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1.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-393798

RESUMO

Vídeoaula sobre "modelos de desenvolvimento que respeitem e promovam a diversidade sociocultural dos povos indígenas", por Ana Lúcia Pontes, pesquisadora da ENSP e coordenadora do Grupo Temático de Saúde Indígena da ABRASCO, durante o evento: Colóquios da Semana Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia 2019, tem como tema "Bioeconomia: Diversidade e Riqueza para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável". Data: 16 Outubro de 2019


Assuntos
Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Biodiversidade , Direitos dos Povos Indígenas
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108969, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007422

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant that poses risk to human health and the environment, while glutamate homeostasis is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain. We have previously shown an increase in oxidative stress after cockroach exposure to diet containing monosodium glutamate (MSG), both separately and combined with a low dose of methylmercury. We herein seek to corroborate these findings by quantifying the expression levels of certain antioxidant genes in Nauphoeta cinerea exposed to MeHg and MSG. Cockroaches were fed with the basal diet alone, basal diet +2% NaCl, basal diet +2% MSG; basal diet +0.125 mg/g MeHg, basal diet +0.125 mg/g MeHg +2% NaCl; and basal diet +0.125 mg/g MeHg +2% MSG for 21 days and mRNA from head homogenate was used to quantify the expression of antioxidant genes such as glutathione-s-transferase (GstS, GstT, GstD), thioredoxin (Trx1, Trx2, Trx5), peroxiredoxin (prx4), superoxide dismutase (Sod), catalase (Cat). MeHg, NaCl and MSG alone downregulated mRNA levels of GstS and Trx5, in contrast, co-exposure of MeHg + MSG, upregulated these genes. MeHg + NaCl upregulated the mRNA levels of Cat and Sod but these genes were downregulated by NaCl alone. MeHg + NaCl and MeHg + MSG upregulated GstD and GstT. MeHg alone upregulated the transcription levels of Trx1, Trx2 and Prx4. The disruptions in the transcription levels of various genes by MeHg and MSG, reinforce the toxicity of these neurotoxicants. In general, the data suggest their additive effects and support the use of N. cinerea as a model for toxicological studies.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032698

RESUMO

Due to its multifactorial and yet to be fully understood origin, ethanol addiction is a field that still requires studies for the elucidation of novel genes and pathways that potentially influence the establishment and maintenance of addiction-like phenotypes. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of the LRRK2 pathway in the modulation of ethanol preference behavior in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using the behavioral Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm, we accessed the preference of animals for ethanol. Next, we evaluated the transcriptional regulation of the gene lrrk2 and the receptors drd1, drd2, grin1a, gria2a, and gabbr1b in the zebrafish brain. Additionally, we used a selective inhibitor of Lrrk2 (GNE-0877) to assess the role of this gene in the preference behavior. Our results revealed four distinct ethanol preference phenotypes (Light, Heavy, Negative Reinforcement, and Inflexible), each showing different transcriptional regulation patterns of the drd1, drd2, grin1a, gria2a, and gabbr1b receptors. We showed that the lrrk2 gene was hyperregulated only in the brains of the animals with the Inflexible phenotype. Most importantly, we showed, for the first time in the context of preference for ethanol, that treatment with the GNE-0877 inhibitor modulates the transcription of the target receptor genes and reduces the preference for ethanol in the animals of the Inflexible group. This result corroborates the hypothesis that the LRRK2 pathway is involved in the inflexible preference for ethanol behavior. Lastly, we identified a possible pharmacological target for the treatment of abusive preference behavior for ethanol.

