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1.
Appl Opt ; 60(33): 10292-10298, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807036

RESUMO

In a fiber-optic disk accelerometer, the strain distribution of sensing fiber is crucial for the improvement of sensitivity. The distribution characteristics of axial and radial strain in the sensing fiber are analyzed by the finite-element method, and the influence of strain distribution on the sensitivity of accelerometer is studied. Sensors with different outer radii of sensing fiber coils are designed and manufactured, and their performance is tested. The resonant frequencies are greater than 200 Hz, and the sensitivity increases as the outer radius of the sensing fiber coil increases. The dynamic range of the sensor with maximum sensitivity is 145.8 dB@100 Hz, and the transverse cross talk is 32.5 dB. Among the sensing fiber strain calculation methods we tested to predict the value of sensitivity, using the strain of sensing fiber directly obtained by the finite-element analysis method shows the smallest error with experimental results (within 7%). It is concluded that in the optical fiber strain disk, the absolute values of axial strain and radial strain of sensing fiber decrease with the increase of disk radius, while the signs of axial strain and radial strain of the ipsilateral sensing fiber are opposite and remain unchanged. The sensitivity can be further improved by optimizing the inner and outer radius of the sensing fiber coils, which is very important for the research and design of high-sensitivity fiber-optic accelerometers.

2.
Appl Opt ; 60(30): 9352-9357, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807071

RESUMO

In this paper, an underwater fiber-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and multimode interference (MMI) is presented for simultaneous measurement of salinity and pressure. This sensor is based on a single-mode-multimode-single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure with a gold film deposited on the middle single-mode fiber and the fiber structure is wrapped around an elastic cylinder to constitute a sensing head. In the fiber structure, the SPR region produces a resonance dip to measure salinity, and the independent MMI region achieves narrow and salinity-insensitive interference dips to measure pressure. Performance of the sensor is predicted by calculation, and the MMI spectrum is simulated by using the finite-difference beam propagation method. By experimental tests for salinity and pressure, the sensitivities of 0.36 nm/‰ and -1.42nm/MPa are achieved, respectively, and the cross talk is also proved to be insignificant. This study provides an important application direction for SPR-MMI sensors and a prospective method for ocean detection.

3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832844

RESUMO

Paper-based microchip electrophoresis has the potential to bring laboratory electrophoresis tests to the point of need. However, high electric potential and current values induce pH and temperature shifts, which may affect biomolecule electrophoretic mobility thus decrease test reproducibility and accuracy of paper-based microfluidic electrophoresis. We have previously developed a microchip electrophoresis system, HemeChip, which has the capability of providing low-cost, rapid, reproducible, and accurate point-of-care (POC) electrophoresis tests for hemoglobin analysis. Here, we report the methodologies we implemented for characterizing HemeChip system pH and temperature during the development process, including utilizing commercially available universal pH indicator and digital camera pH shift characterization, and infrared camera characterizing temperature shift characterization. The characterization results demonstrated that pH shifts up to 1.1 units, a pH gradient up to 0.11 units/mm, temperature shifts up to 40 °C, and a temperature gradient up to 0.5 °C/mm existed in the system. Finally, we report an acid pre-treatment of the separation media, a cellulose acetate paper, mitigated both pH and temperature shifts and provided a stable environment for reproducible HemeChip hemoglobin electrophoresis separation.

4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-20, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793262

RESUMO

Whole grains (WGs) may have various health benefits, including lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity. To conduct a meta-analysis of the effects of WGs compared with non-WGs on changes in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A systematic literature search was performed for all published randomized controlled trials on the effects of WG intake on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR response up to February 2021. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated. Pre-specified subgroup and univariate meta-regression analyses were explored to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis and bias analysis were conducted to appraise study quality. Among 12,435 articles screened for eligibility, data were extracted from 48 articles. Meta-analysis of 4,118 participants showed that WG consumption resulted in a significant reduction in fasting glucose by -0.15 mmol/L, fasting insulin by -2.71 pmol/L, HbA1c by -0.44%, and HOMA-IR by -0.28, respectively. Compared with mixed grains, brown rice, and wheat, oats were significantly lower on marker of glycemic. Besides, multiple interventions per day consolidated effectiveness of WGs. WG consumption decreased the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR compared with non-WG consumption.

