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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(6): 1548-1559, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that nutrition in general and specific dietary patterns in particular, such as the Mediterranean type diet (MeDi), can be employed as potential preventive strategies against the development of dementia and cognitive decline. However, longitudinal data exploring the applicability of these findings in populations of Mediterranean origin are limited. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential relationships of MeDi adherence with dementia incidence rates and cognitive change over time in a traditional Mediterranean population, characterized by a lifelong exposure to Mediterranean eating habits and lifestyle. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1046 non-demented individuals over the age of 64 (mean age = 73.1; SD = 5.0), with available baseline dietary information and longitudinal follow-up. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception) and a global cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55), derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 62 incident dementia cases occurred during a mean (SD) of 3.1 (0.9) years of follow-up. Individuals in the highest MeDi quartile (highest adherence to MeDi) had a 72% lower risk for development of dementia, compared to those in the lowest one (p = 0.013). In addition, analysis of cognitive performance as a function of MeDi score revealed that the biennial cognitive benefit of a 10-unit increase in MeDi score offsets the cognitive decline associated with 1 year of cognitive aging. CONCLUSION: In the present study, higher adherence to MeDi was associated with a reduced risk for dementia and cognitive decline in a traditional Mediterranean population.

2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no published data on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) incidence in people over 65 years of age in Greece, relevant literature is scarce for Southern Europe, and reported rates worldwide show great variability. AIMS: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of MCI and its subtypes in the elderly population in Greece. METHODS: The incidence cohort of the HELIAD study (Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) comprised 955 individuals who received full neurological and neuropsychological evaluation on two separate occasions about three years apart. RESULTS: The MCI incidence rate in our cohort is 54.07 new cases per 1000 person-years, standardized by age and sex to 59.99. Each additional year of age over 65 raises the probability of novel MCI by 6.2%, while lower educational attainment more than doubles the risk for incident MCI. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) carriage results in increased risk for MCI by more than 1.7 times. Incidence rates for amnestic MCI are slightly higher than for the non-amnestic subtype, and AD is the most common potential underlying etiology. DISCUSSION: The MCI incidence rate in the Greek population over 65 years of age is 54/1000 person-years. Advanced age and APOE-ε4 carriage are predisposing factors, while higher educational attainment was found to exert a protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: MCI incidence in people over 65 years-old in Greece is consistent with reported rates around the world. Larger studies encompassing neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers will hopefully shed more light on MCI epidemiology in Greece in the future.

3.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 34(3): 504-510, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of weight loss motives with long-term outcomes is equivocal. We aimed to examine differences in weight loss motives of maintainers and regainers, as well as explore associations between motives and successful maintenance. METHODS: The study sample includes 607 adults, with a history of overweight/obesity and self-reported ≥10% voluntary weight loss, 12 months before study entry. Participants were classified as maintainers (weighing ≤90% maximum weight) or regainers. Volunteers identified possible motives for weight loss and maintenance (maintainers only), from a specific list. RESULTS: Both maintainers and regainers were predominantly motivated by physical appearance (38.6% versus 39.9%, P > 0.05) and self-esteem (26.8% versus 32.0%, P > 0.05) for weight loss. Compared to regainers, more maintainers reported weight reduction driven by social purposes (16.6% versus 9.4%, P = 0.022) and less were prompted by friends/family to lose weight (21.1% versus 31.7%, P = 0.005). In maintainers, shifts in motives from weight loss to maintenance phase were found, including an increased prevalence of health motives (6.4% versus 9.6%, P < 0.001) and decreased physical appearance motives (38.6% versus 30.3%, P < 0.001). Reporting physical appearance as main maintenance motive was inversely associated with maintained weight loss, after adjusting for age, sex and years of education (B = -3.49 [1.07], P = 0.001); maintainers reporting physical appearance as the main motive maintained 3.5% less weight loss compared to those who did not (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study has highlighted motivational influences associated with weight loss outcomes. Future studies should explore the ability of people with overweight/obesity to act upon motives for long-term weight management, as well as the impact of shifting through motives on the magnitude of maintenance.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recently a declining trend in dementia incidence rates has been reported in high-income countries. We investigated dementia incidence in a representative sample of the Greek population in the age group of 65 years and above. METHODS: This research is part of the Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). The incidence cohort consisted of 1072 participants who were reevaluated after a mean period of 3.09 years. RESULTS: The incidence rate of dementia was 19.0 cases per 1000 person-years (age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence: 25.4/1000 person-years), of which 16.3 per 1000 person-years were attributable to Alzheimer disease. Each additional year of age increased dementia risk by 19.3% and each additional year of education decreased dementia risk by 12.1%. Apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4 homozygous participants were 18 times more likely to be diagnosed with dementia. A baseline diagnosis of mild cognitive decline (MCI) resulted in a risk for dementia increased by 3.7 times compared with the cognitively normal; in participants with MCI at baseline, APOE-ε4 carriage increased dementia risk by 4.5 times. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of dementia in people 65 years and above in Greece is generally consistent with recently published rates in Europe and North America. Advancing age, baseline MCI, and APOE-ε4 homozygosity are risk factors, while higher educational attainment seems protective.