4.
Transplant Proc ; 52(1): 89-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After renal transplantation (RTx) hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality resulting in lower patient and graft survival. Few studies have investigated the evolution of renal transplant patients with cirrhosis owing to HCV. The objectives were to evaluate the post-transplant evolution of cirrhotic patients and to compare them with noncirrhotic patients considering the outcomes, including hepatic decompensation, graft loss, and death. METHODS: The retrospective-cohort study analyzed the data of patients undergoing RTx between 1993 and 2014, positive anti-HCV, HCV-RNA before RTx, and availability of data for assessment of cirrhosis. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were compared between the groups according to the outcomes. The same were made between cirrhotic patients with and without portal hypertension (PH). Survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan-Meier test and compared by the log-rank test. Variables associated with the outcomes were analyzed using Cox regression. RESULTS: This study included noncirrhotic (n = 201) and cirrhotic patients (n = 23). In cirrhotic patients, they were significantly older (49 vs 41.6 years) and mostly male (87% vs 65%), with a greater number of previous RTx (48% vs 18%), less frequent use of azathioprine (26% vs 54%), cyclosporine (13% vs 46.5%), more frequent use of tacrolimus (87% vs 55%), lower count of platelets × 1000 cells/mm3(110 vs 187), and higher pre-RTx international normalized ratio (1.20 vs 1.1).The Kaplan-Meier survival differed in cirrhotic vs noncirrhotic patients only in hepatic decompensation. Cox regression analysis identified pretransplant cirrhosis (hazard ratio 6.64, 95% confidence interval, 2.59-17.06) and tacrolimus (hazard ratio 3.17,95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.58) as variables independently associated with decompensation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HCV and cirrhosis exhibit higher morbidity when submitted to RTx than noncirrhotic patients, with a higher risk of hepatic decompensation. However, no difference was observed in liver-related mortality, suggesting that RTx is a feasible option in cirrhotic patients without decompensation, even if they have PH.

5.
Glia ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003513

RESUMO

Astrogliosis comprises a variety of changes in astrocytes that occur in a context-specific manner, triggered by temporally diverse signaling events that vary with the nature and severity of brain insults. However, most mechanisms underlying astrogliosis were described using animals, which fail to reproduce some aspects of human astroglial signaling. Here, we report an in vitro model to study astrogliosis using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived astrocytes which replicate temporally intertwined aspects of reactive astrocytes in vivo. We analyzed the time course of astrogliosis by measuring nuclear translocation of NF-kB, production of cytokines, changes in morphology and function of iPSC-derived astrocytes exposed to TNF-α. We observed NF-kB p65 subunit nuclear translocation and increased gene expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in the first hours following TNF-α stimulation. After 24 hr, conditioned media from iPSC-derived astrocytes exposed to TNF-α exhibited increased secretion of inflammation-related cytokines. After 5 days, TNF-α-stimulated cells presented a typical phenotype of astrogliosis such as increased immunolabeling of Vimentin and GFAP and nuclei with elongated shape and shrinkage. Moreover, ~50% decrease in aspartate uptake was observed during the time course of astrogliosis with no evident cell damage, suggesting astroglial dysfunction. Together, our results indicate that human iPSC-derived astrocytes reproduce canonical events associated with astrogliosis in a time dependent fashion. The approach described here may contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms governing human astrogliosis with potential applicability as a platform to uncover novel biomarkers and drug targets to prevent or mitigate astrogliosis associated with human brain disorders.

6.
Codas ; 32(4): e20180275, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify whether the development of hearing abilities in the first year of life is related to the development of language in preterm neonates with chronological age between 18 and 36 months, verifying if the language performance varies according to the weight/gestational age ratio. METHODS: Retrospective and longitudinal study approved by the Institution's Ethics Committee. The sample consisted of 66 preterm infants of both sexes, aged 18-36 months, divided into two groups: AIG Group 39 neonates with weight appropriate to the gestational age, 26 with normal hearing and 13 with altered hearing; and PIG group 27 neonates small for gestational age, 18 with normal and 9 with altered hearing. Results from the development of auditory skills in the first year of life and evaluation of the reception, expression and total of language (Menezes, 2003) were obtained from neonatal follow-up records. We used the ANOVA and the Equality Test of Two Proportions as statistical procedures. RESULTS: In each group, we observed a significant difference in the Reception and Total language in children with normal and altered auditory development. Children with normal hearing development presented a higher percentage of language adequacy. The language performance did not differ in relation to the weight / gestational age adequacy. CONCLUSION: Changing auditory abilities in the first year of life interfered more in language development than the gestational age / weight ratio.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057860

