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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Prior olanzapine population pharmacokinetic (PPK) models have focused on the effects of sex and smoking on olanzapine clearance. This PPK model in Chinese adult psychiatric patients also investigated the influence of comedications and co-occurrence of infections on olanzapine clearance, and explored how to personalize oral olanzapine dosage in the clinical setting. METHODS: A total of 1546 serum concentrations from 354 patients were collected in this study. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption was employed to develop the PPK model using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. Covariates included demographic parameters, co-occurrence of infection and concomitant medications (including dangguilonghui tablets, a Chinese herbal medicine for constipation). Bootstrap validation (1000 runs) and external validation of 50 patients were employed to evaluate the final model. Simulations were performed to explore the personalization of olanzapine dosing after stratification by sex, smoking, and comedication with valproate. RESULTS: Typical estimates for the absorption rate constant (Ka), apparent clearance (CL/F), and apparent distribution volume (V/F) were 0.30 h-1, 12.88 L/h, and 754.41 L, respectively. Olanzapine clearance was increased by the following variables: 1.23-fold by male sex, 1.23-fold by smoking, 1.23-fold by comedication with valproate, 1.16-fold by sertraline, and 2.01-fold by dangguilonghui tablets. Olanzapine clearance was decreased by the following variables: 0.75-fold by co-occurrence of infection, 0.70-fold by fluvoxamine, and 0.78-fold by perphenazine. The model evaluation indicated that the final model's performance was good, stable, and precise. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the personalization of oral olanzapine dosing, but further studies should be performed to verify the effects of infection and comedications, including valproate and dangguilonghui.

3.
Environ Res ; 197: 111026, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744265

RESUMO

Here we developed the functionalized biochar as low-cost and heavy metal-free photocatalysts via a facile iodine doping method, which exhibit efficient adsorption and visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of representative organic pollutants, phenol and tetracycline. On one hand, iodine doping elevates the adsorption via creating extra pores, e.g., the adsorbed amounts of phenol by iodine-doped WSP and OSR biochar are increased by 161.8% and 146.3%, respectively, which in turn facilitates the photocatalytic oxidation of the adsorbed pollutants. On the other hand, iodine doping leads to the strong photo-induced excitation and remarkably reduced charge carrier transfer resistance, boosting the photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped biochar by more than 20 orders towards organic pollutants (e.g., phenol) degradation. The systematic analysis of reactive species reveals the active roles of O2-, H2O2, 1O2, OH, electrons, and holes in photocatalytic process and identifies O2- to be the major contributor. This work affords a facile approach to generating porous and visible-light-driven photocatalyst from biomass for efficient adsorbing and degrading organic pollutants, opening up an avenue to turn biowaste into biomaterials for sustainable environmental remediation.

6.
Endocrine ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755880

RESUMO

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a growth factor affecting the initiation or progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the relationship between preoperative serum TSH and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) remains controversial. To investigate the relationship between preoperative serum TSH and tumor status of PTMC, a multicentered retrospective study was performed from January 2014 to December 2016. The cohort of this study consisted of 1997 patients who underwent thyroid surgery. Serum TSH concentrations were measured and PTMC was diagnosed based on the post-operation pathological report. Results showed that the preoperative serum TSH concentration was not related to age and gender but was positively associated with tumor size. Furthermore, higher TSH level was associated with extra-thyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis (LNM). These results indicated that TSH might not be involved in the development of PTMC but may be associated with PTMC progression. Preoperative serum TSH concentration should be considered as risk predictor for tumor progression in patients with PTMC.