5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 53: 128420, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728369

RESUMO

In this paper, a new class of novel sulfonamides incorporating aminosaccharide tails were designed and synthesized based on the sugar-tail approach. Then, all the novel compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against three carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoenzymes (hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX). Interestingly, effective inhibition of these three CA isoforms were observed, especially the glaucoma associated isoform hCA II. It is worth noting that these glycoconjugated sulfonamide derivatives also showed better CA inhibitory effects compared to the initial segment carzenide. Among them, compound 8d was the most effective inhibitor with IC50 of 60 nM against hCA II. Subsequent physicochemical properties studies showed that all compounds have good water solubility and neutral pH values in solutions. And these important physicochemical properties make target compounds acquire obvious advantages in the preparation of topical and nonirritating antiglaucoma drugs. Moreover, the target compounds showed lower corneal cytotoxicity than acetazolamide (AAZ) and good metabolic stability in vitro. In addition, molecular docking studies confirmed the interactions between aminosaccharide fragment and hydrophilic subpocket of hCA II active site were crucial for the enhanced CA inhibitory activity. Taken together, these results suggested 8d would be a promising lead compound for the development of topical antiglaucoma CAIs.

6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114834, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801609

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Semen Cuscutae, called Tu-si-zi in Chinese, is a kind of dried mature seed in the Convolvulaceae family. It mainly distributes in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is used as a kidney-tonifying drug for treatment of aging related diseases such as osteoporosis in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the exact mechanisms on bone resorption are poorly studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of Semen Cuscutae on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in mice and clarify the exact mechanisms by which Semen Cuscutae exert the anti-osteoporosis effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of Semen Cuscutae were performed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) induced by OVX in mice were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining as well as hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were used to observe bone microarchitectural changes. ELISA kits were used to assess the therapeutic effects of Semen Cuscutae on the serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL). The effect of Semen Cuscutae on primary cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 and anti-tartrate phosphatase assays. TRAP staining and actin ring staining were used to observe the effect of Semen Cuscutae on osteoclast differentiation. Western blotting was used to measure the effects of Semen Cuscutae on expressions of NFATC1, c-Src kinase, and c-fos. RESULTS: Results from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS showed that the main components of Semen Cuscutae were flavonoid compounds that included quercitrin, quercetin, hyperoside, caffeic acid, rutin, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, isoquercetin, cryptochlorogenic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and astragalin. After the Semen Cuscutae extract was orally administered to OVX mice, bone density increased (P < 0.01) and bone microstructure was significantly improved (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Additionally, Semen Cuscutae exhibited a significant descending effect in the levels of serum TRACP-5b and RANKL, while there was a significant increase in OPG in the Semen Cuscutae group compared with the OVX group, especially at high doses. Moreover, we found that increasing of c-fos, c-Src kinase, and NFATC1 protein expressions were reversed by Semen Cuscutae in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that Semen Cuscutae exhibited anti-osteoporosis effects through the c-fos/c-Src kinase/NFATC1 signaling pathway.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715330

RESUMO

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).

8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 711713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594194

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess neural changes in perceptual effects induced by myopic defocus and hyperopic defocus stimuli in ametropic and emmetropic subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: This study included 41 subjects with a mean age of 26.0 ± 2.9 years. The mean spherical equivalence refraction was -0.54 ± 0.51D in the emmetropic group and -3.57 ± 2.27D in the ametropic group. The subjects were instructed to view through full refractive correction, with values of +2.00D to induce myopic defocus state and -2.00D to induce hyperopic defocus state. This was carried over in three random sessions. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion was measured using fMRI to obtain quantified regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Behavioral tests including distant visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS), were measured every 5 min for 30 min. Results: Myopic defocus induced significantly greater rCBF increase in four cerebral regions compared with full correction: right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left middle temporal gyrus (P < 0.001). The differences were less significant in low myopes than emmetropes. In the hyperopic defocus session, the increased responses of rCBF were only observed in the right and left precentral gyrus. Myopic defocused VA and CS improved significantly within 5 min and reached a plateau shortly after. Conclusion: This study revealed that myopic defocus stimuli can significantly increase blood perfusion in visual attention-related cerebral regions, which suggests a potential direction for future investigation on the relationship between retinal defocus and its neural consequences.

