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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2106674, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738669

RESUMO

Defects are ubiquitous in 2D materials and can affect the structure and properties of the materials and also introduce new functionalities. Methods to adjust the structure and density of defects during bottom-up synthesis are required to control the growth of 2D materials with tailored optical and electronic properties. Here, the authors present an Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition approach to selectively form SW and S2W antisite defects, whereby one or two sulfur atoms substitute for a tungsten atom in WS2 monolayers. Guided by first-principles calculations, they describe a new method that can maintain tungsten-poor growth conditions relative to sulfur via the low solubility of W atoms in a gold/W alloy, thereby significantly reducing the formation energy of the antisite defects during the growth of WS2 . The atomic structure and composition of the antisite defects are unambiguously identified by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and their total concentration is statistically determined, with levels up to ≈5.0%. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements and first-principles calculations further verified these antisite defects and revealed the localized defect states in the bandgap of WS2 monolayers. This bottom-up synthesis method to form antisite defects should apply in the synthesis of other 2D materials.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748550

RESUMO

Versatile video coding (VVC) achieves enormous improvement over the advanced high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard due to the adoption of the quadtree with nested multi-type tree (QTMT) partition structure and other coding tools. However, the computational complexity increases dramatically as well. To tackle this problem, we propose a decision tree accelerated coding tree units (CTU) partition algorithm for intra prediction in VVC. Firstly, specially designated image features are extracted to characterize the coding unit (CU) complexity. Then, the trained decision tree is employed to predict the partition results. Finally, based on our newly designed intra prediction framework, the partition process is early terminated or redundant partition modes are screened out. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could achieve around 52% encoding time reduction for various test video sequences on average with only 1.75% Bjontegaard delta bit rate increase compared with the reference test model VTM9.0 of VVC.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: LDL cholesterol (LDLc)-lowering drugs modestly increase body weight and type 2 diabetes risk, but the extent to which the diabetogenic effect of lowering LDLc is mediated through increased BMI is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted summary-level univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in 921,908 participants to investigate the effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes risk and the proportion of this effect mediated through BMI. We used data from 92,532 participants from 14 observational studies to replicate findings in individual-level MR analyses. RESULTS: A 1-SD decrease in genetically predicted LDLc was associated with increased type 2 diabetes odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.24]) and BMI (ß = 0.07 SD units [95% CI 0.02, 0.12]) in univariable MR analyses. The multivariable MR analysis showed evidence of an indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01, 1.08]) with a proportion mediated of 38% of the total effect (P = 0.03). Total and indirect effect estimates were similar across a number of sensitivity analyses. Individual-level MR analyses confirmed the indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI with an estimated proportion mediated of 8% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the diabetogenic effect attributed to lowering LDLc is partially mediated through increased BMI. Our results could help advance understanding of adipose tissue and lipids in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and inform strategies to reduce diabetes risk among individuals taking LDLc-lowering medications.

4.
J Oncol ; 2021: 6868514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594378

RESUMO

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a malignant tumor that exists worldwide, has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Previous studies have reported that lncRNA NR2F1-AS1 plays a critical role in several cancers. Here, we aimed to investigate the biological function of NR2F1-AS1 and its molecular mechanism in the migration and invasion of HCC. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to analyze NR2F1-AS1 expression in HCC. The biological function was investigated by transwell invasion and migration assays. The protein level was identified by Western blot. In addition, the downstream targets of NR2F1-AS1 and miR-642a were confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. Results: NR2F1-AS1 was significantly upregulated in HCC and associated with the poor prognosis of HCC patients. Biological function experiments revealed that the silence of NR2F1-AS1 suppressed cell invasion and migration in HCC. More importantly, NR2F1-AS1 directly interacted with miR-642a and negatively regulated miR-642a. DEK was the target of miR-642a, and NR2F1-AS1 positively regulated DEK expression by suppressing miR-642a. Conclusion: Taken together, it is the first time we discovered the interaction of NR2F1-AS1 with miR-642a in modulating HCC cell invasion and migration.