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro protective effect of topical treatment with a native sulfated polysaccharide of G. caudata (SP-Gc), hydrolyzed (H-SP-Gc), or desulfated (D-SP-Gc) polysaccharide of Gracilaria caudata in esophageal biopsies obtained from GERD patients. Biopsies were obtained from nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) patients and from erosive esophagitis patients. Then, the biopsies were mounted in an Ussing chamber to measure the basal transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). The effect of mucosal exposure to an acid solution on TEER was analyzed with or without different concentrations (1, 0.3 or 1%) of SP-Gc, H-SP-Gc, or D-SP-Gc, precoated on the mucosa. Basal esophageal mucosal electrical resistance was significantly lower in erosive esophagitis than from NERD. Mucosal samples precoated with native SP-Gc (1%) significantly prevented TEER drop induced by an acidic solution in NERD, but this effect was not observed in erosive esophagitis. Topical application of D-SP-Gc showed no difference compared to native SP-Gc. However, when treated with chemically-modified SP-Gc, the protective effect observed with native SP-Gc was lost. The present study indicated that SP-Gc protects the human esophageal mucosal barrier in NERD patients. This effect is dependent on the structure but is independent of the presence of sulfate.

9.
Behav Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040015

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of depression includes glucocorticoids excess, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress impairment. Previous study demonstrated Morus nigra L. leaves extract and syringic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid), its major phenolic compound, administered orally for 7 days, decreased the immobility time in the tail suspension test, without locomotor alteration. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects, antioxidant effects, and neuroprotective effects of M. nigra leaves extract and syringic acid in an animal model of depression induced by corticosterone. Herein, corticosterone administered in male Swiss mice, 60-90 days of age, at 20 mg/kg, once a day, for 21 days, was effective to induce depressive-like phenotype. This alteration was accompanied by the increase of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and protein carbonyl) and the decrease in nonprotein thiols level, besides impairment in the hippocampus. Conversely, the treatment with M. nigra leaves extract (10 mg/kg), syringic acid (1 mg/kg), or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), administered once a day for the last 7 days of the corticosterone treatment, was able to abolish the behavioral alterations elicited by corticosterone, reinforcing evidence of the M. nigra leaves extract and syringic acid having antidepressant-like effect. Both treatments also exerted antioxidant property in the mice's brain, reducing the amount of oxidative stress and abolishing the corticosterone-induced damage in the hippocampal slices. In addition, the treatments protected the hippocampus against the damage induced by the association between corticosterone administration and glutamate excess. In conclusion, M. nigra leaves extract and syringic acid revoke depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone via inhibition of oxidative stress and hippocampal damage.

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 171, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis spend most of their daily hours in sedentary behavior (sitting), a predisposing factor to poor health-related outcomes and all-cause mortality. Interventions focused on reducing sedentary time could be of novel therapeutic relevance. However, studies addressing this topic remain scarce. We aim to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of a newly developed intervention focused on reducing sedentary time, and potential clinical, physiological, metabolic and molecular effects in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: The Take a STAND for Health study is a 4-month, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, in which postmenopausal patients with rheumatoid arthritis will set individually tailored, progressive goals to replace their sedentary time with standing and light-intensity activities. Patients will be recruited from the Clinical Hospital (School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo) and will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month follow up. Outcomes will include objectively measured sedentary behavior (primary outcome) and physical activity levels, clinical parameters, anthropometric parameters and body composition; aerobic fitness, muscle function, blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic function, vascular function and structure, health-related quality of life, and food intake. Blood and muscle samples will be collected for assessing potential mechanisms, through targeted and non-targeted approaches. DISCUSSION: Findings will be of scientific and clinical relevance with the potential to inform new prescriptions focused on reducing sedentary behavior, a modifiable risk factor that thus far has been overlooked in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03186924. Registered on 14 June 2017.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933097