7.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(3): e373, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion, a common basic supporting therapy, can lead to acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR). AHTR poses a great risk to patients through kidney function damage in a short time. Previous reports found that heme from destroyed red blood cells impaired kidney function, and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was augmented in case of kidney injury. However, the detailed mechanism regarding whether NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in kidney function injury in AHTR is not fully understood yet. METHODS: Hemolysis models were established by vein injection with human blood plasma or mouse heme from destroyed red blood cells. The injured renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) were evaluated by tubular damage markers staining in hemolysis models and in primary RTECs in vitro. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in RTECs by hemes was investigated by Western blot, ELISA, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometry, and hemolysis models. NLRP3 gene knockout mice were employed to confirm these observations in vitro and in vivo. The binding between a novel inhibitor (66PR) and NLRP3 was affirmed by molecule docking and co-immunoprecipitation. The rescue of 66PR on kidney function impairment was explored in murine hemolysis models. RESULTS: We found that heme could activate NLRP3 inflammasome in RTECs to induce kidney function injury. NLRP3 gene knockout could prevent the damage of RTECs caused by hemes and recover kidney function in AHTR. Moreover, NLRP3 inflammasome chemical inhibitor, 66PR, could bind to NLRP3 protein and inhibit inflammasome activation in RTECs, which consequently relieved the injury of RTECs caused by hemes, and alleviated kidney function damage in the AHTR model. CONCLUSIONS: Hemes could activate NLRP3 inflammasome in RTECs, and a novel NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor named 66PR relieved kidney function damage in AHTR. Our findings provided a new possible strategy to treat kidney function failure in AHTR.

8.
Redox Biol ; 41: 101904, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706169

RESUMO

Protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible protein modification implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological regulation of protein function. However, the relationship between dysregulated S-nitrosylation homeostasis and diabetic vascular complications remains incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a key regulatory link between S-nitrosylation homeostasis and inflammation, and alleviated endothelial dysfunction and angiogenic defects in diabetes. Subjecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia significantly decreased endogenous S-nitrosylated proteins, including S-nitrosylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase ß (IKKßC179) and transcription factor p65 (p65C38), which was alleviated by bFGF co-treatment. Pretreatment with carboxy-PTIO (c-PTIO), a nitric oxide scavenger, abolished bFGF-mediated S-nitrosylation increase and endothelial protection. Meanwhile, nitrosylation-resistant IKKßC179S and p65C38S mutants exacerbated endothelial dysfunction in db/db mice, and in cultured HUVECs subjected to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Mechanistically, bFGF-mediated increase of S-nitrosylated IKKß and p65 was attributed to synergistic effects of increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and thioredoxin (Trx) activity. Taken together, the endothelial protective effect of bFGF under hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia can be partially attributed to its role in suppressing inflammation via the S-nitrosylation pathway.

9.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(3): e25704, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure injury (PI) is a common and preventable problem, yet it is a challenge for at least two reasons. First, the nurse shortage is a worldwide phenomenon. Second, the majority of nurses have insufficient PI-related knowledge. Machine learning (ML) technologies can contribute to lessening the burden on medical staff by improving the prognosis and diagnostic accuracy of PI. To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing systematic review that evaluates how the current ML technologies are being used in PI management. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to synthesize and evaluate the literature regarding the use of ML technologies in PI management, and identify their strengths and weaknesses, as well as to identify improvement opportunities for future research and practice. METHODS: We conducted an extensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Wanfang database, the VIP database, and the China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) to identify relevant articles. Searches were performed in June 2020. Two independent investigators conducted study selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal. Risk of bias was assessed using the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). RESULTS: A total of 32 articles met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of those articles (38%) reported using ML technologies to develop predictive models to identify risk factors, 11 (34%) reported using them in posture detection and recognition, and 9 (28%) reported using them in image analysis for tissue classification and measurement of PI wounds. These articles presented various algorithms and measured outcomes. The overall risk of bias was judged as high. CONCLUSIONS: There is an array of emerging ML technologies being used in PI management, and their results in the laboratory show great promise. Future research should apply these technologies on a large scale with clinical data to further verify and improve their effectiveness, as well as to improve the methodological quality.

10.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Active surveillance (AS) is a management alternative for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). To decide the best candidates for AS, clinicians can use a framework to classify PTMC patients as ideal, appropriate, or inappropriate. This study aimed to explore the correlation between the framework categories and surgical pathology. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted between 2014 and 2016. We included 1997 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for the first time due to suspected PTMC and were confirmed as PTMC by postoperative pathology. The consistency of modified preoperative risk stratification and the pathologic condition were evaluated using a consistency ratio and the Kappa coefficient. Stratified analysis was also performed to test consistency in different age groups. RESULTS: Based on the decision-making framework, 558 (27.9%) patients could receive AS while 810 (40.6%) patients did not require immediate surgery according to the actual postoperative pathology. The sensitivity, false-positive rate, specificity, false-negative rate, and consistency rate were 82.39%, 56.91%, 43.09%, 17.61%, and 66.45%, respectively. The Kappa value was 0.268. Stratified analysis showed that the sensitivity was 87.7% among patients aged 18 to 59 years. In the group aged ≥60 years, the specificity was up to 87.5%, but the sensitivity was low. CONCLUSION: The results of the modified risk-stratified clinical decision-making framework did not have a high consistency with the postoperative results. However, the framework showed a good effect in selecting patients for immediate surgery in the younger group and patients for AS in the older group.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145850, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631587

