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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof. RESULTS: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1ß, are associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

2.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 56, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has received attention as a useful marker of stress, but evidence on associations between psychological factors and cortisol concentration is inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex differences in the relationship between cortisol concentration and psychological factors in healthy young adults. METHODS: A total of 205 (103 females, 102 males) healthy young adults participated. HCC and various stress-related psychological measures were compared between sexes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between HCC and stress-related psychological measures for all participants and for each sex. RESULTS: The difference in HCC according to sex was not significant. The reported number of stressful life events in the past year, stress perception, depressive and anxiety-related symptoms, and emotion dysregulation were not different between sexes, either. The association between HCC and emotion dysregulation was significant in females but not males. CONCLUSION: We observed a sex-specific association between HCC and psychological factors. Our findings may imply that HCC could be a useful biomarker of stress and stress-related emotion dysregulation in healthy young women.

3.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(11): 1131-1136, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Relationship between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and stress-related psychological measures are inconclusive, possibly due to overlooked heterogeneity regarding childhood trauma and a lack of comprehensive research on stress-related psychological factors. This study aims to compare young adults without history of childhood trauma to young adults who experienced childhood trauma using HCC and various stress-related psychological factors, as well as investigate the impacts of childhood trauma on the association between HCC and stress-related psychological measures. METHODS: A total of 206 young, healthy adults were recruited. We divided participants into two groups depending on whether or not they had suffered moderate-to-severe childhood trauma (CT+ and CT-) and compared HCC and various stress-related psychological measures between groups. Using multiple linear regression analyses, we assessed the associations between HCC and stress-related psychological measures for each group. RESULTS: We found no difference between the groups in HCC or the reported number of stressful life events in the past year; however, CT+ individuals reported higher stress perception, more depressive and anxiety-related symptoms, and more difficulties in emotion regulation than CT- individuals. HCC was associated with emotion dysregulation among the CT- individuals, but not among the CT+ individuals. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that history of childhood trauma should be considered in studies using HCC as a biomarker for stress in young adults. Furthermore, HCC might be a useful biomarker of stress and stress-related emotion dysregulation in individuals without moderate-to-severe childhood trauma.

4.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(11): 1109-1116, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While recent studies have found deficits in theory of mind (ToM) skills in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, empathic tendencies in these subjects remain unclear. The presence of high schizotypy and compromised executive functions, which are found in UHR individuals, would affect ToM skills and empathic tendencies. We investigated the ToM skills and empathic tendencies of UHR individuals and examined their relationship with schizotypy and executive function. METHODS: This study included 28 UHR individuals and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All participants completed a self-reported empathic scale (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales. Additionally, the ToM Picture Stories Task and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were conducted. RESULTS: UHR individuals showed a trend toward lower self-reported empathic tendencies; however, there were no differences in ToM skills between the two groups. Of the four subscales of the IRI, only empathic concern showed a significant difference between the two groups. Empathic concern was inversely associated with negative schizotypy. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that UHR individuals show relatively preserved cognitive empathy but compromised emotional empathy. Furthermore, in UHR individuals, the empathic concern subscale of the IRI was associated with negative schizotypy, while ToM skills were related to positive schizotypy and executive function.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12105, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103606

