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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
2.
Mar Drugs ; 17(1)2018 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586918

RESUMO

A new alkaloid paenidigyamycin A (1) was obtained from the novel Ghanaian Paenibacillus sp. isolated from the mangrove rhizosphere soils of the Pterocarpus santalinoides tree growing in the wetlands of the Digya National Park, Ghana. Compound 1 was isolated on HPLC at tR = 37.0 min and its structure determined by MS, 1D, and 2D-NMR data. When tested against L. major, 1 (IC50 0.75 µM) was just as effective as amphotericin B (IC50 0.31 µM). Against L. donovani, 1 (IC50 7.02 µM) was twenty-two times less active than amphotericin B (IC50 0.32 µM), reinforcing the unique effectiveness of 1 against L. major. For T. brucei brucei, 1 (IC50 0.78 µM) was ten times more active than the laboratory standard Coptis japonica (IC50 8.20 µM). The IC50 of 9.08 µM for 1 against P. falciparum 3d7 compared to artesunate (IC50 36 nM) was not strong, but this result suggests the possibility of using the paenidigyamycin scaffold for the development of potent antimalarial drugs. Against cercariae, 1 showed high anticercaricidal activity compared to artesunate. The minimal lethal concentration (MLC) and minimal effective concentration (MEC) of the compound were 25 and 6.25 µM, respectively, while artesunate was needed in higher quantities to produce such results. However, 1 (IC50 > 100 µM) was not active against T. mobilensis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Paenibacillus/química , Pterocarpus/microbiologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/isolamento & purificação , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/farmacologia , Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Gana , Imidazóis/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Áreas Alagadas
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