5.
HGG Adv ; 2(2)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604815

RESUMO

Genomic discovery and characterization of risk loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been conducted primarily in individuals of European ancestry. We conducted a multiethnic genome-wide association study of T2D among 53,102 cases and 193,679 control subjects from African, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian, and European population groups in the Population Architecture Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) and Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortia. In individuals of African ancestry, we discovered a risk variant in the TGFB1 gene (rs11466334, risk allele frequency (RAF) = 6.8%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 2.06 × 10-8), which replicated in independent studies of African ancestry (p = 6.26 × 10-23). We identified a multiethnic risk variant in the BACE2 gene (rs13052926, RAF = 14.1%, OR = 1.08, p = 5.75 × 10-9), which also replicated in independent studies (p = 3.45 × 10-4). We also observed a significant difference in the performance of a multiethnic genetic risk score (GRS) across population groups (pheterogeneity = 3.85 × 10-20). Comparing individuals in the top GRS risk category (40%-60%), the OR was highest in Asians (OR = 3.08) and European (OR = 2.94) ancestry populations, followed by Hispanic (OR = 2.39), Native Hawaiian (OR = 2.02), and African ancestry (OR = 1.57) populations. These findings underscore the importance of genetic discovery and risk characterization in diverse populations and the urgent need to further increase representation of non-European ancestry individuals in genetics research to improve genetic-based risk prediction across populations.

6.
Chem Biodivers ; : e2100633, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643056

RESUMO

The increasing resistance of plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi highlights the need for highly effective and environmentally benign agents. The antifungal activities of Cnidium monnieri fruit extracts and five isolated compounds as well as structurally related coumarins against five plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated. The acetone extract, which contained the highest amount of five coumarins, showed strongest antifungal activity. Among the coumarin compounds, we found that 4-methoxycoumarin exhibited stronger and broader antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, and was more potent than osthol. Especially, it could significantly inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani mycelium with an EC50 value of 21 µg mL-1 . Further studies showed that 4-methoxycoumarin affected the structure and function of peroxisomes, inhibited the ß-oxidation of fatty acids, decreased the production of ATP and acetyl coenzyme A, and then accumulated ROS by damaging MMP and the mitochondrial function to cause the cell death of R. solani mycelia. 4-Methoxycoumarin presented antifungal efficacy in a concentration- dependent manner in vivo and could be used to prevent the potato black scurf. This study laid the foundation for the future development of 4-methoxycournamin as an alternative and friendly biofungicide.

7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that causes damage to multiple organs ranging from skin lesions to systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is a common type of lupus erythematosus (LE), but its molecular mechanisms are currently unknown. The study aimed to explore changes in the gene expression profiles and identify key genes involved in CLE, hoping to uncover its molecular mechanism and identify new targets for CLE. METHOD: We analyzed the microarray dataset (GSE109248) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, which was a transcriptome profiling of CLE cutaneous lesions. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the functional annotation of DEGs was performed with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was also constructed to identify hub genes involved in CLE. RESULT: A total of 755 up-regulated DEGs and 405 down-regulated DEGs were identified. GO enrichment analysis showed that defense response to virus, immune response, and type I interferon signaling pathway were the most significant enrichment items in DEGs. The KEGG pathway analysis identified 51 significant enrichment pathways, which mainly included systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoclast differentiation, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and primary immunodeficiency. Based on the PPI network, the study identified the top 10 hub genes involved in CLE, which were CXCL10, CCR7, FPR3, PPARGC1A, MMP9, IRF7, IL2RG, SOCS1, ISG15, and GSTM3. By comparison between subtypes, the results showed that ACLE had the least DEGs, while CCLE showed the most gene and functional changes. CONCLUSION: The identified hub genes and functional pathways found in this study may expand our understanding on the underlying pathogenesis of CLE and provide new insights into potential biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis and treatment of CLE. Key Points • The bioinformatics analysis based on CLE patients and healthy controls was performed and 1160 DEGs were identified • The 1160 DEGs were mainly enriched in biological processes related to immune responses, including innate immune response, type I interferon signaling pathway, interferon-γ-mediated signaling pathway, positive regulation of T cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, antigen processing, and presentation via MHC class Ib and so on • KEGG pathway enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs were mainly enriched in several immune-related diseases and virus infection, including systemic lupus erythematosus, primary immunodeficiency, herpes simplex infection, measles, influenza A, and so on • The hub genes such as CXCL10, IRF7, MMP9, CCR7, and SOCS1 may become new markers or targets for the diagnosis and treatment of CLE.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579376