RESUMO

Cognitive complaints after chemotherapy are common in breast cancer patients, but the neural bases for these complaints remain unclear. This pilot study explored resting-state functional connectivity (FC) as a marker of subtle cognitive changes in breast cancer patients who experience cognitive complaints. Chemotherapy-treated (n = 20, at least 6 months off therapy) and untreated (n = 17, disease-control) female breast cancer patients with cognitive complaints and healthy controls (n = 20) were recruited. The FC of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was calculated, and any correlations between this FC and neuropsychological assessments were determined. Chemotherapy-treated patients with cognitive complaints displayed increased FC between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and both the contralateral cerebellar lobule VII and the cerebellar vermis XI, compared to the disease-control and healthy-control groups, despite unimpaired neuropsychological performance. The increased FC was negatively correlated with executive function and attention in breast cancer survivors with cognitive complaints. Our pilot study findings provide evidence that cerebellar-cortical FC changes may be a pathophysiological basis for chemotherapy-related cognitive complaints. In addition, the FC changes have the potential to reflect minor or compensated cognitive function impairment in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal
6.
Compr Psychiatry ; 108: 152241, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Feelings of shame and guilt have rarely been investigated in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. We aimed to outline differences in shame and guilt in relation to empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in young people, particularly those at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: First, 166 young healthy controls were assessed for their proneness to shame and guilt using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect, empathy and its four subdomains (perspective taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress) using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), ToM using the ToM picture stories task, and neurocognitive performance using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Next, we evaluated shame and guilt in 24 UHR individuals comparing them to 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Finally, we explored relationships for shame and guilt in relation to empathy and ToM in the UHR individuals. RESULTS: In the healthy youth, a regression analysis showed fantasy and personal distress in IRI to be significant determinants of shame, while perspective taking and empathic concern in IRI, ToM, and SPM were independent predictors of guilt. Meanwhile, compared to the healthy controls, individuals with UHR exhibited higher levels of shame, which was associated with increased personal distress. DISCUSSION: Our findings showed that four subdomains of empathy, ToM, and neurocognition were differentially associated with shame and guilt in healthy young people. Given the correlation between excessive feelings of shame and high levels of the personal distress dimension of empathy in UHR for psychosis, redressing the tendency to focus on self-oriented negative emotions upon witnessing distress of others could possibly reduce self-blame or self-stigma of help-seeking individuals.


Assuntos
Culpa , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Vergonha
7.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(4): 295-303, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) was developed by using Caucasian eyes, which may not be appropriate to be used in Korean. The aims of the present study were 1) to develop a Korean version of the RMET (K-RMET) by using Korean eye stimuli and 2) to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean-translated version of the RMET and the K-RMET. METHODS: Thirty-six photographs of Korean eyes were selected. A total of 196 (101 females) healthy subjects were asked to take the Korean-translated version of the RMET and K-RMET. To assess internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficients were computed, and test-retest reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item analysis were also conducted. RESULTS: Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.542 for the Korean-translated version of the RMET, and 0.540 for the K-RMET. Test-retest reliability (n=25), measured by the ICC, was 0.787 for the Korean-translated version of the RMET, and 0.758 for the K-RMET. In CFA, the assumed single and 3-factor model fit indices were not good in the both types of RMETs. There was difficulty in discrimination in nine items of the Korean-translated version of the RMET and 10 items of the K-RMET. CONCLUSION: The psychometric properties of both the Korean-translated version of the RMET and the K-RMET are acceptable. Both tests are applicable to the clinical population, as well as the general population in Korea.

8.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 304: 111154, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763759

RESUMO

Studies about social functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are lacking, even though neuroimaging studies and metacognition evaluation results suggest abnormal neural responses during social interactions. This study examined neural responses of OCD patients during handshakes with a virtual avatar. Because of the nature of the handshaking task, we expected that OCD patients with predominantly contamination/washing symptoms (CON) would show different neural responses compared to healthy controls (HCs) and to disease-controlled (NCON) patients. Thirteen CON, 13 NCON, and 18 HC participants performed handshake tasks with clean or dirty virtual avatars while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. During handshakes with a clean avatar, deactivation in the left anterior cingulate cortex was found in CON patients compared to NCON and HC subjects. This cortical deactivation also occurred with dirty-avatar handshakes, but the difference was significant only between the two OCD groups and HC patients. Deactivation in the left anterior cingulate cortex was correlated with both OCD symptom severity and social anxiety traits. This cortical deactivation in OCD, especially in CON patients, suggests that social dysfunction in OCD may be due to interactions between OCD symptoms and impairment in social cognition, including emotional processing.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Interação Social , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(8): 835-839, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is a common measure of the Theory of Mind. Previous studies found a correlation between RMET performance and neurocognition, especially reasoning by analogy; however, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. Additionally, neurocognition was shown to play a significant role in facial emotion recognition. This study is planned to examine the nature of relationship between neurocognition and RMET performance, as well as the mediating role of facial emotion recognition. METHODS: One hundred fifty non-clinical youths performed the RMET. Reasoning by analogy was tested by Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and facial emotion recognition was assessed by the Korean Facial Expressions of Emotion (KOFEE) test. The percentile bootstrap method was used to calculate the parameters of the mediating effects of facial emotion recognition on the relationship between SPM and RMET scores. RESULTS: SPM scores and KOFEE scores were both statistically significant predictors of RMET scores. KOFEE scores were found to partially mediate the impact of SPM scores on RMET scores. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that facial emotion recognition partially mediated the relationship between reasoning by analogy and social cognition. This study highlights the need for further research for individuals with serious mental illnesses.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676040

