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1.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(3): 635-644, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645096

RESUMO

A reduction in sucrose preference is a key characteristic of depressive-like behaviors after spinal cord injury as judged by the sucrose preference test, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Male rats were divided into three groups: control, sham and spinal cord injury groups. The spinal cord injury rats received a severe mid-thoracic contusion. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score was used to assess motor function. The sucrose preference test and forced swim test were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors. Serum corticosterone levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor levels were examined by Western blot to evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed by testing hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin receptor kinase B levels by Western blot and doublecortin levels by immunohistochemistry. Data showed that spinal cord injury impaired motor function. The spinal cord injury rats exhibited decreased sucrose preference on day six, which continued to decrease until day twelve, followed by a plateau phase. Additionally, the immobility time of the spinal cord injury rats was increased on day thirty-four. Moreover, serum corticosterone levels in the spinal cord injury group peaked on day seven, was decreased by day twenty-one and was increased again on day thirty-five. Serum corticosterone levels were significantly negatively correlated with sucrose preference and positively correlated with immobility time. Finally, hippocampal doublecortin levels on days twenty-one and thirty-five were lower in the spinal cord injury group than in the other groups. These results suggest that hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the inhibition of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be part of the underlying mechanism responsible for depressive-like behaviors after spinal cord injury.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 704, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) is higher in obese patients undergoing general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation due to the reduction of oxygen reserve, functional residual capacity, and lung compliance. Individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (iPEEP) along with other lung-protective strategies is effective in alleviating postoperative atelectasis. Here, we compared the best static lung compliance (Cstat) titration of iPEEP with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) titration to observe their effects on postoperative atelectasis in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: A total number of 140 obese patients with BMI ≥ 32.5kg/m2 undergoing elective laparoscopic gastric volume reduction and at moderate to high risk of developing PPCs will be enrolled and randomized into the optimal static lung compliance-directed iPEEP group and EIT titration iPEEP group. The primary endpoint will be pulmonary atelectasis measured and calculated by EIT immediately after extubation and 2 h after surgery. Secondary endpoints will be intraoperative oxygenation index, organ dysfunction, incidence of PPCs, hospital expenses, and length of hospital stay. DISCUSSION: Many iPEEP titration methods effective for normal weight patients may not be appropriate for obese patients. Although EIT-guided iPEEP titration is effective in obese patients, its high price and complexity limit its application in many clinical facilities. This trial will test the efficacy of iPEEP via the optimal static lung compliance-guided titration procedure by comparing it with EIT-guided PEEP titration. The results of this trial will provide a feasible and convenient method for anesthesiologists to set individualized PEEP for obese patients during laparoscopic surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ChiCTR2000039144 . Registered on October 19, 2020.


Assuntos
Atelectasia Pulmonar , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial
3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 693879, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594264

RESUMO

Impaired decision-making has been observed in suicide attempters during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Decision-making performance is influenced by somatic markers and explicit knowledge, but it is still unclear of the influencing role on decision-making performance in suicidal individuals. We aimed to investigate whether there is a decision-making deficit in suicide attempters, suicide ideators, as well as the distinct roles of somatic markers and explicit knowledge wherein. Thirteen suicide attempters, 23 suicide ideators, and 19 healthy controls performed the IGT. Both somatic markers (by the skin conductance responses, SCRs) and explicit knowledge (by the subjective experience rating and a list of questions) were recorded. No significant differences were found among the three groups on IGT performance, explicit knowledge, and anticipatory SCRs. IGT Performance of suicide attempters was positively correlated with explicit knowledge index while behavior performance was positively associated with the SCRs in healthy controls. These results indicate that the suicide attempters seem to apply a compensatory strategy by mostly utilizing explicit knowledge to perform normally as healthy controls in the IGT.

