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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(1): 21-29, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997098

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) experience an increased risk of major vascular events. There is limited information on what clinical features of symptomatic LE-PAD prognosticate major vascular events and whether patients at high risk have a greater absolute benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin. Objective: To quantify the risk of major vascular events and investigate the response to treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin among patients with symptomatic LE-PAD based on clinical presentation and comorbidities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a subanalysis of a previously reported subgroup of patients with symptomatic LE-PAD who were enrolled in a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies [COMPASS]) in 602 centers in 33 countries from March 2013 to January 2020. Data analysis was completed from May 2016 to June 2020. Interventions: A combination of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-month incidence risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death (MACE), major adverse limb events (MALE) including major vascular amputation, and bleeding. Results: The COMPASS trial enrolled 4129 patients with symptomatic LE-PAD (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [8.8] years; 2932 men [71.0%]). The 30-month Kaplan-Meier incidence risk of MACE or MALE, including major amputation, was 22.6% in those with prior amputation (this outcome was observed in 54 patients), 17.6% (n = 15) in those with Fontaine III or IV symptoms, and 11.8% (n = 142) in those with previous peripheral artery revascularization, classifying these features as high-risk limb presentations. The 30-month incidence risk of MACE or MALE, including major amputation, was 14.1% (n = 118) in those with kidney dysfunction, 13.5% (n = 67) in those with heart failure, 13.4% (n = 199) in those with diabetes, and 12.8% (n = 222) in those with polyvascular disease, classifying these features as high-risk comorbidities. Among patients with either high-risk limb presentations or high-risk comorbidities, treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone was associated with an estimated 4.2% (95% CI, 1.9%-6.2%) absolute risk reduction for MACE or MALE, including major amputation, at 30 months. Although the estimated absolute risk increase of major bleeding was higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin in combination than aspirin alone (2.0% [95% CI, 0.5%-3.9%]) for patients with either high-risk limb presentation or high-risk comorbidity, the estimated absolute risk increase of fatal or critical organ bleeding was low in this high-risk group (0.4% [95% CI, 0.2%-1.8%]), such that the net clinical benefit was estimated to be 3.2% (95% CI, 0.6%-5.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with LE-PAD with high-risk limb presentations or high-risk comorbidities had a high incidence of major vascular events. For these patients, treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin in combination compared with aspirin alone led to a large absolute reduction in vascular risk.

2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(1): 30-40, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078911

RESUMO

Despite decades of improvement in its diagnosis and management, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinically relevant differences exist in the risk of symptomatic VTE among ethnoracial groups. Underlying these differences in rates of VTE are patterns of known genetic thrombophilias, which may also influence the risks of major bleeding related to vitamin K antagonists or direct oral anticoagulants. In addition, social factors, differential access to care, and disease awareness differ between ethnoracial groups, which contributes to disparities in VTE outcomes that include higher fatal events. The vast majority of participants included in clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of VTE have been White Caucasian, which limits our understanding of the differential impact of these agents in non-White ethnoracial groups. Increasing the participation in clinical trials of diverse ethnoracial groups should be a priority, especially those groups who are disproportionately affected by the burden of VTE, or possible bleeding complications when exposed to anticoagulants. Advocacy by patients, researchers, and regulatory bodies is crucial to ensure adequate enrolment of diverse ethnoracial groups in order to best inform clinical decisions to optimize VTE prevention and treatment for non-White populations.