RESUMO

Conventional water treatment methods are difficult to remove stubborn pollutants emerging from surface water. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can achieve a higher level of mineralization of stubborn pollutants. In recent years, the Fenton process for the degradation of pollutants as one of the most efficient ways has received more and more attention. While homogeneous catalysis is easy to produce sludge and the catalyst cannot be cycled. In contrast, heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction can get over these drawbacks and be used in a wider range. However, the reduction of Fe (III) to Fe(II) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is still the speed limit step when generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in heterogeneous Fenton system, which restricts the efficiency of the catalyst to degrade pollutants. Based on previous research, this article reviews the strategies to improve the iron redox cycle in heterogeneous Fenton system catalyzed by iron materials. Including introducing semiconductor, the modification with other elements, the application of carbon materials as carriers, the introduction of metal sulfides as co-catalysts, and the direct reduction with reducing substances. In addition, we also pay special attention to the influence of the inherent properties of iron materials on accelerating the iron redox cycle. We look forward that the strategy outlined in this article can provide readers with inspiration for constructing an efficient heterogeneous Fenton system.

12.
J Microbiol ; 59(4): 426-434, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496937

RESUMO

The prominent protein producing workhorse Trichoderma reesei secretes a typical yellow pigment that is synthesized by a gene cluster including two polyketide synthase encoding genes sor1 and sor2. Two transcription factors (YPR1 and YPR2) that are encoded in the same cluster have been shown to regulate the expression of the sor genes. However, the physiological relevance of the yellow pigment synthesis in T. reesei is not completely clear. In this study, a yellow pigment hyper-producer OEypr1 and three yellow pigment non-producers, OEypr1-sor1, Δypr1, and OEypr2, were constructed. Their phenotypic features in mycelial growth, conidiation, cell wall integrity, stress tolerance, and cellulase production were determined. Whereas hyperproduction of the yellow pigment caused significant defects in all the physiological aspects tested, the non-producers showed similar colony growth, but improved conidiation, maintenance of cell wall integrity, and stress tolerance compared to the control strain. Moreover, in contrast to the severely compromised extracellular cellobiohydrolase production in the yellow pigment hyperproducer, loss of the yellow pigment hardly affected induced cellulase gene expression. Our results demonstrate that interfering with the yellow pigment synthesis constitutes an engineering strategy to endow T. reesei with preferred features for industrial application.

13.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(5): 1840-1850, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512000

RESUMO

Maleate is one of the most important unsaturated four-carbon dicarboxylic acids. It serves as an attractive building block in cosmetic, polymer, and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, industrial production of maleate relies mainly on chemical synthesis using benzene or butane as the starting materials under high temperature, which suffers from strict reaction conditions and low product yield. Here, we propose a novel biosynthetic pathway for maleate production in engineered Escherichia coli. We screened a superior salicylate 5-hydroxylase that can catalyze hydroxylation of salicylate into gentisate with high conversion rate. Then, introduction of salicylate biosynthetic pathway and gentisate ring cleavage pathway allowed the synthesis of maleate from glycerol. Further optimizations including enhancement of precursors supply, disruption of competing pathways, and construction of a pyruvate recycling system, boosted maleate titer to 2.4 ± 0.1 g/L in shake flask experiments. Subsequent scale-up biosynthesis of maleate in a 3-L bioreactor under fed-batch culture conditions enabled the production of 14.5 g/L of maleate, indicating a 268-fold improvement compared with the titer generated by the wildtype E. coli strain carrying the entire maleate biosynthetic pathway. This study provided a promising microbial platform for industrial level synthesis of maleate, and demonstrated the highest titer of maleate production in microorganisms so far.