4.
Tob Control ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mentholated tobacco cigarettes are believed to be more addictive than non-menthol ones. Packaging of most menthol cigarette brands includes distinctive green hues, which may act as conditioned stimuli (ie, cues) and promote menthol smoking. To examine the cue properties of menthol cigarette packaging, we used a priming paradigm to assess the effect of packaging on the neural substrates of smoking cue reactivity. We hypothesised that menthol packaging will exert a specific priming effect potentiating smoking cue reactivity in menthol compared with non-menthol smokers. METHODS: Forty-two menthol and 33 non-menthol smokers underwent functional MRI while viewing smoking and neutral cues. The cues were preceded (ie, primed) by briefly presented images of menthol or non-menthol cigarette packages. Participants reported craving for cigarettes in response to each cue. RESULTS: Menthol packaging induced greater frontostriatal and occipital smoking cue reactivity in menthol smokers than in non-menthol smokers. Menthol packaging also enhanced the mediation by neural activity of the relationship between cue exposure and cigarette craving in menthol but not non-menthol smokers. Dynamic causal modelling showed stronger frontostriatal-occipital connectivity in response to menthol packaging in menthol compared with non-menthol smokers. The effects of non-menthol packaging did not differ between categories of smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate heightened motivational and perceptual salience of the green-hued menthol cigarette packaging that may exacerbate menthol smokers' susceptibility to smoking cues. These effects could contribute to the greater addiction severity among menthol smokers and could be considered in the development of science-based regulation and legal review of tobacco product marketing practices.

5.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687402

RESUMO

Impaired sensorimotor circuits have been suggested in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). NRXN1, highly expressed in cortex and cerebellum, was one of the candidate risk genes for ADHD, while its effects on sensorimotor circuits are unclear. In this content, we aimed to investigate the differential brain effects as functions of the cumulative genetic effects of NRXN1 variants in ADHD and healthy controls (HCs), identifying a potential pathway mapping from NRXN1, sensorimotor circuits, to ADHD. Magnetic resonance imaging, blood samples and clinical assessments were acquired from 53 male ADHD and 46 sex-matched HCs simultaneously. The effects of the cumulative genetic effects of NRXN1 variants valued by poly-variant risk score (PRS), on brain function was measured by resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of cerebrocerebellar circuits. Mediation analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between NRXN1, functional abnormality, and ADHD diagnosis, as well as ADHD symptoms. The results were validated by bootstrapping and 10,000 times permutation tests. The rs-FC analyses demonstrated significant mediation models for ADHD diagnosis, and emphasized the involvement of cerebellum, middle cingulate gyrus and temporal gyrus, which are crucial parts of sensorimotor circuits. The current study suggested NRXN1 conferred risk for ADHD by regulating the function of sensorimotor circuits.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678050

RESUMO

Introduction: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health crisis worldwide. Patients with OUD inevitably experience withdrawal symptoms when they attempt to taper down on their current opioid use, abstain completely from opioids, or attempt to transition to certain medications for opioid use disorder. Acute opioid withdrawal can be debilitating and include a range of symptoms such as anxiety, pain, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Whereas acute opioid withdrawal only lasts for 1-2 weeks, protracted withdrawal symptoms can persist for months after the cessation of opioids. Insufficient management of opioid withdrawal often leads to devastating results including treatment failure, relapse, and overdose. Thus, there is a critical need for cost-effective, nonopioid medications, with minimal side effects to help in the medical management of opioid withdrawal syndrome. We discuss the potential consideration of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating component of the cannabis plant, as an adjunctive treatment in managing the opioid withdrawal syndrome. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was performed using keywords related to CBD and opioid withdrawal syndrome in PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 144 abstracts were identified, and 41 articles were selected where CBD had been evaluated in clinical studies relevant to opioid withdrawal. Results: CBD has been reported to have several therapeutic properties including anxiolytic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, analgesic, as well as reduction of cue-induced craving for opioids, all of which are highly relevant to opioid withdrawal syndrome. In addition, CBD has been shown in several clinical trials to be a well-tolerated with no significant adverse effects, even when co-administered with a potent opioid agonist. Conclusions: Growing evidence suggests that CBD could potentially be added to the standard opioid detoxification regimen to mitigate acute or protracted opioid withdrawal-related symptoms. However, most existing findings are either based on preclinical studies and/or small clinical trials. Well-designed, prospective, randomized-controlled studies evaluating the effect of CBD on managing opioid withdrawal symptoms are warranted.