RESUMO

Plant-based biomass (CFB (carnauba fruit biomass)) obtained from the fruit exocarp of the species Copernicia prunifera (Mill.) H.E. Moore (carnauba) was evaluated for its viability as an adsorbent of potentially toxic metals in aqueous medium. The CFB was characterized by powder X-ray spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential to investigate the morphology of the biosorbent and its interaction with water soluble metal ions of Pb and Cd. The biomass presents an amorphous structure, with negative zeta potential (- 2.59 mV), and the presence of functional groups such as O-H, C-O-C, C-H, and C=O. The removal potential of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was performed in a batch system, and monoelement solutions were tested to assess the effects of adsorbent dose and initial metal ion concentration, pH at the point of zero charge (pHPZC), sorption kinetics, and adsorption capacity. The most appropriate adsorbent concentration was 5 g/L, and sorption studies were carried out at pH 5.0 (pHPZC = 4.68), in which the surface of the adsorbent shows negative charges and favors the adsorption of metal ions. Kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second order model best fit the experimental data, and equilibrium was reached at 120 min of contact time. The experimental sorption capacity (SCexp) for Pb and Cd was around 28 and 34 mg/g, respectively, and six different non-linear isotherm models were used to describe the sorption phenomena, among them, four with 2 parameters, i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR), respectively, and two with 3 parameters, namely, SIPS and Hill. The non-linear Temkin and Freundlich isotherm models best fit the experimental data for Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively. According to the Langmuir model, Qmax was 26 mg/g and 58 mg/g for Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively, indicating the efficiency of CFB as a new alternative to conventional methods for the removal of potentially toxic metals from aqueous medium.

12.
Biomater Sci ; 8(3): 798-811, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904045

RESUMO

In this work, dextran-based nerve tube-guides were prepared, characterized and used in a standardized animal model of neurotmesis injury. Non-porous and porous transparent tube-guides were obtained by photocrosslinking of two co-macromonomers based on dextran and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Swelling capacity of the tube-guides ranged from 40-60% with no visible constriction of their inner diameter. In vitro hydrolytic degradation tests showed that the tube-guides maintained their structural integrity up to 6 months. The in vivo performance of the tube-guides was evaluated by entubulation of the rat sciatic nerve after a neurotmesis injury, with a 10 mm-gap between the nerve stumps. The results showed that the tube-guides were able to promote the regeneration of the nerve in a similar manner to what was observed with conventional techniques (nerve graft and end-to-end suture). Stereological analysis proved that nerve regeneration occurred, and both tube-guides presented fibre diameter and g-ratio closer to healthy sciatic nerves. The histomorphometric analysis of Tibialis anterior (TA) skeletal muscle showed decreased neurogenic atrophy in the porous tube-guides treated group, presenting measurements that are similar to the uninjured control.

13.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103383, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948624

RESUMO

Thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactococcus lactis, play a crucial role in the technological and sensory quality of Mozzarella cheese. In this study, the safety (genes encoding virulence factors and antibiotic resistance) and acidifying activity of autochthonous S. thermophilus cultures were evaluated in order to choose the most suitable strain for industrial application. The safe and good acidifying culture was tested in two buffalo Mozzarella cheese batches: Mozzarella cheeses produced with autochthonous culture (SJRP107) and commercial culture (STM5). The cultivable LAB was evaluated by culture-dependent method (plate counting) and the quantification of S. thermophilus cultures (commercial and autochthonous) were evaluated by culture-independent method RealT-qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction). The texture, physicochemical and proteolytic properties of the Mozzarella cheeses were similar for both batches. The nonstarter LAB count was higher during manufacture than in the storage, and the RealT-qPCR indicated the presence of S. thermophilus culture until the end of storage. S. thermophilus SJRP107 presented high potential for safety application in the production of Mozzarella cheese. Furthermore, considering the culture characteristics and their relationship with product quality, further studies could be helpful to determine their effect on the sensory characteristics of the cheese.

