf senescence. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which MdZAT10 positively regulates JA-induced leaf senescence in apple.

6.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1127-1139, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973072

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to mediate ABA response. The plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonistically regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. However, the association between BR and ABA signaling is less clear. Here, we identified MdBZR1 in apple (Malus domestica) and demonstrated that it was activated by BRs and could respond to ABA treatment. Overexpression of MdBZR1 in apple calli and Arabidopsis reduced ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that MdBZR1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Subsequently, we found that MdBZR1 directly bound to the promoter region of MdABI5 and suppressed its expression. MdABI5 was significantly induced by ABA treatment. And overexpression of MdABI5 in apple calli increased sensitivity to ABA. Ectopic expression of MdABI5 in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. In addition, overexpression of MdBZR1 partially attenuated MdABI5-mediated ABA sensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to antagonistically mediate ABA response. Our work contributes to the functional studies of BZR1 and further broadens the insight into the between BR and ABA signaling.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Salino/genética
7.
Plant J ; 106(5): 1414-1430, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759251

RESUMO

Jasmonate (JA) induces the biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. MdMYB9 is essential for modulating the accumulation of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apple, but the molecular mechanism for induction of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by JA is unclear. In this study, we discovered an apple telomere-binding protein (MdTRB1) to be the interacting protein of MdMYB9. A series of biological assays showed that MdTRB1 acted as a positive modulator of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation, and is dependent on MdMYB9. MdTRB1 interacted with MdMYB9 and enhanced the activation activity of MdMYB9 to its downstream genes. In addition, we found that the JA signaling repressor MdJAZ1 interacted with MdTRB1 and interfered with the interaction between MdTRB1 and MdMYB9, therefore negatively modulating MdTRB1-promoted biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. These results show that the JAZ1-TRB1-MYB9 module dynamically modulates JA-mediated accumulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. Taken together, our data further expand the functional study of TRB1 and provide insights for further studies of the modulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by JA.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus/genética , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
8.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(1): 216-233, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051890

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) is shown to induce leaf senescence. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood, especially in woody plants such as fruit trees. In this study, we are interested in exploring the biological role of MdBT2 in JA-mediated leaf senescence. We found that MdBT2 played an antagonistic role in MdMYC2-promoted leaf senescence. Our results revealed that MdBT2 interacted with MdMYC2 and accelerated its ubiquitination degradation, thus negatively regulated MdMYC2-promoted leaf senescence. In addition, MdBT2 acted as a stabilizing factor to improve the stability of MdJAZ2 through direct interaction, thereby inhibited JA-mediated leaf senescence. Furthermore, our results also showed that MdBT2 interacted with a subset of JAZ proteins in apple, including MdJAZ1, MdJAZ3, MdJAZ4 and MdJAZ8. Our investigations provide new insight into molecular mechanisms of JA-modulated leaf senescence. The dynamic JA-MdBT2-MdJAZ2-MdMYC2 regulatory module plays an important role in JA-modulated leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Arabidopsis , Clorofila/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Ubiquitinação
9.
New Phytol ; 229(5): 2707-2729, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119890

RESUMO

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the cold stress response, and the inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1)- C-repeat binding factor (CBF) regulatory cascade plays a key role in the regulation of cold stress tolerance. In this study, we showed that a novel B-box (BBX) protein MdBBX37 positively regulates JA-mediated cold-stress resistance in apple. We found that MdBBX37 bound to the MdCBF1 and MdCBF4 promoters to activate their transcription, and also interacted with MdICE1 to enhance the transcriptional activity of MdICE1 on MdCBF1, thus promoting its cold tolerance. Two JA signaling repressors, MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 (JAZ, JAZMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN), interacted with MdBBX37 to repress the transcriptional activity of MdBBX37 on MdCBF1 and MdCBF4, and also interfered with the interaction between MdBBX37 and MdICE1, thus negatively regulating JA-mediated cold tolerance. E3 ligase MdMIEL1 (MIEL1, MYB30-Interacting E3 Ligase1) reduced MdBBX37-improved cold resistance by mediating ubiquitination and degradation of the MdBBX37 protein. The data reveal that MIEL1 and JAZ proteins co-regulate JA-mediated cold stress tolerance through the BBX37-ICE1-CBF module in apple. These results will aid further examination of the post-translational modification of BBX proteins and the regulatory mechanism of JA-mediated cold stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Malus , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ciclopentanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/fisiologia , Oxilipinas , Ubiquitinação
10.
J Exp Bot ; 72(4): 1460-1472, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159793