7.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549900

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Heat syndrome (HS) and cold syndrome (CS) are two main syndrome types of pediatric CAP in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study aimed to identify plasma metabolic profiles in pediatric CAP and to further select potential biomarkers to distinguish between HS and CS. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry method was applied to plasma samples of 296 patients and 55 healthy controls (HC). The samples were divided into the discovery group (n = 213, HS = 160, CS = 23, HC = 30) and the validation group (n = 138, HS = 93, CS = 20, HC = 25). The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis, the value of fold change, and Kruskal-Wallis test with false discovery rate correction (q-value <0.05) were applied to identify differential plasma metabolites. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the screened metabolites. The results showed that the plasma levels of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, arginine, lysoPC20:1, lysoPE16:0, lysoPE18:0, and PE (16:0_22:6) were increased in CS compared with HC. The plasma levels of PC (18:1_18:1), PC (20:4_20:4), PE (16:0_18:2), lysoPE20:4, lysoPE18:2, and lysoPE22:6 were decreased, whereas, the plasma level of ceramide (d18:1_24:1) was increased in HS compared with HC. There were 13 differential metabolites in CS (AUC = 0.995) and 15 differential metabolites in HS (AUC = 0.954), compared with HC. A panel of seven biomarkers, including LysoPC20:1, lysoPE16:0, lysoPE18:2, lysoPE20:4, lysoPE22:6, PC (18:1_18:1), and PC (20:4_20:4) showed good discrimination between HS and CS with an AUC of 0.982. Altered plasma amino acids and lipids may provide an objective basis for TCM syndrome differentiation in pediatric CAP.

8.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1138, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504584

RESUMO

Periplaneta americana (PA) extract acts clinically as a therapeutic treatment in various diseases; it enhances liver function in mouse models and mitigates the pathological condition of liver fibrosis. The present study aimed to investigate the role and potential mechanisms underlying the action of the PA extract, xinmailong (XML), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. Following the treatment of AML12 cells with LPS, the content of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, and the level of ATP synthesis were detected using corresponding kits. The relative mRNA expression levels of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and transcription factor A, mitochondrial were investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative (RT-q)PCR analysis. The MTT assay was performed to detect the viability of AML12 cells following treatment with XML, in the absence or presence of LPS. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of proteins in the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Following treatment with compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined using ELISA and RT-qPCR analysis. The levels of oxidative stress-related markers were detected using corresponding kits following treatment with compound C. In addition, TUNEL staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of AML12 cells, and western blot analysis was performed to investigate the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced by LPS in AML12 cells. LPS stimulation significantly downregulated the expression of proteins in the AMPK/PGC-1α pathway, which was reversed following treatment with XML. In addition, inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by LPS were alleviated by XML in AML12 cells. However, the addition of compound C and XML to LPS-induced AML12 cells resulted in the aggravation of cell injury. Collectively, the results of the present study indicated that XML suppressed mitochondrial dysfunction induced by LPS by activating AMPK/PGC-1α signaling. Thus, the results of the present study may contribute to further understanding of the underlying mechanism via which XML alleviates liver injury.