RESUMO

Background: Patients with schizophrenia and individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) have been reported to exhibit impaired recognition of facial emotion expressions. This impairment has involved both inaccuracy and negative bias of facial emotion recognition. The present study aimed to investigate whether UHR individuals display both types of impaired facial emotion recognition and to explore correlations between these impairments and schizotypy, as well as paranoia levels, in these individuals. Methods: A total of 43 UHR individuals and 57 healthy controls (HC) completed a facial emotion recognition task consisting of 60 standardized facial photographs. To explore correlations, we assessed schizotypy using the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale and Magical Ideation Scale and paranoia level using the Paranoia Scale and persecution/suspicious item of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in UHR individuals. Results: Compared with HC, UHR individuals exhibited less accuracy for facial emotion recognition (70.6% vs. 75.6%, p=0.010) and a higher rate of "fear" responses for neutral faces (14.5% vs. 6.0%, p=0.003). In UHR individuals, inaccuracy was significantly correlated with schizotypy scores, but not with paranoia level. Conversely, "disgust" response for neutral faces was the only fear response correlated with paranoia level, and no threat-related emotion response correlated with schizotypy scores. Discussion: UHR individuals exhibited inaccuracy and negative bias of facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, schizotypy scores were associated with inaccuracy but not with negative bias of facial emotion recognition. Paranoia level was correlated with "disgust" responses for neutral faces but not with inaccuracy. These findings suggest that inaccuracy and negative bias of facial emotion recognition reflect different underlying processes, and that inaccuracy may be a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia.

11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(11): 1871-1881, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713419