9.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1591-1601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675700

RESUMO

This paper examines the paradox in management through the yin-yang lens and how to apply the yin-yang perspective in Chinese indigenous management research through a literature review. Compared with several western philosophical perspectives, yin-yang places more emphasis on the interaction of interdependent contradictions and better describes the complex dynamics of both contradictions. Our review finds that the scholars propose yin-yang as a supplement to and an optimization of western management. The review focuses on connecting the yin-yang perspective with the paradox in management, cross-cultural management, and practice of organizational management.

10.
Lab Chip ; 21(20): 3863-3875, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585199

RESUMO

Anemia affects over 25% of the world's population with the heaviest burden borne by women and children. Genetic hemoglobin (Hb) variants, such as sickle cell disease, are among the major causes of anemia. Anemia and Hb variant are pathologically interrelated and have an overlapping geographical distribution. We present the first point-of-care (POC) platform to perform both anemia detection and Hb variant identification, using a single paper-based electrophoresis test. Feasibility of this new integrated diagnostic approach is demonstrated via testing individuals with anemia and/or sickle cell disease. Hemoglobin level determination is performed by an artificial neural network (ANN) based machine learning algorithm, which achieves a mean absolute error of 0.55 g dL-1 and a bias of -0.10 g dL-1 against the gold standard (95% limits of agreement: 1.5 g dL-1) from Bland-Altman analysis on the test set. Resultant anemia detection is achieved with 100% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity. With the same tests, subjects with sickle cell disease were identified with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Overall, the presented platform enabled, for the first time, integrated anemia detection and hemoglobin variant identification using a single point-of-care test.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Eletroforese em Microchip , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Testes Imediatos
12.
Oncol Lett ; 22(5): 749, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539853

RESUMO

The receptor tyrosine kinase, anexelekto (Axl) is involved in tumor cell growth, migration and invasion, and has been associated with chemotherapy resistance, which makes it an attractive target for cancer therapy. In total, six Axl-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and two antibody-drug conjugates have been reported in the last 10 years, which have been shown to have bioactivity in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and migration. The Axl external cell domain (Axl-ECD), consisting of 426 amino acids, has always been used as an antigen in the screening process for all six of these Axl-targeted mAbs. However, the Axl functional domain, which interacts with its natural ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), is only a small part of the Axl-ECD. Antibodies targeting the Axl functional domain may efficiently block Gas6-Axl binding and attenuate its downstream signals and activities. To the best of our knowledge, no mAbs targeting the Axl functional domain have been reported. In the present study, a major Axl functional domain interacting with Gas6 was determined using bioinformatics and structural biology methods. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell assays, anti-Axl mAbs targeting this relatively specific Axl functional domain almost completely neutralized the stimulation of Gas6 in both Axl phosphorylation and cell migration assays, and showed similar activity to the positive control drug R428 (a small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitor of Axl currently in phase II clinical trials) in the cell migration assay. Given the important role of Axl in tumor development and chemotherapy resistance, Axl-targeted mAbs could be used to inhibit tumor cells directly, as well as reduce the development of chemotherapy resistance by blocking Axl activity. The application of Axl-targeted mAbs combined with chemotherapy provides a promising treatment strategy for patients with tumors, particularly those with triple-negative breast cancer, for whom no targeted therapy is currently available.

13.
J Theor Biol ; 531: 110915, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562456

RESUMO

Allocating limit medicine resources by mathematical modeling to control spreading of epidemic diseases is a very promising approach. Especially, how to use the existing partial data to efficiently control epidemic diseases is a interesting problem. When an epidemic disease is spreading, it is very urgent and essential to build a prediction and control model based on the real-time and partial data in order that decision makers find and implement the optimal strategy timely. In this paper, we developed a new framework for solving the problem. Our nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) based on a discrete time susceptible-infected-removed dynamics (SIR) gave an attempt that aims at timely dealing with the condition. Our NMPC model minimizes the total number of infectious cases and the total cost, with the treatment beds capacity constraints and other constraints, especially, with a state observer based on the system output which can be sampled more easily and more accurately. Our control policy can be updated timely according to the current statistical data because our NMPC is a kind of closed-loop control algorithm based on our observer. We also presented some theoretical results on the state observer. Finally, we gave a numerical example to illustrate our algorithm.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Quarentena , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica não Linear
14.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 5537892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373688