9.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 1029-35, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) with the involvement of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase2a (SERCA2a)/phospholamban (PLB) on the synergistic and attenuated effect of aconitine for heart failure. METHODS: Thirty SPF-ranked SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an EA group, an aconitine group and an EA plus aconitine group, with 6 rats in each group. The rat model of acute heart failure was established by infusion of high-dose propranolol hydrochloride solution into the right femoral vein. After stabilized for 10 min in the modeled rats, EA was exerted at "Neiguan" (PC 6), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency, 3 mA in intensity, for 30 min in the EA group and the EA plus aconitine group; aconitine solution (10 µg/kg) was injected from the left femoral veins in the rats in the aconitine group and the EA plus aconitine group. Hemodynamic indexes such as the left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the maximum rate of increase/decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax) were detected and arrhythmia types were observed and scored. SERCA2a protein and PLB protein expressions in left ventricular myocardial tissue of rats were detected by multiplex fluorescence Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, LVSP and ±dp/dtmax all were decreased after modeling and at each time point after intervention in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, ±dp/dtmax was increased in the aconitine group and the EA group at 1 min after intervention (P<0.01, P<0.05), +dp/dtmax was increased at 10 to 60 min after intervention in the aconitine group and at 20 to 60 min after intervention in the EA group (P<0.01, P<0.05), LVSP was increased at 1 min after intervention in the EA group (P<0.01), while LVSP and ±dp/dtmax were all increased at 1 to 60 min after intervention in the EA plus aconitine group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the aconitine group, LVSP and +dp/dtmax were increased at 1 min after intervention in the EA group (P<0.01, P<0.05), LVSP and ±dp/dtmax at 1 min after intervention while +dp/dtmax at 20 to 60 min after intervention were all increased in the EA plus aconitine group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the EA group, +dp/dtmax was higher at 10 to 60 min after intervention in the EA plus aconitine group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, arrhythmia score was higher in the aconitine group (P<0.01). Compared with the aconitine group, arrhythmia score was lower in the EA group and the EA plus aconitine group (P<0.01). As compared with the control group, the expression of SERCA2a protein in the left ventricular cardiomyocytes was decreased (P<0.01), while the expression of PLB protein was increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression of SERCA2a protein was increased in both the EA group and the EA plus aconitine group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and PLB protein expression was decreased in each intervention group respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). As compared with the EA group and the aconitine group, the expression of SERCA2a protein was increased and the expression of PLB protein was decreased in the EA plus aconitine group separately (P<0.05, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The intervention with electroacupuncture achieves the synergism/ attenuation effect of aconitine for the improvements in heart failure probably by up-regulating the expression of SERCA2a and down-regulating the expression of PLB in myocardial tissue.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Aconitina , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(9): 887-90, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569218

RESUMO

Recurrent anterior dislocation of shoulder with bone defect is one of the common diseases of shoulder joint. How to effectively repair glenoid bone defect and reduce recurrence rate of shoulder dislocation is a problem that clinicians focus on. Bone grafting could stimulate bone, promote bone regeneration and bone remodeling, and restore the normal anatomical structure of glenoid. Among them, Bristow-Latarjet procedure is a classic operation for recurrent shoulder dislocation. Latarjet procedure could repair larger glenoid bone defects, but with higher surgical skills for surgeons;autogenous iliac grafting is the first choice for revision once Latarjet procedure failed;osteochondral grafting (autogenous and allogenous) has certain advantages in reconstructing original articular surface and preventing joint degeneration, but autologous osteochondral grafting may cause secondary injury, while immune rejection is difficult to avoid for allogenous osteochondral grafting. With the improvement of composite materials, and the mechanism of bone regeneration and remodeling, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of bone grafting, tissue engineering technology may become an effective method for the treatment of glenoid bone defect in the future.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular , Luxação do Ombro , Articulação do Ombro , Transplante Ósseo , Humanos , Recidiva , Ombro , Luxação do Ombro/cirurgia
11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584229

RESUMO

Mental disorders are highly comorbid and occur together with physical diseases, which are often considered to arise from separate pathogenic pathways. We observed in alcohol-dependent patients increased serum activity of neutral sphingomyelinase. A genetic association analysis in 456,693 volunteers found associations of haplotypes of SMPD3 coding for NSM-2 (NSM) with alcohol consumption, but also with affective state, and bone mineralisation. Functional analysis in mice showed that NSM controls alcohol consumption, affective behaviour, and their interaction by regulating hippocampal volume, cortical connectivity, and monoaminergic responses. Furthermore, NSM controlled bone-brain communication by enhancing osteocalcin signalling, which can independently supress alcohol consumption and reduce depressive behaviour. Altogether, we identified a single gene source for multiple pathways originating in the brain and bone, which interlink disorders of a mental-physical co-morbidity trias of alcohol abuse-depression/anxiety-bone disorder. Targeting NSM and osteocalcin signalling may, thus, provide a new systems approach in the treatment of a mental-physical co-morbidity trias.