5.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between both self-reported quality and quantity sleep characteristics and frailty status in a large non-sex-specific population of older individuals in Greece. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1984 older individuals (≥65 years old) were drawn from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). MEASURES: Frailty was assessed using 3 different definitions, the Frailty Index (FI), the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), and the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI). Sleep quality was evaluated through the Sleep Index II, which includes 9 of the 12 self-reported items of the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale. To examine sleep duration, participants were asked to report on how many hours they slept each night during the past 4 weeks. Logistic regression models adjusted for multiple covariates were explored. Additional analyses, stratified by gender, adjusting for sleep-related medications and excluding participants diagnosed with dementia, were also performed. RESULTS: In total, 389 (20%), 619 (31.9%), and 608 (31.3%) participants were categorized as frail according to the FI, the TFI, and the GFI respectively. Sleep quality was significantly associated with frailty in all models. Even after adjusting for subjective sleep duration, compared with participants who subjectively reported high sleep quality, those with low sleep quality had 3.7, 2.6, and 2.5 more times to be frail as measured with FI, TFI, and GFI respectively. Regarding the associations between frailty and self-reported sleep duration, sex-specific associations were observed: prolonged sleep duration was associated with frailty in the subsample of male participants. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present study shows a strong correlation between subjective sleep quality and frailty status, contributing substantial information to the growing literature demonstrating that sleep is associated with older people's overall health. Sleep complaints should not be underestimated, and older individuals who self-report sleep disorders should be further assessed for frailty.

6.
Mov Disord ; 35(10): 1802-1809, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the recently updated research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease (pPD) proposed by the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Society. METHODS: A total of 16 of 21 markers of pPD were ascertained in the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet cohort composed of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years. The probability of pPD was calculated for 961 individuals without Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies at baseline who were followed-up for a median of 3 years. The ability of the criteria to predict conversion to PD/dementia with Lewy bodies was assessed by estimating their sensitivity and specificity, plotting receiver operating characteristics curves, and using logistic regression. These analyses were repeated using the original criteria. RESULTS: No incident PD/dementia with Lewy bodies case had probable pPD at baseline (ie, ≥80% pPD probability). At cut-offs of 10%, 30%, and 50% probability of pPD, the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria ranged from 4.5% to 27.3%, and 85.7% to 98.3% respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.691 (95% confidence intervals, 0.605-0.777). In logistic regression models, the criteria-derived posttest odds of pPD were a significant predictor of conversion at follow-up. The updated criteria performed similarly to the original but showed a slight increase in sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The new criteria demonstrated suboptimal sensitivity in our random sample of community-dwelling individuals. The absence of specialized assessments with high likelihood ratios in our cohort could be hindering the demonstration of higher sensitivities. Such assessments should be a part of future validation attempts. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
Br J Nutr ; 124(8): 874-880, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436489