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Social relationships are an understudied factor affecting insomnia. In particular, these effects have not been evaluated in the context of sex differences. In this study, we investigated differences between sexes with regard to the association between insomnia symptoms and social relationships. METHODS: We used data from 2681 middle-aged adults (aged 40-64 years; females, 68.8%) from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center project. Insomnia symptoms were defined as difficulty with sleep induction or maintenance ≥3 nights per week. We assessed social network size and bridging potentials as indicators of social relationships. Social network size is a quantitative measure of the size of social relationships, and bridging potential is a qualitative indicator of the diversity and independence of these relationships. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for confounding factors was performed to evaluate associations between social relationships and insomnia symptoms. RESULTS: Smaller social network size was significantly associated with sleep induction (adjusted odds ratio = 0.866, P = .015) and sleep maintenance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.862, P = .015) difficulties, but only in men. Poor bridging potential was also associated with sleep induction (adjusted odds ratio = 0.321, P = .024) and maintenance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.305, P = .031) difficulties only in men. For women, social relationship variables were not significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The association between insomnia symptoms and social relationships varied by sex, as noted by statistical analyses accounting for covariates affecting insomnia symptoms. These results suggest that qualitative assessments of social relationship variables should be considered in clinical practice, since these variables can be interpreted differently for men and women.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Caracteres Sexuais , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
12.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 66: 24-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is prevalent among dialysis patients and affects their mortality. Although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is recommended, attending regular face-to-face CBTi sessions is a major challenge for patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of a self-directed computerized CBTi (cCBTi) in dialysis patients, and investigated changes in resting-state brain connectivity and inflammatory cytokines following cCBTi. METHOD: Thirty-five patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis who had insomnia were screened for participation in the study, with 17 participants included in the final analyses. A self-directed cCBTi protocol accessed via tablet computer during dialysis or at home was developed and applied. Information about sleep, anxiety, depression, laboratory data, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was obtained 3-5 days before and after cCBTi. RESULTS: cCBTi improved sleep quality, and this was correlated with increased resting-state brain connectivity between the default-mode network and the premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The decrement of interleukin-1ß levels were correlated with improved sleep quality and increased brain connectivity after cCBTi. CONCLUSION: Our pilot study findings suggest that cCBTi is effective for dialysis patients with insomnia, and the therapeutic effects of cCBTi are related to changes in brain functional connectivity and inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Conectoma , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Diálise Renal , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/sangue , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Assistida por Computador
13.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(5): 528-538, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Defects in self-referential processing and perspective-taking are core characteristics that may underlie psychotic symptoms and impaired social cognition in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of self-referential processing regardless of the perspective taken and third-person perspective-taking regardless of the target person to judge relevance in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. We also explored relationships between alterations in neural activity and neurocognitive function and basic self ('ipseity') disorder. METHODS: Twenty-two ultra-high-risk individuals and 28 healthy controls completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task. While being scanned, participants were asked to take a first-person perspective or to put themselves in their close relative's place thereby adopting a third-person perspective during judgments of the relevance of personality trait adjectives to one's self and a close relative. RESULTS: For self-referential (vs other-referential) processing, ultra-high-risk individuals showed less neural activity in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex/medial orbitofrontal cortex, which was correlated with poor working memory performance. When taking a third-person perspective (vs first-person perspective), ultra-high-risk individuals showed more activity in the middle occipital gyrus. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings suggest that ultra-high-risk individuals already show aberrant neural activity during self-referential processing which may possibly be related to engagement of working memory resources.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Autoimagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Julgamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725798

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211957.].

15.
JMIR Med Inform ; 7(3): e13139, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increase in the world's aging population, there is a growing need to prevent and predict dementia among the general population. The availability of national time-series health examination data in South Korea provides an opportunity to use deep learning algorithm, an artificial intelligence technology, to expedite the analysis of mass and sequential data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the discriminative accuracy between a time-series deep learning algorithm and conventional statistical methods to predict all-cause dementia and Alzheimer dementia using periodic health examination data. METHODS: Diagnostic codes in medical claims data from a South Korean national health examination cohort were used to identify individuals who developed dementia or Alzheimer dementia over a 10-year period. As a result, 479,845 and 465,081 individuals, who were aged 40 to 79 years and without all-cause dementia and Alzheimer dementia, respectively, were identified at baseline. The performance of the following 3 models was compared with predictions of which individuals would develop either type of dementia: Cox proportional hazards model using only baseline data (HR-B), Cox proportional hazards model using repeated measurements (HR-R), and deep learning model using repeated measurements (DL-R). RESULTS: The discrimination indices (95% CI) for the HR-B, HR-R, and DL-R models to predict all-cause dementia were 0.84 (0.83-0.85), 0.87 (0.86-0.88), and 0.90 (0.90-0.90), respectively, and those to predict Alzheimer dementia were 0.87 (0.86-0.88), 0.90 (0.88-0.91), and 0.91 (0.91-0.91), respectively. The DL-R model showed the best performance, followed by the HR-R model, in predicting both types of dementia. The DL-R model was superior to the HR-R model in all validation groups tested. CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning algorithm using time-series data can be an accurate and cost-effective method to predict dementia. A combination of deep learning and proportional hazards models might help to enhance prevention strategies for dementia.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 459, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293463