3.
CJC Open ; 2(6): 522-529, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305212

RESUMO

Background: A previous review of sex, gender, and equity within cardiovascular (CV) medicine, surgery, and science in Canada has revealed parity during medical and graduate school training. The purpose of this study was to explore sex and gendered experiences within the Canadian CV landscape, and their impact on career training and progression. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted of the Canadian CV landscape, which included an equity survey using Qualtrics software. Results: The environmental scan revealed that women remain underrepresented within CV training programs as trainees (12%-30%), program directors (33%), in leadership roles at the divisional level (21%), and in other professional or career-related activities (< 30%). Our analysis also showed improvements of career engagement at these levels of women at over time. The thematic analysis of the equity survey responses (n = 71 respondents; 83% female; 9.7% response rate among female Canadian Cardiovascular Society members) identified the following themes reported within the socio-ecological framework: desire to report inequities vs staying the course (individual level); desire for social support and mentorship and challenges of dual responsibilities (interpersonal level); concerns over exclusionary cliques and desire for respect and opportunity (organizational level); and increasing awareness and actions to overcome institutional barriers and accountability (societal level). Conclusions: Although women face challenges and remain underrepresented in CV medicine, surgery, and science, this study highlights potential opportunities for improving access of female medical, surgical, and research trainees and professionals to specialized cardiovascular training, career advancement, leadership, and research.

4.
CJC Open ; 2(6): 599-609, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305220

RESUMO

Background: The intent of the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) cohort is to understand the early determinants of subclinical cardiac and vascular disease and progression in adults selected from existing cohorts-the Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow's Health, the Prospective Urban and Rural Evaluation (PURE) cohort, and the Montreal Heart Institute Biobank. We evaluated how well the CAHHM-Health Services Research (CAHHM-HSR) subcohort reflects the Canadian population. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used among a prospective cohort of community-dwelling adults aged 35-69 years who met the CAHHM inclusion criteria, and a cohort of adults aged 35-69 years who responded to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Rapid Response module. The INTERHEART risk score was calculated at the individual level with means and proportions reported at the overall and provincial level. Results: There are modest differences between CAHHM-HSR study participants and the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Rapid Response respondents in age (56.3 vs 51.7 mean years), proportion of men (44.9% vs 49.3%), and mean INTERHEART risk score (9.7 vs 10.1). Larger differences were observed in postsecondary education (86.8% vs 70.2%), Chinese ethnicity (11.0% vs 3.3%), obesity (23.2% vs 29.3%), current smoker status (6.1% vs 18.4%), and having no cardiac testing (30.4% vs 55.9%). Conclusions: CAHHM-HSR participants are older, of higher socioeconomic status, and have a similar mean INTERHEART risk score, compared with participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey. Differing sampling strategies and missing data may explain some differences between the CAHHM-HSR cohort and Canadian community-dwelling adults and should be considered when using the CAHHM-HSR for scientific research.

5.
Circulation ; 142(23): 2219-2230, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease) demonstrated superiority of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin to reduce major cardiac and ischemic limb events after lower extremity revascularization. Clopidogrel is commonly used as a short-term adjunct to aspirin after endovascular revascularization. Whether clopidogrel modifies the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described. METHODS: VOYAGER PAD was a phase 3, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization randomized to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus 100 mg aspirin daily or rivaroxaban placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety end point was TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding, with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding a secondary safety outcome. Clopidogrel use was allowed at the discretion of the investigator for up to 6 months after the qualifying revascularization. RESULTS: Of the randomized patients, 3313 (50.6%) received clopidogrel for a median duration of 29.0 days. Over 3 years, the hazard ratio for the primary outcome of rivaroxaban versus placebo was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.01) with clopidogrel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01) without clopidogrel without statistical heterogeneity (P for interaction=0.92). Rivaroxaban resulted in an early apparent reduction in acute limb ischemia within 30 days (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-1.46] with clopidogrel; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.01] without clopidogrel; P for interaction=0.93). Compared with aspirin, rivaroxaban increased TIMI major bleeding similarly regardless of clopidogrel use (P for interaction=0.71). With clopidogrel use >30 days, rivaroxaban was associated with more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding within 365 days (hazard ratio, 3.20 [95% CI, 1.44-7.13]) compared with shorter durations of clopidogrel (P for trend=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: In the VOYAGER PAD trial, rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular and limb events with an early benefit for acute limb ischemia regardless of clopidogrel use. The safety of rivaroxaban was consistent regardless of clopidogrel use but with a trend for more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding with clopidogrel use >30 days than with a shorter duration. These data support the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin after lower extremity revascularization regardless of concomitant clopidogrel, with a short course (≤30 days) associated with less bleeding. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02504216.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment. The anatomical basis for this is uncertain. METHODS: The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) collected brain and carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two cognitive tests (DSST and MoCA) in a cross-sectional sample of men and women. Brain MRIs identified brain infarcts (BI), lacunar BI, high white matter hyperintensity (WMH), vascular brain injury (VBI - BI or high WMH) and small vessel VBI (lacunar BI or high WMH). Carotid MRIs estimated carotid wall volume, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cognitive scores were standardized to each site's mean score, and cognitive impairment was identified by one or both test scores ≤ 1 standard deviation below the site's mean score on that test. RESULTS: The 7733 participants included 495 (6.4%) with diabetes, of whom 388 were taking diabetes drugs. After age and sex adjustment, diabetes was independently associated with BI (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.05, 2.24), VBI (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.26, 2.13), small vessel VBI (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.28, 2.19) and cognitive impairment (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.20, 1.80). The association between diabetes and small vessel VBI persisted after adjustment for cerebrovascular disease risk factors and non-lacunar infarcts (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.15, 2.01), and the association with cognitive impairment persisted after adjustment for small vessel VBI (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.03, 1.56). CONCLUSION: Small vessel disease characterizes much of the relationship between diabetes and VBI. However, additional factors are required to disentangle the relationship between diabetes and cognitive impairment.