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in many plant species. However, the molecular mechanism of ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis remains unclear. As a crucial regulator of ABA signaling, ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) is involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, yet its regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that MdABI5, the apple homolog of Arabidopsis ABI5, positively regulated ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. A series of biochemical tests showed that MdABI5 specifically interacts with basic helix-loop-helix 3 (MdbHLH3), a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. MdABI5 enhanced the binding of MdbHLH3 to its target genes dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (MdDFR) and UDP flavonoid glucosyl transferase (MdUF3GT). In addition, MdABI5 directly bound to the promoter of MdbHLH3 to activate its expression. Moreover, MdABI5 enhanced ABA-promoted interaction between MdMYB1 and MdbHLH3. Finally, antisense suppression of MdbHLH3 significantly reduced anthocyanin biosynthesis promoted by MdABI5, indicating that MdABI5-promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis was dependent on MdbHLH3. Taken together, our data suggest that MdABI5 plays a positive role in ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis by modulating the MdbHLH3-MdMYB1 complex. Our work broadens the regulatory network of ABA-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis, providing new insights to further study the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms behind this process.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Malus , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
11.
Plant J ; 105(6): 1566-1581, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314379

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) induces chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence; however, the molecular mechanism remains poorly understood, especially in woody plants. In this study, we found that MdABI5 plays an essential role in the regulation of ABA-triggered leaf senescence in Malus domestica (apple). Through yeast screening, three transcription factors, MdBBX22, MdWRKY40 and MdbZIP44, were found to interact directly with MdABI5 in vitro and in vivo. Physiological and biochemical assays showed that MdBBX22 delayed leaf senescence in two pathways. First, MdBBX22 interacted with MdABI5 to inhibit the transcriptional activity of MdABI5 on the chlorophyll catabolic genes MdNYE1 and MdNYC1, thus negatively regulating chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. Second, MdBBX22 interacted with MdHY5 to interfere with the transcriptional activation of MdHY5 on MdABI5, thereby inhibiting the expression of MdABI5, which also contributed to the delay of leaf senescence. MdWRKY40 and MdbZIP44 were identified as positive regulators of leaf senescence. They accelerated MdABI5-promoted leaf senescence through the same regulatory pathways, i.e., interacting with MdABI5 to enhance the transcriptional activity of MdABI5 on MdNYE1 and MdNYC1. Taken together, our results suggest that MdABI5 works with its positive or negative interaction partners to regulate ABA-mediated leaf senescence in apple, in which it acts as a core regulator. The antagonistic regulation pathways ensure that plants respond to external stresses flexibly and efficiently. Our results provide a concept for further study on the regulation mechanisms of leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
12.
Plant Sci ; 297: 110526, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563464

RESUMO

The accumulation of iron (Fe) in the apical meristem is considered as a critical factor involved in limiting the elongation of roots under low phosphate (Pi) conditions. Furthermore, the antagonism between Fe and Pi largely affects the effective utilization of Fe. Although the lack of Pi serves to increase the effectiveness of Fe in rice under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions, the underlying physiological mechanism governing this phenomenon is still unclear. In this study, we found that low Pi alleviated the Fe-deficiency phenotype in apples. Additionally, low Pi treatments increased ferric-chelated reductase (FCR) activity in the rhizosphere, promoted proton exocytosis, and enhanced the Fe concentration in both the roots and shoots. In contrast, high Pi treatments inhibited this process. Under conditions of low Pi, malate and citrate exudation from apple roots occurred under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. In addition, treatment with 0.5 mM malate and citrate effectively alleviated the Fe and Pi deficiencies. Taken together, these data support the conclusion that a low Pi supply promotes organic acids exudation and enhances Fe absorption during Fe deficiency in apples.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rizosfera , Transcriptoma
13.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 62(11): 1643-1646, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298027

RESUMO

BT2 is a BTB/TAZ domain protein with key roles in multiple stress responses and the plant development of Arabidopsis (Figueroa et al. 2005; Ren et al. 2007; Mandadi et al. 2009). Recent studies have demonstrated that apple MdBT2 functions as a negative regulator in diverse hormonal and environmental signal-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, suggesting that MdBT2 integrates stress signals and anthocyanin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
J Exp Bot ; 71(10): 3094-3109, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996900