RESUMO

Crop production under hydroponic environments has many advantages, yet the effects of solution flow rate on plant growth remain unclear. We conducted a hydroponic cultivation study using different flow rates under light-emitting diode lighting to investigate plant growth, nutrient uptake, and root morphology under different flow rates. Swiss chard plants were grown hydroponically under four nutrient solution flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, 6 L/min, and 8 L/min). After 21 days, harvested plants were analyzed for root and shoot fresh weight, root and shoot dry weight, root morphology, and root cellulose and hemicellulose content. We found that suitable flow rates, acting as a eustress, gave the roots appropriate mechanical stimulation to promote root growth, absorb more nutrients, and increase overall plant growth. Conversely, excess flow rates acted as a distress that caused the roots to become compact and inhibited root surface area and root growth. Excess flow rate thereby resulted in a lower root surface area that translated to reduced nutrient ion absorption and poorer plant growth compared with plans cultured under a suitable flow rate. Our results indicate that regulating flow rate can regulate plant thigmomorphogenesis and nutrient uptake, ultimately affecting hydroponic crop quality.

9.
Physiol Plant ; 173(4): 1850-1861, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402071

RESUMO

Plant salt tolerance is associated with a high rate of root growth. Although root growth is governed by cell wall and apoplastic pH, the relationship between these factors in the root elongation zone under salinity stress remains unclear. Herein, we assess apoplastic pH, pH- and expansin-dependent cell wall extensibility, and expansin expression in the root elongation zone of salt-sensitive (Yongliang-15) and -tolerant (JS-7) cultivars under salinity stress. A six-day 80 mM NaCl treatment significantly reduced apical root apoplastic pH in both cultivars. Using a pH-dependent cell wall extensibility experiment, we found that, under 0 mM NaCl treatment, the optimal pH for cell wall loosening was 6.0 in the salinity-tolerant cultivar and 4.6 in the salinity-sensitive cultivar. Under 80 mM treatment, a pH of 5.0 mitigated the cell wall stiffness caused by salinity stress in the salinity-tolerant cultivar but promoted cell wall stiffening in the salinity-sensitive cultivar. Salinity stress altered expansin expression and differentially affecting cell wall extensibility under pH 5.0 and 6.0. TaEXPA8 might be relative to cell wall loosening at pH 5.0, whereas TaEXPA5 relative to cell wall loosening at pH 6.0. These results elucidate the relationship between expansins and cell wall extensibility in the root elongation zone, with important implications for enhancing plant growth under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Triticum , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Raízes de Plantas , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 41916-41925, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448583

RESUMO

Flexible optoelectronic synaptic devices that functionally imitate the neural behavior with tunable optoelectronic characteristics are crucial to the development of advanced bioinspired neural networks. In this work, amorphous oxide-decorated GaN nanowire arrays (GaOx@GaN NWAs) are prepared on flexible graphite paper. A GaOx@GaN NWA-based flexible device has tunable persistent photoconductivity (PPC) and shows a conversible fast/slow decay process (SDP). Photoconductivity can be modulated by single or double light pulses with different illumination powers and biases. PPC gives rise to the high-performance SDP such as a long decay time of 2.3 × 105 s. The modulation mechanism is proposed and discussed. Our results reveal an innovative and efficient strategy to produce decorated NWAs on a flexible substrate with tunable optoelectronic properties and exhibit potential for flexible neuromorphic system applications.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 693321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367975