7.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(10): nzaa144, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073162

RESUMO

Background: Advances in metabolomics are anticipated to decipher associations between dietary exposures and health. Replication biomarker studies in different populations are critical to demonstrate generalizability. Objectives: To identify and validate robust serum metabolites associated with diet quality and specific foods in a multiethnic cohort of pregnant women. Design: In this cross-sectional analysis of 3 multiethnic Canadian birth cohorts, we collected semiquantitative FFQ and serum data from 900 women at the second trimester of pregnancy. We calculated a diet quality score (DQS), defined as daily servings of "healthy" minus "unhealthy" foods. Serum metabolomics was performed by multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and specific serum metabolites associated with maternal DQSs were identified. We combined the results across all 3 cohorts using meta-analysis to classify robust dietary biomarkers (r > ± 0.1; P < 0.05). Results: Diet quality was higher in the South Asian birth cohort (mean DQS = 7.1) than the 2 white Caucasian birth cohorts (mean DQS <3.2). Sixty-six metabolites were detected with high frequency (>75%) and adequate precision (CV <30%), and 47 were common to all cohorts. Hippuric acid was positively associated with healthy diet score in all cohorts, and with the overall DQS only in the primarily white Caucasian cohorts. We observed robust correlations between: 1) proline betaine-citrus foods; 2) 3-methylhistidine-red meat, chicken, and eggs; 3) hippuric acid-fruits and vegetables; 4) trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-seafood, meat, and eggs; and 5) tryptophan betaine-nuts/legumes. Conclusions: Specific serum metabolites reflect intake of citrus fruit/juice, vegetables, animal foods, and nuts/legumes in pregnant women independent of ethnicity, fasting status, and delays to storage across multiple collection centers. Robust biomarkers of overall diet quality varied by cohort. Proline betaine, 3-methylhistidine, hippuric acid, TMAO, and tryptophan betaine were robust dietary biomarkers for investigations of maternal nutrition in diverse populations.

8.
Can J Diabetes ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People of South Asian ancestry are the fastest growing non-Caucasian ethnic group in Canada and are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Pregnant South Asian women have a 2-fold increased risk of developing gestational diabetes, which increases their risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. The specific objectives of this study were to explore the perceptions of health behaviours (diet and physical activity) during pregnancy in the South Asian community. METHODS: We used interpretive description to further understand the cultural and contextual factors that influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of diet and physical activity of South Asian women of childbearing age and those who provide health care to this group. RESULTS: Two major themes that emerged from the perspectives of 10 South Asian pregnant women included: (1) importance of considering an individual's locus of control; and (2) support (emotional and information exchange) from family, friends and health-care providers. Two major themes identified by the 11 health-care providers were: (1) cultural awareness in caring for South Asian women during pregnancy; and (2) clinic management, logistics and resources. A common theme for both South Asian pregnant women and health-care providers was the importance of considering the cultural landscape in relation to how knowledge is obtained, shared and valued. CONCLUSION: A better understanding of these cultural underpinnings may support the development of interventions tailored for pregnant South Asian women and their health-care providers.