RESUMO

Background: Patients with schizophrenia have impairments in social functioning and are readmitted to healthcare institutions frequently. Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis already present poor social functioning; among those individuals, the conversion rate from the putative prodromal phase to overt psychosis is 20%-30% within 1-2 years. Here, we analyzed the factor structure of self-related variables and neuro- and socio-cognitive function, and investigated whether these factors were associated with psychosocial function and prognostic outcome in individuals with recent-onset schizophrenia (ROSPR) or at UHR for psychosis. Methods: We evaluated 60 individuals at UHR for psychosis, 47 individuals with ROSPR, and 71 healthy controls using a comprehensive neurocognitive test battery and self-reported attribution scales, self-esteem, resilience, aberrant subjective experiences of schizotypy (physical anhedonia, social anhedonia, magical ideation, and perceptual aberration), and basic symptoms. We assessed psychosocial function with the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Results: Factor analysis of all subjects revealed a four-factor structure comprising social-cognitive bias, reflective self, neurocognition, and pre-reflective self factors. Multiple regression analysis at baseline revealed that the factor structure predicted QLS. In the UHR group, social-cognitive bias, reflective self, neurocognition, and negative symptoms were significant determinants, explaining 38.0% of total QLS score variance. In the ROSPR group, reflective self and negative symptoms were significant determinants, explaining 54.4% of total QLS score variance. During follow-up, 13 individuals at UHR for psychosis developed psychosis (cumulative prevalence: 31.2% ± 7.6% at 6 years), with neurocognition score at baseline remaining a significant predictor of conversion [χ2(1) = 4.009, p = 0.045; hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.99, p = 0.048]. Five patients with schizophrenia were (re)admitted during follow-up (cumulative prevalence: 16.1% ± 7.1% at 6 years); no factor was found to predict (re)admission. Conclusion: Factor analysis revealed an intrinsic four-factor structure of social-cognitive bias, reflective self, neurocognition, and pre-reflective self. The four factors were associated with social functioning at baseline and prodrome-to-psychosis conversion during follow-up, indicating the clinical significance of the four-factor structure. These findings provide a framework for understanding schizophrenia.

17.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(6): 1279-1290, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220321

RESUMO

Negative symptoms are recognized as a fundamental feature of schizophrenia throughout the disease course. Epigenetic alterations in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may be a key mechanism involved in social-emotional disturbances of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated OXTR methylation and its association with clinical and brain network connectivity phenotypes of negative symptoms, particularly anhedonia-asociality, in individuals with recent-onset schizophrenia (ROS) and at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. Sixty-four ROS (39 women), 46 UHR (19 women), and 98 healthy individuals (52 women) participated in this study. OXTR methylation was quantified using the pyrosequencing method. A subset of participants (16 ROS, 23 UHR, and 33 healthy controls [HCs]) underwent a 5.5-minute resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the relationship between OXTR methylation and the striatal-amygdala network functional connectivity (FC) underlying anhedonia-asociality. Both men and women with ROS and UHR showed significantly decreased OXTR methylation compared to HCs. In women with ROS and UHR, decreased OXTR methylation showed a significant correlation with increased anhedonia-asociality. FC of the striatal-amygdala network, positively associated with the severity of anhedonia-asociality, showed an inverse correlation with OXTR methylation. This study suggests that epigenetic alterations of OXTR, which can be detected before the development of full-blown psychosis, confer susceptibility to schizophrenia and play a crucial role in the manifestation of anhedonia-asociality, particularly in women.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neostriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178767

