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Blood ; 127(13): 1666-75, 2016 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26825707


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) comprises an emerging spectrum of inherited and noninherited disorders of the immune system characterized by the excessive production of cytokines, including interferon-γ and interleukins 2, 6, and 10 (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10). The Janus kinases (JAKs) transduce signals initiated following engagement of specific receptors that bind a broad array of cytokines, including those overproduced in HLH. Based on the central role for cytokines in the pathogenesis of HLH, we sought to examine whether the inhibition of JAK function might lessen inflammation in murine models of the disease. Toward this end, we examined the effects of JAK inhibition using a model of primary (inherited) HLH in which perforin-deficient (Prf1(-∕-)) mice are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and secondary (noninherited) HLH in which C57BL/6 mice receive repeated injections of CpG DNA. In both models, treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib significantly lessened the clinical and laboratory manifestations of HLH, including weight loss, organomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercytokinemia, and tissue inflammation. Importantly, ruxolitinib treatment also significantly improved the survival of LCMV-infectedPrf1(-∕-)mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that in vivo exposure to ruxolitinib inhibited signal transducer and activation of transcription 1-dependent gene expression, limited CD8(+)T-cell expansion, and greatly reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, without effecting degranulation and cytotoxic function. Collectively, these findings highlight the JAKs as novel, druggable targets for mitigating the cytokine-driven hyperinflammation that occurs in HLH. These observations also support the incorporation of JAK inhibitors such as ruxolitinib into future clinical trials for patients with these life-threatening disorders.

Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ilhas de CpG , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Perforina/genética , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Células Vero