9.
JBI Evid Synth ; 18(10): 2181-2193, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe the global evidence of gender inequity among individuals with appointments at academic institutions that conduct health research, and examine how gender intersects with other social identities to influence outcomes. INTRODUCTION: The gender demographics of universities have shifted, yet the characteristics of those who lead academic health research institutions have not reflected this change. Synthesized evidence will guide decision-making and policy development to support the progress of gender and other under-represented social identities in academia. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider any quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods primary research that reports outcome data related to gender equity and other social identities among individuals affiliated with academic or research institutions that conduct health research, originating from any country. METHODS: The JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis and the Cochrane Collaboration's guidance on living reviews will inform the review methods. Information sources will include electronic databases, unpublished literature sources, reference scanning of relevant systematic reviews, and sources provided by experts on the research team. Searches will be run regularly to monitor the development of new literature and determine when the review will be updated. Study selection and data extraction will be conducted by two reviewers working independently, and all discrepancies will be resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Data synthesis will summarize information using descriptive frequencies and simple thematic analysis. Results will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension to scoping reviews. REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/8wk7e/.

10.
Eur. j. prev. cardiol ; 27(3): 1-12, Ago. 2020. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1050001

RESUMO

Abstract Aims: Secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease involves antithrombotic therapy and optimal control of cardiovascular risk factors. In the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) study, adding low-dose rivaroxaban on top of aspirin lowered cardiovascular events, but there is limited data about risk factor control in secondary prevention. We studied the association between risk factor status and outcomes, and the impact of risk factor status on the treatment effect of rivaroxaban, in a large contemporary population of patients with coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. Methods and results: We reported ischemic events (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) in participants from the randomized, double-blind COMPASS study by individual risk factor (blood pressure, smoking status, cholesterol level, presence of diabetes, body mass index, and level of physical activity), and by number of risk factors. We compared rates and hazard ratios of patients treated with rivaroxaban plus aspirin vs aspirin alone within each risk factor category and tested for interaction between risk factor status and antithrombotic regimen. Complete baseline risk factor status was available in 27,117 (99%) patients. Status and number of risk factors were both associated with increased risk of ischemic events. Rates of ischemic events (hazard ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.8­2.6) and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 2.0; 1.5­2.7) were more than twofold higher in patients with 4­6 compared with 0­1 risk factors (p<0.0001 for both). Rivaroxaban reduced event rates independently of the number of risk factors (p interaction 0.93), with the largest absolute benefit in patients with the highest number of risk factors. Conclusion: More favorable risk factor status and low-dose rivaroxaban were independently associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. (AU)


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Prevenção Secundária
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8941, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488059

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM) affects 1 in 7 births and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes for both mother and child. GDM is suspected to share a large common genetic background with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of our study was to characterize different GDM polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and test their association with GDM using data from the South Asian Birth Cohort (START). PRSs were derived for 832 South Asian women from START using the pruning and thresholding (P + T), LDpred, and GraBLD methods. Weights were derived from a multi-ethnic and a white Caucasian study of the DIAGRAM consortium. GDM status was defined using South Asian-specific glucose values in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Association with GDM was tested using logistic regression. Results were replicated in South Asian women from the UK Biobank (UKB) study. The top ranking P + T, LDpred and GraBLD PRSs were all based on DIAGRAM's multi-ethnic study. The best PRS was highly associated with GDM in START (AUC = 0.62, OR = 1.60 [95% CI = 1.44-1.69]), and in South Asian women from UKB (AUC = 0.65, OR = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.28-2.24]). Our results highlight the importance of combining genome-wide genotypes and summary statistics from large multi-ethnic studies to optimize PRSs in South Asians.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
Can J Diet Pract Res ; 81(4): 170-178, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495634