14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 588: 283-294, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406463

RESUMO

CeO2 nanoparticles are successfully loaded on carbonate doped Bi2O2CO3 (CBOC) nanosheets by a facile hydrothermal and low-temperature calcination method. CeO2/CBOC heterojunction shows significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity, when 35 mg of CeO2/CBOC photocatalyst is added to tetracycline (TC) solution (20 mg/L, 100 mL), about 79.5% TC is degraded within 90 min under visible light irradiation, which is much higher than that of original CeO2 and CBOC. According to photoelectrochemical characterization and active radical capture experiments, the Z-scheme electron transfer mechanism is the reason for the significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Besides, the XPS results indicate that Ce4+/Ce3+ redox pairs are formed at the contact interface between CeO2 and CBOC, which is conducive to the transfer of photoexcited electrons and production of superoxide radicals. Additionally, the photocatalytic mechanism and possible degradation pathway of TC is proposed through free radical trapping experiments and liquid chromatography-mass (LC-MS) analysis. This study will accumulate experience for the combination of CeO2 and bismuth-based nanomaterials, and provide a feasible way to design wide band-gap bismuth-based photocatalysts, thereby achieving efficient visible light degradation of environmental pollutants.

15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both E2F transcription factor and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which increase or decrease E2F activity by phosphorylating E2F or its partner, are involved in the control of cell proliferation, and some circRNAs and miRNAs regulate the expression of E2F and CDKs. However, little is known about whether dysregulation among E2Fs, CDKs, circRNAs and miRNAs occurs in human PCa. METHODS: The expression levels of CDK13 in PCa tissues and different cell lines were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. In vitro and in vivo assays were preformed to explore the biological effects of CDK13 in PCa cells. Co-immunoprecipitation anlysis coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify E2F5 interaction with CDK13. A CRISPR-Cas9 complex was used to activate endogenous CDK13 and circCDK13 expression. Furthermore, the mechanism of circCDK13 was investigated by using loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Here we show that CDK13 is significantly upregulated in human PCa tissues. CDK13 depletion and overexpression in PCa cells decrease and increase, respectively, cell proliferation, and the pro-proliferation effect of CDK13 is strengthened by its interaction with E2F5. Mechanistically, transcriptional activation of endogenous CDK13, but not the forced expression of CDK13 by its expression vector, remarkably promotes E2F5 protein expression by facilitating circCDK13 formation. Further, the upregulation of E2F5 enhances CDK13 transcription and promotes circCDK13 biogenesis, which in turn sponges miR-212-5p/449a and thus relieves their repression of the E2F5 expression, subsequently leading to the upregulation of E2F5 expression and PCa cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CDK13 upregulation-induced formation of the positive feedback loop among circCDK13, miR-212-5p/miR-449a and E2F5 is responsible for PCa development. Targeting this newly identified regulatory axis may provide therapeutic benefit against PCa progression and drug resistance.

16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479887

RESUMO

Excessive fluoride exposure has detrimental effects on the thyroid gland, which may be modified by iodine. However, the role of iodine in it remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the role of iodine in thyroid abnormalities caused by fluoride exposure in school-age children. A total of 446 children aged 7-12 years were recruited from Tongxu County, Henan province, in 2017 (ZZUIRB 2017-018). We obtained demographic information through questionnaire surveys. The concentrations of urinary fluoride (UF) and urinary iodine (UI) were determined by the ion-selective electrode method and the catalytic spectrophotometric method, respectively. The radiation immunoassay was used to determine the serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The B-mode ultrasound was performed to assess thyroid volumes (Tvols). The associations between fluoride exposure and thyroid-related indicators were tested by linear regression models. We found that Tvols increased by 0.22 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.31) cm3 with each standard deviation increment of UF. Moreover, Tvols in boys were more susceptible to fluoride exposure than those in girls, and the Tvols of children with high urinary iodine are less susceptible to fluoride exposure (P for interaction < 0.05). We also observed that TT3 levels were negatively related to UF concentrations at moderate urinary iodine levels (≤ 300 µg/l). Fluoride exposure can elevate the Tvols of school-age children, especially in boys, and high levels of iodine may alleviate this effect to some extent.