12.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573980

RESUMO

Vascular occlusion is a rare but severe complication of dermal filler injections. Early treatment of this complication produces better outcomes. Current diagnostic methods for vascular occlusion in the skin are subjective and imprecise; these include capillary refill time, skin color, and reports of pain. This study aimed to assess the use of laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in the evaluation and treatment of vascular complications caused by dermal filler injections. This retrospective study used laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in 13 patients who developed vascular occlusion after facial dermal filler injections, with subsequent follow-up. The precise areas of perfusion observed on LDI were compared with the findings of clinical and photographic evaluation. The results showed that LDI accurately identified areas of vascular occlusion and improved treatment precision among these thirteen patients. The procedure was more precise than visual inspection or photographic evidence. Satisfactory outcomes were achieved for all patients, and no procedure-related complications were reported. Collectively, LDI provides fast, noninvasive, and accurate delineation of areas of vascular occlusion caused by complications of dermal filler injections and avoids several subjective shortcomings of visual and photographic evaluations. Thus, LDI effectively tracks treatment outcomes. However, large-scale studies are required to confirm the present findings.

13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 118: 303-312, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481088

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) plays a role in the antioxidant capacity and immunity of aquatic animals. A twelve-week feeding experiment was performed to estimate the impact of dietary zinc on antioxidant enzyme-related gene expression, antioxidant enzyme activity and non-specific immune functions of soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. Six fishmeal-based experimental diets with 32.45% protein were formulated, which contained 35.43, 46.23, 55.38, 66.74, 75.06 and 85.24 mg/kg Zn, respectively. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels improved with an elevation in dietary Zn from 35.43 to 55.38 mg/kg and then reduced when dietary Zn was further elevated. The expression levels of Nrf2 and antioxidant-related genes CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPX1, GPX2, GPX3 and GPX4 escalated with elevating Zn concentration up to 55.38 mg/kg in diets and then reduced as dietary Zn elevated. The expression levels of Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1 (keap1) showed a reverse trend with that of Nrf2. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the 55.38 and 66.74 mg/kg Zn diet-fed groups were the lowest. Alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP), superoxide anion (O2-), lysozyme activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) improved with an escalation in dietary Zn concentration up to 66.74 mg/kg. Optimal dietary Zn improved antioxidant capability, immunity, and antioxidant enzyme-related gene expression. The dietary Zn demand for soft-shelled turtles were 60.93 and 61.63 mg/kg, based on second regression analysis of SOD and T-AOC activity, respectively.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465137

RESUMO

Yunnan is the first place where HIV-1 became prevalent in China, and it is also the place with the most complicated HIV-1 genetic diversity in China. On October 23, 2019, a patient newly diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from a hospital in Baosan, Yunnan, was recruited for genetic analysis. Near full-length genome of HIV-1 was amplified from the plasma sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this sequence (BS6F24) has a close relationship with CRF86_BC and a unique recombinant form (KY406739), which was formed by recombination of subtypes B and C. Bootscan analysis confirmed that the first part (HXB2:1022-5832) and last part (HXB2:5833-9120) genomes of BS6F24 had the same recombinant structures as KY406739 and CRF86_BC, respectively. A second-generation recombinant form that originated from CRF86_BC and a unique recombinant form were reported for the first time. This indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Yunnan, China.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1741-1752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have demonstrated an association between low and high body mass index (BMI) and an increased risk of dementia. However, only a few of these studies were performed in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between BMI and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults from rural and urban areas. METHODS: 8,221 older persons enrolled in the Hubei Memory & Ageing Cohort Study (HMACS) were recruited. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data, comorbidities, physical measurements, and clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the associations of BMI categories with cognitive impairment. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to test whether reverse causality could influence our results. RESULTS: Being underweight in the rural-dwelling participants increased the risk of cognitive impairment. Being overweight was a protective factor in rural-dwelling participants aged 65-69 years and 75-79 years, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (OR, 1.37; 95% CI: 1.03-1.83; p < 0.05). Sensitivity analyses support that underweight had an additive effect on the odds of cognitive impairment and was related to risk of dementia. Interaction test revealed that the differences between urban/rural in the relationship between BMI and cognitive impairment are statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Associations between BMI and cognitive impairment differ among urban/rural groups. Older people with low BMI living in rural China are at a higher risk for dementia than those living in urban areas.