RESUMO

Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating (TCP) transcription factors play a broad role in plant growth and development, but their involvement in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is currently unclear. In this study, anthocyanin biosynthesis induced by different light intensities in apple (Malus domestica) was found to be largely dependent on the functions of the MdMYB1 and MdTCP46 transcription factors. The expression of MdTCP46 was responsive to high light intensity, and under these conditions it promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis by direct interactions with MdMYB1 that enhanced the binding of the latter to its target genes. MdTCP46 also interacted with a bric-a-brac/tramtrack/broad (BTB) protein, MdBT2, that is responsive to high light intensity, which ubiquitinated MdTCP46 and mediated its degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic regulatory module MdBT2-MdTCP46-MdMYB1 plays a key role in modulating anthocyanin biosynthesis at different light intensities in apple, and provides new insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of TCP proteins.


Assuntos
Malus , Antocianinas , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 61(1): 130-143, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550006

RESUMO

As an important environment factor, light affects plant growth and development throughout life. B-BOX (BBX) proteins play key roles in the regulation of light signaling. Although the multiple roles of BBX proteins have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis, the research in apple is much less extensive. In this study, we systematically characterized the negative role of an apple BBX protein MdBBX37 in light signaling, including inhibiting anthocyanin biosynthesis and promoting hypocotyl elongation. We found that MdBBX37 interacted with MdMYB1 and MdMYB9, two key positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and inhibited the binding of those two proteins to their target genes and, therefore, negatively regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, MdBBX37 directly bound to the promoter of MdHY5, a positive regulator of light signaling, and suppressed its expression, and thus relieved MdHY5-mediated hypocotyl inhibition. Taken together, our investigations suggest that MdBBX37 is a negative regulator of light signaling in apple. Our study will provide reference for further study on the functions of BBX proteins in apple.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Genes de Plantas , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte , Ritmo Circadiano , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(2): 337-353, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250952

RESUMO

MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in plant growth and development through interaction with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs. MdbHLH33, an apple bHLH TF, has been identified as a positive regulator in cold tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation by activating the expressions of MdCBF2 and MdDFR. In the present study, a MYB TF MdMYB308L was found to also positively regulate cold tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation in apple. We found that MdMYB308L interacted with MdbHLH33 and enhanced its binding to the promoters of MdCBF2 and MdDFR. In addition, an apple RING E3 ubiquitin ligase MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MdMIEL1) was identified to be an MdMYB308L-interacting protein and promoted the ubiquitination degradation of MdMYB308L, thus negatively regulated cold tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation in apple. These results suggest that MdMYB308L acts as a positive regulator in cold tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation in apple by interacting with MdbHLH33 and undergoes MdMIEL1-mediated protein degradation. The dynamic change in MYB-bHLH protein complex seems to play a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Antocianinas , Malus , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/enzimologia , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
17.
Plant J ; 101(3): 573-589, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571281

RESUMO

Drought stress induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in many plant species, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play key roles in plant growth and various stress responses, including affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we characterized an ERF protein, MdERF38, which is involved in drought stress-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Biochemical and molecular analyses showed that MdERF38 interacted with MdMYB1, a positive modulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and facilitated the binding of MdMYB1 to its target genes. Therefore, MdERF38 promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to drought stress. Furthermore, we found that MdBT2, a negative modulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, decreased MdERF38-promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis by accelerating the degradation of the MdERF38 protein. In summary, our data provide a mechanism for drought stress-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis that involves dynamic modulation of MdERF38 at both transcriptional and post-translational levels.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Malus/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Secas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
New Phytol ; 224(1): 380-395, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225908

RESUMO

Wounding stress leads to anthocyanin accumulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, MdWRKY40 was found to promote wounding-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in association with MdMYB1 and undergo MdBT2-mediated degradation in apple. We found that MdMYB1, a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, was essential for the wounding-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple. MdWRKY40 was identified as an MdMYB1-interacting protein, and enhanced the binding of MdMYB1 to its target genes in response to wounding. We found that MdBT2 interacted physically with MdWRKY40 and was involved in its degradation through the 26S proteasome pathway. Our results demonstrate that MdWRKY40 is a key modulator in the wounding-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, which provides new insights into the regulation of wounding-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels in apple.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estabilidade Proteica , Ativação Transcricional/genética
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