17.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 76(Pt 6): 1001-1017, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289712

RESUMO

Seven new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, [Zn2(L1)(H2O)3]n (1), [Zn2(L1)(dib)(H2O)2]n (2), {[Zn2(L1)(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (3), [Cd2(L1)(1,10-phen)]n (4), [Ni2(HL1)(4,4'-bipy)(µ3-OH)(µ2-H2O)]n (5), {[Co4(L1)(4,4'-bibp)3]·(4,4'-bibp)3}n (6), and [Co2(L2)(4,4'-bibp)2(H2O)]n (7), where H4L1 and H4L2 are semi-rigid 3-(3,5-dicarboxylphenoxy)phthalic acid and 4-(3,5-dicarboxylphenoxy)phthalic acid, respectively, and 4,4'-bipy is 4,4'-bipyridine, dib is 1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, 1,10-phen is 1,10-phenanthroline and 4,4'-bipb is 1,4-bis(pyridin-4-yl)benzene, have been prepared under solvothermal conditions with ZnII, CdII, CoII and NiII ions in the presence of auxiliary N-donor ligands. The crystal structures and photoluminescence and magnetic properties of these compounds have been investigated. Compound 1 displays a 3,4,6-connected two-dimensional (2D) topology with a Schläfli symbol of (42.5)2(43.52.7)(45.56.63)2, and the 2D structure was further assembled to form a three-dimensional (3D) framework by intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. Compound 2 features a novel 3,3,4-connected structure and the point symbol is (4.102)(4.6.84)(62.8). Compound 3 exhibits a 3,4,6-connected 3-nodal net having a 3,4,6 T53 type topology, with the point symbol (4.62)2(42.64)2(42.68.82.103). Compound 4 shows a 2D→3D supramolecular structure formed by π-π stacking interactions. Compound 5 possesses a 3D framework with a tfz-d net topology. Compounds 6 and 7 are constructed from the same auxiliary ligand and metal salt at the same temperature, but with different main ligands and exhibiting different topologies. Compound 6 presents a 3D 4,6-connected topological network with a Schläfli symbol of (3.44.6)(32.44.56.63), while compound 7 has a 3D topological network with a Schläfli symbol of (412.616). Magnetic analyses indicate that compounds 5 and 7 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions.

18.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 11: 2040622320974833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294147

RESUMO

Background: Chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids is frequently associated with a specific cardiomyopathy. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has beneficial effects as it aids in the reduction of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empagliflozin on chronic hypercortisolism-induced myocardial fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction in mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice (6 weeks old) were randomized to control, corticosterone (CORT), and empagliflozin + CORT groups. After 4 weeks of administration, heart structure and function were evaluated by echocardiography, and peripheral blood and tissue samples were collected. Expressions of Ccl2, Itgax, Mrc1, and Adgre1 mRNA in heart tissue were evaluated by RT-PCR, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: Empagliflozin effectively reduced body weight, liver triglyceride, visceral adipose volume, and uric acid in CORT-treated mice. Left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction were improved significantly, phosphorylated STAT3 and TLR4 were alleviated, and macrophage infiltration in the myocardium was inhibited after administration of empagliflozin in CORT-treated mice. Conclusion: Empagliflozin has beneficial effects on specific cardiomyopathy associated with CORT, and the results provide new evidence that empagliflozin might be a potential drug for the prevention of this disease.

19.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(12): e202095, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300967
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial Lon is a chaperone and DNA-binding protein that functions in protein quality control and stress response pathways. The level of Lon regulates mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) metabolism and the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little information in detail on how mitochondrial Lon regulates ROS-dependent cancer immunoescape through mtDNA metabolism in the tumor microenvironment (TME). METHODS: We explored the understanding of the intricate interplay between mitochondria and the innate immune response in the inflammatory TME. RESULTS: We found that oxidized mtDNA is released into the cytosol when Lon is overexpressed and then it induces interferon (IFN) signaling via cGAS-STING-TBK1, which upregulates PD-L1 and IDO-1 expression to inhibit T-cell activation. Unexpectedly, upregulation of Lon also induces the secretion of extracellular vehicles (EVs), which carry mtDNA and PD-L1. Lon-induced EVs further induce the production of IFN and IL-6 from macrophages, which attenuates T-cell immunity in the TME. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of mtDNA and PD-L1 in EVs in patients with oral cancer function as a potential diagnostic biomarker for anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Our studies provide an insight into the immunosuppression on mitochondrial stress and suggest a therapeutic synergy between anti-inflammation therapy and immunotherapy in cancer.

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