16.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369654

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), emerging as a new type of non-coding RNAs, play important roles in cancers. Instead, the functions and mechanisms of circ_0011385 in cervical cancer (CC) are still inconclusive. Microarray data GSE102686 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and were utilized to screen out circRNAs differently expressed in CC tissues. Circ_0011385, miR-149-5p, SRY-box transcription factor 4 (SOX4) mRNA expressions in CC tissues and cells were probed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). CC cell lines with circ_0011385 knockdown were constructed, and he multiplication, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of CC cells were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, transwell assay, and flow cytometry. In addition, the targeting relationships between miR-149-5p and circ_0011385 or SOX4 mRNA 3'UTR were probed by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and RNA pull-down assay. The regulatory function of circ_0011385 and miR-149-5p on SOX4 expression was studied with western blot. Expressions of circ_0011385 and SOX4 mRNA were raised in CC tissues and cells, while miR-149-5p expression was decreased. Knocking down circ_0011385 restrained the multiplication, migration, and invasion of CC cells and induced the apoptosis. Circ_0011385 directly targeted miR-149-5p, and SOX4 was the target of miR-149-5p, which could be positively regulated by circ_0011385. Circ_0011385 elevates SOX4 expression by targeting miR-149-5p, thus participating in promoting the malignant biological behaviors of CC cells.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(15): 19529-19541, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349039

RESUMO

AIMS: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a psychiatric condition that is associated with the menstrual cycle. Elucidation of the neural regulation mechanisms of brain reactivity to emotional stimuli among women with PMDD may inform PMDD treatment. METHODS: Eighty-six women (42 PMDD, 44 healthy controls) were allocated into two groups (anger-induced group: 23 PMDD vs. 23 controls; depression-induced group: 19 PMDD vs. 21 controls). During the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, all the women were subjected to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI resting-state scans were performed before and after the study participants had performed an emotional stimuli task. After the emotional stimuli task, emotional status of the participants were evaluated by Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS) and Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). In addition, all the participants were requested to complete the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, all women with PMDD exhibited significantly high scores in Tas-20 (p<0.001), higher neuroticism and psychoticism scores as well as significantly low extraversion and social desirability scores (p<0.05). Compared to the controls, f-MRI revealed that PMDD women had elevated ReHo in the middle frontal gyrus (BA10), temporal lobe (BA42), left cerebellum (BA37), as well as decreased activation in the precuneus (BA7), superior frontal gyrus (BA8), lobulus paracentralis (BA6), and right cerebellum (BA48) (p<0.05). Moreover, depression stimuli showed that women with PMDD had elevated ReHo levels in the middle frontal gyrus (BA11), the middle gyrus (BA47) and in the cingulate gyrus (BA23) vs. healthy controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Women with more neuroticism and psychoticism, less extraversion and social desirability tend to report PMDD symptoms. Women with this condition experience difficulties in regulating emotions during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal ReHo levels in the precuneus, superior frontal gyrus, lobulus paracentralis, and right cerebellum may contribute to anger dysregulation. Hypoactivation in the middle frontal gyrus, the middle gyrus and the cingulate gyrus may be generally associated with depression dysregulation in PMDD.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 661632, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335372