RESUMO

Purpose: Validated methods to assess diet of non-European infants are sparse. We assessed the validity and reliability of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for South Asian infants in Canada.Methods: We developed an 80-item FFQ to assess infant nutrient intake in the South Asian Birth Cohort study (START). Caregivers completed the FFQ twice along with two 24-hour diet recalls. We measured infant plasma ferritin to cross-validate reported iron intake. We evaluated validity using Spearman's rho (ρ), and reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient.Results: Seventy-six caregivers provided 2 FFQs and 2 24-hour diet recalls. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated correlations between the FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls ranged from -0.29 (monounsaturated fat) through 1.00 (cholesterol). The FFQ overestimated energy intake by 128%. Iron intake by 24-hour diet recalls correlated with plasma ferritin (r = 0.41; P = 0.01; n = 37), but iron intake by FFQ did not. The average reproducibility coefficient of the FFQ ranged from 0.24 (macronutrients) to 0.65 (minerals).Conclusions: Among South Asian infants living in Canada, at least 2 days of diet recall completed with the primary caregiver yields more valid and reproducible estimates of nutrient intakes than a semi-quantitative FFQ, and it highlights that careful selection of FFQ portion sizes is important for assessing dietary intake with an FFQ.

13.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585326

RESUMO

Patients with peripheral artery disease who undergo urgent or emergent lower extremity revascularization have the highest risk of major adverse cardiac and limb events. Although available evidence suggests that antithrombotic therapy reduces this risk, optimal antithrombotic therapy is unclear. In this report, we aim to describe current practice patterns for use of antithrombotic therapies after urgent/emergent peripheral artery revascularization. A self-administered online survey was distributed to all active vascular surgeons registered through the Canadian Society of Vascular Surgery (n = 149) between March 19 and April 29, 2019. The overall response rate was 53% (79/149). More than half of the respondents use a medical specialist service in aiding decision-making (52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.9%-63.0%). When concerned for high rethrombosis risk, respondents most commonly favoured initiation of either aspirin plus full dose anticoagulation (60% [95% CI, 49.2%-70.8%]) or dual antiplatelet therapy (58% (95% CI, 47.1%-68.9%]). Intraoperative findings and patient characteristics prompting concern for high rethrombosis risk include residual proximal/distal occlusive disease (75% [95% CI, 65.5%-84.5%]), poor-quality venous conduit (76% [95% CI, 66.6%-85.4%]), distal/infrapopliteal synthetic conduit (77% [95% CI, 67.7%-86.3%]), and history of multiple previous failed vascular interventions (98% [95% CI, 94.9%-100%]). More than 90% of respondents believe significant uncertainty exists in antithrombotic decision-making after urgent/emergent peripheral revascularization. Substantial uncertainty exists regarding antithrombotic therapy after urgent/emergent revascularization. In patients at high perceived rethrombosis risk, vascular surgeons preferentially choose aspirin with full-dose anticoagulation or dual antiplatelet therapy. Because of the clinical uncertainty in this domain, trials to determine optimal antithrombotic therapy in this high-risk population are required.

14.
Circulation ; 142(1): 40-48, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) 100 mg reduced the risk of cardiovascular events as compared with ASA monotherapy in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) but increased the risk of major bleedings. Analysis of net clinical benefit (NCB) is of key clinical relevance and represents an integrated measure of overall patient outcome. METHODS: The current prespecified analysis was performed to assess the NCB of adding rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily to ASA monotherapy in patients with chronic vascular disease in the COMPASS study cohort (intention-to-treat study population), with a specific focus on high-risk subgroups. The predefined NCB outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction, fatal bleeding, or symptomatic bleeding into a critical organ. RESULTS: A lower number of NCB adverse outcomes was observed with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus ASA versus ASA alone (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.91], P=0.0005), which became increasingly favorable with longer treatment duration. The main drivers of NCB outcomes were "efficacy" events, in particular stroke (0.5%/y versus 0.8%/y; hazard ratio, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.44-0.76], P<0.0001) and cardiovascular death (0.9%/y versus 1.2%/y; hazard ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.96], P=0.02), whereas the bleeding components of the NCB, in particular fatal bleeding (0.09%/y versus 0.06%/y; hazard ratio, 1.49 [95% CI 0.67-3.33], P=0.32), only represented a minority of NCB events. In selected high-risk subgroups, including patients with polyvascular disease (≥2 vascular beds affected with atherosclerosis), impaired renal function, heart failure, and/or diabetes mellitus, a larger absolute risk reduction for experiencing a NCB event was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ASA monotherapy, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus ASA resulted in fewer NCB events primarily by preventing adverse efficacy events, particularly stroke and cardiovascular mortality, whereas severe bleedings were less frequent and with less clinical impact. The NCB was particularly favorable in high-risk subgroups and those with multiple risk characteristics. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.