RESUMO

Background: The Clinical High Risk state for Psychosis (CHR-P) has become the cornerstone of modern preventive psychiatry. The next stage of clinical advancements rests on the ability to formulate a more accurate prognostic estimate at the individual subject level. Individual Participant Data Meta-Analyses (IPD-MA) are robust evidence synthesis methods that can also offer powerful approaches to the development and validation of personalized prognostic models. The aim of the study was to develop and validate an individualized, clinically based prognostic model for forecasting transition to psychosis from a CHR-P stage. Methods: A literature search was performed between January 30, 2016, and February 6, 2016, consulting PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using search terms ("ultra high risk" OR "clinical high risk" OR "at risk mental state") AND [(conver* OR transition* OR onset OR emerg* OR develop*) AND psychosis] for both longitudinal and intervention CHR-P studies. Clinical knowledge was used to a priori select predictors: age, gender, CHR-P subgroup, the severity of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, the severity of attenuated negative psychotic symptoms, and level of functioning at baseline. The model, thus, developed was validated with an extended form of internal validation. Results: Fifteen of the 43 studies identified agreed to share IPD, for a total sample size of 1,676. There was a high level of heterogeneity between the CHR-P studies with regard to inclusion criteria, type of assessment instruments, transition criteria, preventive treatment offered. The internally validated prognostic performance of the model was higher than chance but only moderate [Harrell's C-statistic 0.655, 95% confidence interval (CIs), 0.627-0.682]. Conclusion: This is the first IPD-MA conducted in the largest samples of CHR-P ever collected to date. An individualized prognostic model based on clinical predictors available in clinical routine was developed and internally validated, reaching only moderate prognostic performance. Although personalized risk prediction is of great value in the clinical practice, future developments are essential, including the refinement of the prognostic model and its external validation. However, because of the current high diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic heterogeneity of CHR-P studies, IPD-MAs in this population may have an limited intrinsic power to deliver robust prognostic models.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753205

RESUMO

The early identification and prevention of dementia is important for reducing its worldwide burden and increasing individuals' quality of life. Although several dementia prediction models have been developed, there remains a need for a practical and precise model targeted to middle-aged and Asian populations. Here, we used national Korean health examination data from adults (331,126 individuals, 40-69 years of age, mean age: 52 years) from 2002-2003 to predict the incidence of dementia after 10 years. We divided the dataset into two cohorts to develop and validate of our prediction model. Cox proportional hazards models were used to construct dementia prediction models for the total group and sex-specific subgroups. Receiver operating characteristics curves, C-statistics, calibration plots, and cumulative hazards were used to validate model performance. Discriminative accuracy as measured by C-statistics was 0.81 in the total group (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.81 to 0.82), 0.81 in the male subgroup (CI = 0.80 to 0.82), and 0.81 in the female subgroup (CI = 0.80 to 0.82). Significant risk factors for dementia in the total group were age; female sex; underweight; current hypertension; comorbid psychiatric or neurological disorder; past medical history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension; current smoking; and no exercise. All identified risk factors were statistically significant in the sex-specific subgroups except for low body weight and current hypertension in the female subgroup. These results suggest that public health examination data can be effectively used to predict dementia and facilitate the early identification of dementia within a middle-aged Asian population.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 79: 309-313, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685533

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that systemic inflammation adversely affects social experiences and behaviors of older adults by changing the functional state of the brain. In this study, we investigated the relationships among systemic inflammation, functional network connectivity (FNC) of the whole brain, and social-network size using complete social-network data of older adults residing in a Korean village. Sixty-one participants were recruited from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured as an inflammation marker. In-degree and out-degree network sizes were calculated based on the total number of intimate social relationships per participant. We demonstrated that hs-CRP levels were associated with decreased frontotemporal FNC. Stronger frontotemporal FNC was significantly correlated with a larger out-degree network size, suggesting that impaired frontotemporal communication in older adults decreases perceived social connectedness with other people. An exploratory mediation analysis supported the observation that increased systemic inflammation contributes to reduced out-degree social-network size among older adults by changing frontotemporal FNC. The present findings provide meaningful insight into the complex relationship between systemic inflammation and social quality of life.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Relações Interpessoais , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Idoso , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Conectoma/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Inflamação/imunologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Características de Residência , Descanso , Rede Social , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/imunologia
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