RESUMO

Human brains are extremely energy costly in neural connections and activities. However, it is unknown what is the difference in the brain connectivity between top athletes with long-term professional trainings and age-matched controls. Here we ask whether long-term training can lower brain-wiring cost while have better performance. Since elite swimming requires athletes to move their arms and legs at different tempos in time with high coordination skills, we selected an eye-hand-foot complex reaction (CR) task to examine the relations between the task performance and the brain connections and activities, as well as to explore the energy cost-efficiency of top athletes. Twenty-one master-level professional swimmers and 23 age-matched non-professional swimmers as controls were recruited to perform the CR task with concurrent 8-channel EEG recordings. Reaction time and accuracy of the CR task were recorded. Topological network analysis of various frequency bands was performed using the phase lag index (PLI) technique to avoid volume conduction effects. The wiring number of connections and mean frequency were calculated to reflect the wiring and activity cost, respectively. Results showed that professional athletes demonstrated better eye-hand-foot coordination than controls when performing the CR task, indexing by faster reaction time and higher accuracy. Comparing to controls, athletes' brain demonstrated significantly less connections and weaker correlations in upper beta frequency band between the frontal and parietal regions, while demonstrated stronger connectivity in the low theta frequency band between sites of F3 and Cz/C4. Additionally, athletes showed highly stable and low eye-blinking rates across different reaction performance, while controls had high blinking frequency with high variance. Elite athletes' brain may be characterized with energy efficient sparsely wiring connections in support of superior motor performance and better cognitive performance in the eye-hand-foot complex reaction task.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacillus cereus is a well-known pathogen for self-limited foodborne illness, and rarely an opportunistic pathogen associated with invasive infections among immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial outbreaks have been rarely reported. METHODS: Between August and November 2019, four preterm neonates in neonatal care units of a medical center developed late-onset B. cereus bacteremia. An investigation was carried out. Forty-eight environmental specimens were obtained from these neonatal units, skin surface and environmental objects of Patient 4 for the detection of this organism 19 days after the onset of illness of Patient 4. B. cereus isolates from Patient 4, five unrelated patients and environmental objects if identified were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: All four infants survived after vancomycin-containing treatment. Patient 4 developed diffuse cerebritis, brain abscess with severe neurologic sequelae. Of the 48 environmental samplings, 26 specimens showed positive for B. cereus, with one major clone (sequence type 365) accounting for 73%. The isolate from Patient 4 (ST427) was identical to one isolate collected from environmental objects in the same unit. After extensive cleaning of the environment and re-institution of the sterilization procedure of hospital linens, which was ceased since two months before the outbreak, no more cases was identified in these units for at least one year. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a cluster of B. cereus bacteremia involving four preterm infants, which might be associated with cessation of the procedure for linen sterilization and was successfully controlled by re-institution of this procedure.

20.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(7): 570-4, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of electroacupuncture(EA) combined with aconitine on the hemodyna-mics, echocardiogram, and arrhythmias in heart failure rats, so as to explore the facilitation and attenuation effects of EA combined with aconitine. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, aconitine and aconitine+EA groups, with 6 rats in each group. Propranolol hydrochloride was used to establish the heart failure model. Rats in the aconitine group were trea-ted with aconitine continuously for 1 h (40 µg/kg). Rats in the aconitine +EA group were given the same treatment as the aconitine group, meanwhile, EA (3 mA, 2 Hz/15 Hz) was applied at "Neiguan"(PC6) for 30 min. Left ventricular catheter and small animal ultrasound imaging system were used to observe the heart hemodynamic indexes such as left ventricular systolic pressure(LVSP), maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rising (+dp/dtmax), and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure declining (-dp/dtmax), ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS). The incidence rate of arrhythmia and arrhythmia score was observed by electrocardiogram. RESULTS: Following modeling and compared with the control group, LVSP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax, EF and FS in the aconitine group all decreased(P<0.01) and maintained in the model group. The LVSP of rats in the aconitine group was higher than that of the model group at 15 min after administration of aconitine (P<0.05), and +dp/dtmax was higher at 15, 60 min after administration (P<0.05). Since 15 min after administration, EF and FS in the aconitine group were significantly higher than those of the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). After EA intervention, compared with the aconitine group, LVSP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax in the aconitine+EA group were significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.05) during administration and EF and FS in the aconitine+EA group significantly increased at the beginning of administration of aconitine and 30 and 60 min during administration (P<0.05, P<0.01). The incidence rate of arrhythmia was 100% in the aconitine group, and 50.0% in the rats of aconitine + EA group. The arrhythmia score of aconitine + EA group was significantly lower than that of aconitine group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Aconitine has a certain inotropic effect, but it is easy to cause arrhythmia. The combination of EA and aconitine can not only improve the contractile function of the heart in rats with heart failure, but also reduce the toxic reaction of aconitine.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Aconitina , Animais , Coração , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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