16.
Lancet ; 396(10244): 97-109, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies, mainly from high-income countries (HICs), report that women receive less care (investigations and treatments) for cardiovascular disease than do men and might have a higher risk of death. However, very few studies systematically report risk factors, use of primary or secondary prevention medications, incidence of cardiovascular disease, or death in populations drawn from the community. Given that most cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a need for comprehensive information comparing treatments and outcomes between women and men in HICs, middle-income countries, and low-income countries from community-based population studies. METHODS: In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study (PURE), individuals aged 35-70 years from urban and rural communities in 27 countries were considered for inclusion. We recorded information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, medication use, cardiac investigations, and interventions. 168 490 participants who enrolled in the first two of the three phases of PURE were followed up prospectively for incident cardiovascular disease and death. FINDINGS: From Jan 6, 2005 to May 6, 2019, 202 072 individuals were recruited to the study. The mean age of women included in the study was 50·8 (SD 9·9) years compared with 51·7 (10) years for men. Participants were followed up for a median of 9·5 (IQR 8·5-10·9) years. Women had a lower cardiovascular disease risk factor burden using two different risk scores (INTERHEART and Framingham). Primary prevention strategies, such as adoption of several healthy lifestyle behaviours and use of proven medicines, were more frequent in women than men. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (4·1 [95% CI 4·0-4·2] for women vs 6·4 [6·2-6·6] for men per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0·75 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]) and all-cause death (4·5 [95% CI 4·4-4·7] for women vs 7·4 [7·2-7·7] for men per 1000 person-years; aHR 0·62 [95% CI 0·60-0·65]) were also lower in women. By contrast, secondary prevention treatments, cardiac investigations, and coronary revascularisation were less frequent in women than men with coronary artery disease in all groups of countries. Despite this, women had lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular disease events (20·0 [95% CI 18·2-21·7] versus 27·7 [95% CI 25·6-29·8] per 1000 person-years in men, adjusted hazard ratio 0·73 [95% CI 0·64-0·83]) and women had lower 30-day mortality after a new cardiovascular disease event compared with men (22% in women versus 28% in men; p<0·0001). Differences between women and men in treatments and outcomes were more marked in LMICs with little differences in HICs in those with or without previous cardiovascular disease. INTERPRETATION: Treatments for cardiovascular disease are more common in women than men in primary prevention, but the reverse is seen in secondary prevention. However, consistently better outcomes are observed in women than in men, both in those with and without previous cardiovascular disease. Improving cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, especially in LMICs, should be vigorously pursued in both women and men. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte/tendências , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood eczema has increased over the last few decades, with a marked increase in high-income countries. Differences in prevalence of childhood eczema between countries and ethnicities suggest that genetic and early modifiable environmental factors, such as dietary intake, may underlie this observation. To investigate the association between pregnancy diet and infant eczema in a consortium of prospective Canadian birth cohorts predominantly comprised of white Europeans and South Asians. METHODS: We evaluated the association of maternal dietary patterns reported during pregnancy (assessed at 24-28 weeks gestation using a semi-quantitiative food-frequency questionnaire) with parent-reported physician-diagnosed infant eczema at 1-year from 2,160 mother-infant pairs. Using three dietary patterns ("Western", "plant-based", and "Balanced") previously derived in this cohort using principal component analysis, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of these dietary patterns with infant eczema, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We observed a lower odds of eczema in the full sample combining white Europeans and South Asians with greater adherence to a plant-based (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.76; <0.001) and Western dietary pattern (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.89; P<0.01), after adjusting for other known predictors of eczema, including ethnicity, which was not significant. No associations were observed for the balanced diet. An interaction between the Western diet and ethnicity was observed (P<0.001). Following stratification by ethnicity, a protective association between the plant-based diet and infant eczema was confirmed in both white Europeans (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.74; P<0.001) and South Asians (OR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97; P = 0.025). In white Europeans only, a Western diet was associated with a lower odds of infant eczema (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.87; P = 0.001) while a balanced diet increased the odds of infant eczema (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.49; P = 0.03). Beyond a plant-based diet, no significant associations with other dietary patterns were observed in South Asians. CONCLUSION: A plant-based diet during pregnancy is associated with a lowered odds of infant eczema at 1 year in all participants. Future studies of the components of plant-based diet which underlie the lower risk of eczema are needed.