14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950325

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan Proteins (AGPs) are hydroxyproline-rich proteins containing a high proportion of carbohydrates, widely spread in the plant kingdom. AGPs have been suggested to play important roles in plant development processes, especially in sexual plant reproduction. Nevertheless, the functions of a large number of these molecules, remains to be discovered. In this review, we discuss two revolutionary genetic techniques that are able to decode the roles of these glycoproteins in an easy and efficient way. The RNA interference is a frequently technique used in plant biology that promotes genes silencing. The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), emerged a few years ago as a revolutionary genome-editing technique that has allowed null mutants to be obtained in a wide variety of organisms, including plants. The two techniques have some differences between them and depending on the research objective, these may work as advantage or disadvantage. In the present work, we propose the use of the two techniques to obtain AGP mutants easily and quickly, helping to unravel the role of AGPs, surely a great asset for the future.

15.
Med Eng Phys ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982321

RESUMO

Conventional tests for assessing the early reading skills of preschool children on school entry are not accessible to students with motor limitations of upper limbs. This paper presents a game-like computerized test featuring an appealing scenario that is accessible to these students. It was developed on a platform that creates 2D vector graphics and contains three phases of interactive content accessible through an adapted peripheral. A conventional card-based test was also used to validate the effectiveness of the computerized test. Both tests were performed by thirty-three preschool children without mobility impairment all aged between four years and six months and six years and two months (x¯ = 5,33; σ = 0,44). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the nonparametric data from the computerized test with the card-based test in the first and second phase, yielding results of p = 0.11 and p = 0.21, respectively. The Student's t-test was conducted to compare the parametric data of the third phase of the computerized test with the data from the third phase of the card-based test yielded results of p = 0.07.Three gaming experts considered the computerized test to be fun and engaging, and three teachers concluded that the computerized test meets educational goals. Additionally, seven volunteers with moderate mobility impairment (group T), aged between eight and seventeen years old (x¯=11.8; σ = 3.5), accompanied by two physical therapists, took the computerized test using the adapted peripheral device and performed the required tasks without difficulty and without showing signs of fatigue. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the computerized test may enable educators to include students with mobility difficulties in literacy assessments and to design teaching strategies that are appropriate given their levels of knowledge.

16.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916461

RESUMO

Palicourea species has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of some diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders. This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract, fractions and two major alkaloids isolated from Palicourea minutiflora. Methanolic extract, non-alkaloidal and alkaloidal fractions exhibited strong growth inhibition for ovarian cell lines (OVCAR-3, GI50 = 3.8 at 16.3 µg mL-1) and the vincosamide alkaloid revealed selective effect on the growth of glioma cell lines (U251, GI50 = 33.0 µg mL-1) compared with doxorubicin (DOX, GI50 = 0.42 and 0.025 µg mL-1, respectively) anticancer drug. Methanolic extract, fractions and strictosidinic acid showed significant inhibitory effect with 62.7% at 77.5% (p < 0.05) to ear edema induced by croton oil and 81% at 100% (p < 0.05) to myeloperoxidase assay compared with indomethacin (positive control) 68.4% and 91.3% (p < 0.05), respectively.

17.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902026

RESUMO

To investigate the association between food consumption stratified by processing level and cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis. In this cross-sectional study, 56 patients (age: 62.5 ± 7.9 years, BMI: 28.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2) had food consumption evaluated according to the processing level (e.g., unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods) and associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent food processing level was unprocessed or minimally processed foods (42.6 ± 12.6% of total energy intake [TEI]), followed by processed (24.2 ± 11.9%TEI), ultra-processed (18.1 ± 11.8%TEI), and culinary ingredients (15.1 ± 6.4%TEI). Adjusted regression models showed that higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively associated with Framingham risk score (ß = 0.06, CI: 95% 0.001, 0.11, p = 0.045) and glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.04, CI: 95% 0.01, 0.08, p = 0.021). In contrast, higher consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods was associated with lower 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (ß = -0.05, CI: 95% - 0.09, -0.003, p = 0.021) and LDL (ß = -1.09, CI: 95% - 1.94, -0.24, p = 0.013). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis consuming more ultra-processed foods showed worse metabolic profile, whereas those consuming more unprocessed or minimally processed foods had lower cardiovascular risks. A food pattern characterized by a high ultra-processed food consumption appears to emerge as a novel, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in rheumatoid arthritis. Key-Points • Higher ultra-processed food consumption was associated with worse metabolic profile and increased cardiovascular risk, whereas higher unprocessed or minimally processed food consumption was associated with lower 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. • A food pattern characterized by a high ultra-processed food consumption appears to emerge as a novel, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in rheumatoid arthritis.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974720