RESUMO

Background: Pain was considered a common and neglected symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and had a substantial impact on the quality of life of ALS patients and their caregivers. However, pain in ALS was mainly evaluated from the perspective of nociceptive pain; only three studies referred to neuropathic pain in ALS, and there has been yet no study considering the neuropathic pain characteristics in ALS patients from China. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine characteristics of pain (nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain) by three different types of questionnaires. The correlation between pain and clinical parameters in ALS patients was also evaluated. Methods: Patients were eligible if they fulfilled the criteria of probable and definitive ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria. Healthy normal controls, matched to ALS patients by age and gender, were recruited. Pain was evaluated by numerical pain rating scale (NRS), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and Douleur Neuropathique-4 (DN4) in ALS patients and controls. Physical status of ALS patients was evaluated with ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Results: 65 patients with sporadic ALS and 100 healthy normal controls in Southwestern China were included. Pain in the preceding week was more frequently reported by patients with ALS (30, 46.2%) than controls (36, 36%) (p = 0.193). DN4 score⩾4 was found in three ALS patients and one control (p = 0.480). Ten ALS patients (33.3%) and twenty-eight controls (77.8%) (p < 0.001) received therapy for pain. ALS patients with a DN4 score ≥ 4 had a longer disease duration and a higher PSI and PII score than ALS cases reporting nociceptive pain (p = 0.041, 0.048, and 0.027, respectively). Pain mainly interfered with ALS patients' mood, enjoyment of life, and the Pain Interference Index (PII) score. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that pain in our ALS cohorts was insufficiently treated and interfered with patients' mood and enjoyment of life. Most notably, we found that ALS patients with a DN4 score⩾4 may have a longer disease duration and a higher PSI and PII score than ALS patients reporting nociceptive pain, which has never been reported, strongly deserving further validation.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408158

RESUMO

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105182, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333426

RESUMO

With the increasing incidence of antifungal resistance, new antifungal agents having novel scaffolds hence are in an urgent need to combat infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. In this study, we reported the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of novel 1,2,3-selenadiazole analogues by scaffold hopping strategy. Preliminary results of antifungal activity demonstrated that the new class of compounds showed broad-spectrum fungistatic and fungicidal activity. Most importantly, these newly synthesized compounds can eliminate these azole-resistant fungi and inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilm. In particular, compound S07 showed promising antifungal activity against five azole-resistant strains with MIC values ranging from 4 to 32 µg/mL. Then, further target identification and mechanistic studies indicated that representative compound S07 exert its inhibitory activity by inhibiting fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (CYP51). Interestingly, representative compounds showed low cytotoxicity on mammalian cell lines. In addition, the molecular docking studies elucidated the binding modes of these compounds toward CYP51. Altogether, these results suggest that compound S07 with novel skeleton is a promising CYP51 inhibitor for treatment of fungal infections.

17.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 649-654, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323045

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a nicotine intravenous self-administration rat model, and to examine, with this model, the effects of two flavoring additives, menthol and cineole, on nicotine dependence. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were included in the study. After jugular venous catheterization was performed, fixed concentration of nicotine was administered in order to train the rats and establish the rat model of intravenous self-administration groups, receiving intraperitoneal injection of menthol, cineole, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the vehicle that was used for the control group. The rats were tested with different fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, including FR1 schedule, in which the rat received one nicotine infusion for every active nose poke, FR2 schedule, in which the rat received one nicotine infusion for every two active nose pokes, and FR5 schedule, in which the rat received one nicotine infusion for every five active nose pokes. The number of active and inactive poke responses and the number of nicotine infusion were documented accordingly. Results: After 10 days of training in nicotine self-administration, the 30 rats demonstrated significant increase in the number of active poke responses and the number of nicotine infusion, which were maintained at a stable and relatively high level. The number of active poke responses was significantly higher that of inactive poke responses ( P< 0.001). The rat model of intravenous nicotine self-administration was successfully established. In the testing phase, under the FR2 schedule, the menthol group showed a reduced number of active poke responses ( P=0.020). Under the FR5 schedule, the groups showed obvious interaction between time and the number of active poke responses ( P<0.011), with the menthol group showing reduced number of active poke responses on day three ( P=0.011) and the cineole group showing rising number of active poke responses on day three ( P=0.003). The DMSO control group did not show any significant change. Conclusions: Menthol and cineole are shown to have an effect on nicotine dependence. When there is relative difficulty involved in obtaining nicotine, menthol suppresses nicotine dependence, whereas cineole enhances nicotine dependence.