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/etnologia , Dieta/etnologia , Mães , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etnologia , Adulto , Canadá/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 208-219, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of nuts with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated mostly in Europe, the USA, and East Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world or from low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of nuts with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study is a large multinational prospective cohort study of adults aged 35-70 y from 16 low-, middle-, and high-income countries on 5 continents. Nut intake (tree nuts and ground nuts) was measured at the baseline visit, using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or major cardiovascular event [nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or heart failure]. RESULTS: We followed 124,329 participants (age = 50.7 y, SD = 10.2; 41.5% male) for a median of 9.5 y. We recorded 10,928 composite events [deaths (n = 8,662) or major cardiovascular events (n = 5,979)]. Higher nut intake (>120 g per wk compared with <30 g per mo) was associated with a lower risk of the primary composite outcome of mortality or major cardiovascular event [multivariate HR (mvHR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0048]. Significant reductions in total (mvHR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87; P-trend <0.0001), cardiovascular (mvHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P-trend = 0.048), and noncardiovascular mortality (mvHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0046) with a trend to reduced cancer mortality (mvHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00; P-trend = 0.081) were observed. No significant associations of nuts were seen with major CVD (mvHR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14), stroke (mvHR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.14; P-trend = 0.76), or MI (mvHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.04; P-trend = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Higher nut intake was associated with lower mortality risk from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Nozes/metabolismo , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Am. j. clin. nutr ; 111(4): 795-803, abr., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1051700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eggs are a rich source of essential nutrients, but they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, some guidelines recommend limiting egg consumption. However, there is contradictory evidence on the impact of eggs on diseases, largely based on studies conducted in high-income countries. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the association of egg consumption with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in large global studies involving populations from low-, middle-, and high-income countries. METHODS: We studied 146,011 individuals from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Egg consumption was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. We also studied 31,544 patients with vascular disease in 2 multinational prospective studies: ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease). We calculated HRs using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by study center separately within each study. RESULTS: In the PURE study, we recorded 14,700 composite events (8932 deaths and 8477 CVD events). In the PURE study, after excluding those with history of CVD, higher intake of egg (≥7 egg/wk compared with <1 egg/wk intake) was not significantly associated with blood lipids, composite outcome (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04; P-trend = 0.74), total mortality (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.15; P-trend = 0.38), or major CVD (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.01; P-trend = 0.20). Similar results were observed in ONTARGET/TRANSCEND studies for composite outcome (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.25; P-trend = 0.09), total mortality (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55), and major CVD (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.29; P-trend = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: In 3 large international prospective studies including ∼177,000 individuals, 12,701 deaths, and 13,658 CVD events from 50 countries in 6 continents, we did not find significant associations between egg intake and blood lipids, mortality, or major CVD events. (AU)


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Mortalidade
20.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 8(1): 1-12, Apr., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1100200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Diabetes Mellitus , Ciências da Nutrição , Hipertensão , Endocrinologia
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