RESUMO

Physical exercise has been shown to exert antidepressant effects, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not completely elucidated. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the antidepressant, pro-neurogenic, and neuroprotective effects of physical exercise and the possible role of FNDC5/irisin for this effect. Treadmill running was used as a protocol of physical exercise (45 min/day/5 days/week for 4 weeks) in female Swiss mice. Immobility time was registered in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). Immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate hippocampal cell proliferation, neuronal survival, and neuronal commitment and maturation, as well as expression of FNDC5 C-terminal fragment were performed in the entire, dorsal, and ventral dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Fluoro-Jade B staining was performed to evaluate degenerating neurons in DG. FNDC5 C-terminal and FNDC5/irisin immunocontents were analyzed by western blot. Exposure to physical exercise reduced the immobility time both in the TST and the FST. This antidepressant-like effect was accompanied by an increase in hippocampal cell proliferation, hippocampal neuronal differentiation, and neuronal survival in the dorsal and ventral DG. Fluoro-Jade B staining was reduced in entire and dorsal DG in exercised mice. Finally, physical exercise also resulted in increased number of FNDC5-positive cells in the hippocampal DG as well as elevated FNDC5 C-terminal and FNDC5/irisin immunocontent in the entire hippocampus. The results suggest that the FNDC5 C-terminal fragment/irisin pathway may be implicated in the antidepressant-like, pro-neurogenic, and neuroprotective effects of treadmill running.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963116

RESUMO

Challenges remain for policy adoption and implementation to tackle the unprecedented and relentless increase in obesity, diabetes and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this mixed-methods study is to analyse the contextual relevance and applicability to low-resource settings of a sample of evidence-based healthy public policies, using local knowledge, perceptions and pertinent epidemiological data. Firstly, we will identify and prioritise policies that have the potential to reduce the burden of diabetes in low-resource settings with a scoping review and modified Delphi method. In parallel, we will undertake two cross-sectional population surveys on diabetes risk and morbidity in two low-resource settings in Ecuador. Patients, community members, health workers and policy makers will analyse the contextual relevance and applicability of the policy actions and discuss their potential for the reduction in inequities in diabetes risk and morbidity in their population. This study tackles one of the greatest challenges in global health today: how to drive the implementation of population-wide preventative measures to fight NCDs in low resource settings. The findings will demonstrate how local knowledge, perceptions and pertinent epidemiological data can be used to analyse the contextual relevance and applicability of potential policy actions.

20.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(1): 154-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanin plays an important role in protecting the skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation, but its abnormal accumulation may become an aesthetic problem, such as melasma and age spots. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiangiogenic and whitening effects of a depigmentation formulation (BLTX) using an in vitro model of human cell and skin culture. METHODS: Human fibroblasts, keratinocytes or melanocytes were treated with BLTX and subjected to oxidative stress by UV radiation or inflammatory stress with IL-1α for quantification of melanin, tyrosinase, endothelin-1, PAR-2, VEGF and iNOS. Fragments of human skin, from elective plastic surgery, were treated with BLTX and subjected to histological evaluation with hematoxylin/eosin associated with Fontana-Masson technique for melanin view. A parametric method, the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni test, was used to compare data among all groups. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that BLTX promotes a reduction in VEGF and iNOS protein synthesis in cultured dermal fibroblasts, indicating an antiangiogenic property. In relation to whitening effect, BLTX was able to reduce the production of melanin in both systems, melanocytes and human skin cultures. The depigmenting action was also revealed by decreasing the levels of endothelin-1, PAR-2 and activity of tyrosinase, when compared to cultures exposed to UV radiation. CONCLUSION: The results allow us to infer that BLTX presents an antiangiogenic effect indicating a role in the vascular component of melasma. Furthermore, the whitening property observed reinforces its use in the prevention and treatment of melasma.

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