Assuntos
Mentol , Tabagismo , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Eucaliptol , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reforço Psicológico , Tabaco
18.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 2078-2088, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the primary cause of vision loss among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). We developed, validated, and tested a deep learning (DL) system for classifying DME using images from three common commercially available optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We trained and validated two versions of a multitask convolution neural network (CNN) to classify DME (center-involved DME [CI-DME], non-CI-DME, or absence of DME) using three-dimensional (3D) volume scans and 2D B-scans, respectively. For both 3D and 2D CNNs, we used the residual network (ResNet) as the backbone. For the 3D CNN, we used a 3D version of ResNet-34 with the last fully connected layer removed as the feature extraction module. A total of 73,746 OCT images were used for training and primary validation. External testing was performed using 26,981 images across seven independent data sets from Singapore, Hong Kong, the U.S., China, and Australia. RESULTS: In classifying the presence or absence of DME, the DL system achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of 0.937 (95% CI 0.920-0.954), 0.958 (0.930-0.977), and 0.965 (0.948-0.977) for the primary data set obtained from CIRRUS, SPECTRALIS, and Triton OCTs, respectively, in addition to AUROCs >0.906 for the external data sets. For further classification of the CI-DME and non-CI-DME subgroups, the AUROCs were 0.968 (0.940-0.995), 0.951 (0.898-0.982), and 0.975 (0.947-0.991) for the primary data set and >0.894 for the external data sets. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated excellent performance with a DL system for the automated classification of DME, highlighting its potential as a promising second-line screening tool for patients with DM, which may potentially create a more effective triaging mechanism to eye clinics.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Edema Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009501, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111124

RESUMO

Shigellosis is a heavy disease burden in China especially in children aged under 5 years. However, the age-related factors involved in transmission of shigellosis are unclear. An age-specific Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious/Asymptomatic-Recovered (SEIAR) model was applied to shigellosis surveillance data maintained by Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2005 to 2017. The individuals were divided into four age groups (≤ 5 years, 6-24 years, 25-59 years, and ≥ 60 years). The effective reproduction number (Reff), including infectivity (RI) and susceptibility (RS) was calculated to assess the transmissibility of different age groups. From 2005 to 2017, 130,768 shigellosis cases were reported in Hubei Province. The SEIAR model fitted well with the reported data (P < 0.001). The highest transmissibility (Reff) was from ≤ 5 years to the 25-59 years (mean: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-1.17), followed by from the 6-24 years to the 25-59 years (mean: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.35-1.02), from the ≥ 60 years to the 25-59 years (mean: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.29-0.86), and from the 25-59 years to 25-59 years (mean: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21-0.78). The highest infectivity was in ≤ 5 years (RI = 1.71), and was most commonly transmitted to the 25-59 years (45.11%). The highest susceptibility was in the 25-59 years (RS = 2.51), and their most common source was the ≤ 5 years (30.15%). Furthermore, "knock out" simulation predicted the greatest reduction in the number of cases occurred by when cutting off transmission routes among ≤ 5 years and from 25-59 years to ≤ 5 years. Transmission in ≤ 5 years occurred mainly within the group, but infections were most commonly introduced by individuals in the 25-59 years. Infectivity was highest in the ≤ 5 years and susceptibility was highest in the 25-59 years. Interventions to stop transmission should be directed at these age groups.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Sep Sci ; 44(17): 3305-3318, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185383

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is recognized as one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Daming capsule, a Chinese patent medicine, has shown definitive efficacy in patients with hyperlipidemia. In this study, serum biochemistry and histopathology assessment were used to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of Daming capsule. Furthermore, urinary metabolomics based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was conducted to identify the urinary biomarkers associated with hyperlipidemia and discover the underlying mechanisms of the antihyperlipidemic action of Daming capsule. After 10 weeks of treatment, Daming capsule significantly lowered serum lipid levels and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. A total of 33 potential biomarkers associated with hyperlipidemia were identified, among which 26 were robustly restored to normal levels after administration of Daming capsule. Pathway analysis revealed that the lipid-lowering effect of Daming capsule is related to the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including vitamin B and amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Notably, the study demonstrates that metabolomics is a powerful tool to elucidate the multitarget mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines, thereby promoting their research and development.

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