RESUMO

This study highlights aspects of the latest clinical research conducted on the relationship between immune checkpoints and tumor metastasis. The overview of each immune checkpoint is divided into the following three sections: 1) structure and expression; 2) immune mechanism related to tumor metastasis; and 3) clinical research related to tumor metastasis. This review expands on the immunological mechanisms of 17 immune checkpoints, including TIM-3, CD47, and OX-40L, that mediate tumor metastasis; evidence shows that most of these immune checkpoints are expressed on the surface of T cells, which mainly exert immunomodulatory effects. Additionally, we have summarized the roles of these immune checkpoints in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic tumors, as these checkpoints are considered common predictors of metastasis in various cancers such as prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and melanoma. Moreover, certain immune checkpoints can be used in synergy with PD-1 and CTLA-4, along with the implementation of combination therapies such as LIGHT-VTR and anti-PD-1 antibodies. Presently, most monoclonal antibodies generated against immune checkpoints are under investigation as part of ongoing preclinical or clinical trials conducted to evaluate their efficacy and safety to establish a better combination treatment strategy; however, no significant progress has been made regarding monoclonal antibody targeting of CD28, VISTA, or VTCN1. The application of immune checkpoint inhibitors in early stage tumors to prevent tumor metastasis warrants further evidence; the immune-related adverse events should be considered before combination therapy. This review aims to elucidate the mechanisms of immune checkpoint and the clinical progress on their use in metastatic tumors reported over the last 5 years, which may provide insights into the development of novel therapeutic strategies that will assist with the utilization of various immune checkpoint inhibitors.

12.
Biomed J ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411787

RESUMO

Overdrainage of cerebrospinal fluid is one of the most notorious complications after ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. Siphon effect plays a major role in the development of overdrainage. Various overdrainage-preventing devices have been invented to counteract the siphon effect. Though some of the devices are designed to reduce the flow instead of providing antisiphoning effect, they are generally called antisiphon devices (ASDs). The basics of siphoning, the mechanisms and physical properties of currently available devices are described in this article. The clinical efficacy, shunt survival, and considerations on patient factors are also discussed. There are three kinds of ASD design, diaphragm, gravitational, and flow reducing devices. Flow reducing ASD is always open and the flow it controls is relatively stable. On the other hand, it may not provide sufficient flow in nocturnal intracranial pressure elevations. Diaphragm and gravitational devices are sensitive to the position of the patients. Diaphragm device is sensitive to the external pressure and the relative position of the device to the mastoid process. The gravitational device is sensitive to the angle between the axis of the device and the head. Many studies showed encouraging results with gravitational devices. Studies regarding diaphragm devices either showed better or similar outcomes comparing to differential pressure valves. Clinical studies regarding flow-reducing devices and head-to-head comparison between different mechanisms are warranted. This review aims to provide a useful reference for clinical practice of hydrocephalus.

13.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 15: 699315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335191

RESUMO

Memory-guided social recognition identifies someone from previous encounters or experiences, but the mechanisms of social memory remain unclear. Here, we find that a short-term memory from experiencing a stranger mouse lasting under 30 min interval is essential for subsequent social recognition in mice, but that interval prolonged to hours by replacing the stranger mouse with a familiar littermate. Optogenetic silencing of dorsal CA1 neuronal activity during trials or inter-trial intervals disrupted short-term memory-guided social recognition, without affecting the ability of being sociable or long-term memory-guided social recognition. Postnatal knockdown or knockout of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-associated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene in dorsal hippocampal CA1 similarly impaired neuronal firing rate in vitro and altered firing pattern during social recognition. These PTEN mice showed deficits in social recognition with stranger mouse rather than littermate and exhibited impairment in T-maze spontaneous alternation task for testing short-term spatial memory. Thus, we suggest that a temporal activity of dorsal CA1 neurons may underlie formation of short-term memory to be critical for organizing subsequent social recognition but that is possibly disrupted in ASD.

14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

15.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 23(1-2): 26-34, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278918

RESUMO

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are harmful to physical and psychological health. The study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of verapamil and triamcinolone in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Relevant publications were searched from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, CNKI, Weipu, and Wanfang databases. Results were expressed as weighted mean differences (WMDs) or the relative ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models according to the heterogeneity among studies. The pooled results indicated that the triamcinolone treatment showed significantly better effectiveness in height (at 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 weeks), pliability (at 3, 6, 9, 21, and 24 weeks) and vascularity (at 3, 6, 9, and 12 week) than that of verapamil (P < .05). Moreover, the side effects such as skin atrophy (RR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.42, P = .001), telangiectasia (RR = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.28, P < .001), and hyperpigmentation (RR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.44, P = .001) of verapamil were significantly less than those in triamcinolone. This meta-analysis showed that triamcinolone had a better therapeutic efficacy than verapamil, while verapamil was more safety.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Queloide , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Queloide/tratamento farmacológico , Queloide/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Triancinolona Acetonida/uso terapêutico , Verapamil/efeitos adversos
16.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(10): e307-e313, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait speed is a powerful indicator of health with aging. Potential genetic contributions to gait speed and its decline with aging are not well defined. We determined the heritability of and potential genetic regions underlying change in gait speed using longitudinal data from 2379 individuals belonging to 509 families in the Long Life Family Study (mean age 64 ± 12, range 30-110 years; 45% men). METHODS: Gait speed was measured over 4 m at baseline and follow-up (7 ± 1 years). Quantitative trait linkage analyses were completed using pedigree-based maximum likelihood methods with logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores greater than 3.0, indicating genome-wide significance. We also performed linkage analysis in the top 10% of families contributing to LOD scores to allow for heterogeneity among families (HLOD). Data were adjusted for age, sex, height, and field center. RESULTS: At baseline, 26.9% of individuals had "slow" gait speed less than 1.0 m/s (mean: 1.1 ± 0.2 m/s) and gait speed declined at a rate of -0.02 ± 0.03 m/s per year (p < .0001). Baseline and change in gait speed were significantly heritable (h2 = 0.24-0.32, p < .05). We did not find significant evidence for linkage for baseline gait speed; however, we identified a significant locus for change in gait speed on chromosome 16p (LOD = 4.2). A subset of 21 families contributed to this linkage peak (HLOD = 6.83). Association analyses on chromosome 16 showed that the strongest variant resides within the ADCY9 gene. CONCLUSION: Further analysis of the chromosome 16 region, and ADCY9 gene, may yield new insight on the biology of mobility decline with aging.

17.
ACS Omega ; 6(21): 13695-13703, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095662

RESUMO

Essential oil (Eo) from the Citrus reticulata peel has been widely used, and its adhesive effect on polystyrene (PS) was found accidentally. To analyze the essential oils of C. reticulata cv. Shatangju (CrspEos), the extraction of these oils by steam distillation was optimized using the response surface method. The chemical composition of CrspEos was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, the adhesive effect of these essential oils on PS was evaluated. The adhesion area, the influence of adhesion on the thickness of the essential oil on the materials, the effect of adhesion on the transmittance of PS, the strength of adhesion point, and specificity of adhesion were determined. The optimum extraction conditions resulting in the extraction yield of 47.37 µL g-1 were a ratio of liquid-to-solid of 8.94:1, a soaking time of 199.45 min, and an extraction time of 138.71 min. The major component in the essential oils was d-limonene (56.66%), followed by myrcene (6.62%). CrspEos presented a specific adherence effect on PS without influencing the thickness and transmittance of PS but with stronger tenacity than the parent material. CrspEos can be used as an environmentally friendly specific adhesive for PS.

18.
J Voice ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pepsinogen A (PGA)/pepsin A is often used as a diagnostic marker of extra-gastroesophageal reflux. We aimed to explore whether its positivity in upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) was specific enough to diagnose reflux. METHODS: PGA/pepsin A protein levels were examined in 10 types of tissues and 10 types of body fluid by immunological staining, western blot or Elisa, using three different commercially available brands simultaneously. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry parallel reaction monitoring (LC-MS/MS PRM) served as a gold reference for the detection of PGA/pepsin A proteins. PGA gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase sequencing methods for tissue samples. Specifically, 24 hour pH monitoring technique was conducted for patients who donated saliva samples. RESULTS: Eight out of ten types of human tissue samples (stomach, esophagus, lung, kidney, colon, parotid gland, nasal turbinate and nasal polyps) were confirmed positive for PGA/pepsin A gene and protein by genetic and PRM technique, respectively. Two out of ten types of body fluid samples (gastric fluid, urine) were confirmed positive for PGA/pepsin A protein by PRM technique. The consistence rates of PGA/pepsin A positivity among three commercial antibody brands and Elisa kit were poor, and Elisa results of salivary did not match with 24-hour pH monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tissues and body fluid could be detected baseline expression levels of PGA/pepsin A gene and protein. However, those commercially available PGA/pepsin A antibodies achieved poor sensitivity and specificity, therefore, relying on the detection of PGA/pepsin A in UADT by single antibodies to diagnose extra-gastroesophageal reflux without a specific positive cut-off value is unreliable.

19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(6): 523-6, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190459

RESUMO

At present, acupuncture and moxibustion widely spread around the world, and its development is closely rela-ted to multidisciplinary integration. Interdisciplinary approaches are of great concern to the innovation and promotion of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. Acupuncture and moxibustion, combined with optics, electrics, magnetics, infrared ray, microwave and other technologies, create the advanced and practical instrument for diagnosis and treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion and have made important contribution to clinical and teaching work. In the paper, focusing on the unique advantages of the science of acupuncture and moxibustion, the application of interdisciplinary approaches was explored to the promotion of acupuncture-moxibustion technology in its innovation and development, while the existing problems and countermeasures are further considered in the translational process of acupuncture-moxibustion technology to clinical application.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Tecnologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
20.
Eng Life Sci ; 21(6): 351-363, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140846

RESUMO

An efficient downstream process without prior desalination was developed for recovering 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) with high purity and yield from broth of a highly productive fed-batch fermentation of raw glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum. After removal of biomass and proteins by ultrafiltration, and concentration by water evaporation, 1,3-PDO was directly recovered from the broth by vacuum distillation with continuous addition and regeneration of glycerol as a supporting agent. Inorganic salts in the fermentation broth were crystallized but well suspended by a continuous flow of glycerol during the distillation process, which prevented salt precipitation and decline of heat transfer. On the other hand, ammonium salt of organic acids were liberated as ammonia gas and free organic acids under vacuum heating. The latter ones formed four types of 1,3-PDO esters of acetic acid and butyric acid, which resulted in yield losses and low purity of 1,3-PDO (< 80%). In order to improve the efficiency of final 1,3-PDO rectification, we examined alkaline hydrolysis to eliminate the ester impurities. By the use of 20% (w/w) water and 2% (w/w) sodium hydroxide, > 99% reduction of 1,3-PDO esters was achieved. This step conveniently provided free 1,3-PDO and the sodium salt of organic acids from the corresponding esters, which increased the 1,3-PDO yield by 7% and prevented a renewed formation of esters. After a single stage distillation from the hydrolyzed broth and a followed active carbon treatment, 1,3-PDO with a purity of 99.63% and an overall recovery yield of 76% was obtained. No wastewater with high-salt content was produced during the whole downstream process. The results demonstrated that the monitoring and complete elimination of 1,3-PDO esters are crucial for the efficient separation of highly pure 1,3-PDO with acceptable yield from fermentation broth of raw glycerol.

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