RESUMO

Weight loss maintenance is crucial for obesity management, yet optimal dietary patterns for this period are not established. We aimed to explore the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and weight loss maintenance. Sample includes 565 adults (62 % women) of the MedWeight study. Eligible volunteers were those reporting intentional weight loss of ≥10 %, starting from a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, over 12 months prior to enrolment. Based on current weight, participants were characterised as maintainers (≤90 % maximum weight) or regainers (>95 % maximum weight). Socio-demographics and weight history were recorded. Dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls within 10 d and analysed in energy, macronutrient and food group intakes. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MedDietScore) (range 0-55, greater scores showing higher adherence). Protein intake was higher in maintainers than in regainers (P < 0·001). When MedDietScore quartiles were considered, a linear trend for weight loss maintenance was revealed (P < 0·05). After adjustment for basic demographic characteristics, being in the third or fourth quartile of the MedDietScore (v. first) was associated with 2·30 (95 % CI 1·29, 4·09) and 1·88 (95 % CI 1·10, 3·22) increased odds of maintenance. Regarding individual MedDietScore components, only fruit intake is associated with increased odds for maintenance (1·03 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06)). The leave-one-out approach revealed that at least six MedDietScore components were essential for the observed relationship. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with 2-fold increased likelihood of weight loss maintenance. Future studies should replicate these findings in non-Mediterranean populations as well.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260197

RESUMO

Research on hyponatremia during mountain marathons is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia during a 44-km trail running race that reached an altitude of 2780 m (Olympus Marathon). Sixty-two runners (five women) who completed the race participated in the study (age: 34.4 ± 8.6 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m; and weight: 75.3 ± 10.0 kg). Anthropometric characteristics, blood, and urine samples were collected pre- and post-race. Food and fluid intake were recorded at each checkpoint. Due to race regulations, the runners could not carry any additional food and fluids besides the ones provided at specific checkpoints. Five runners (8%) exhibited asymptomatic hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol∙L-1). Serum sodium in the hyponatremic runners decreased from 138.4 ± 0.9 (pre) to 131.4 ± 5.0 mmol∙L-1 (post), p < 0.05. Plasma osmolality increased only in the eunatremic runners (pre: 290 ± 3; post: 295 ± 6 mmol∙kg-1; p < 0.05). Plasma volume decreased more in the hyponatremic compared to eunatremic runners (-4.4 ± 2.0 vs. -3.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.05). Lastly, dietary sodium intake was lower in the hyponatremic runners compared to eunatremic (789 ± 813 vs. 906 ± 672 mg; p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia among the athletes was relatively low, possibly due to race conditions.

9.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 135, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of diet and physical activity and their determinants still remains a demanding task, especially when the objective is to evaluate the efficacy of lifestyle interventions. In the context of the Feel4Diabetes study (a European community based intervention study in families with school aged children and at high risk of developing diabetes), we aimed to develop questionnaires for the assessment of food-frequency and eating behaviors, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors in both parents and school-aged children and a questionnaire for overall family's energy balance-related behaviors. METHODS: Questionnaires were developed to be used in 6 countries under standardized harmonization procedures and included questions regarding not only food intake and physical activity, but also questions of their determinants. A reliability study was conducted in 191 pairs of parents and their children (N = 191). Parents completed the questionnaires on two occasions, within a 1-2 week interval. Reliability was tested by the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of test-retest. RESULTS: Most of the questions in all questionnaires had excellent reliability, assessed as an ICC of > 0.810. Mean ICCs for food-frequency and eating behaviors questionnaires were 0.838 and 0.787, and for physical activity and sedentary behaviors questionnaires were 0.734 and 0.793, in adults and children respectively. Mean ICC for overall family's energy balance-related behaviors and their determinants was 0.659. CONCLUSION: The developed questionnaires showed acceptable reliability and may be valuable tools in the assessment of children's and parents' behaviors related to diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and overall energy balance in school- and community-based interventions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
10.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(2): 225-229, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. METHODS: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18-65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. RESULTS: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (Padjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (Padjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (Padjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrition ; 71: 110640, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older adults is increasing rapidly. Malnutrition is a major problem in this age group, which may adversely affect health and quality of life. Several physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological factors can lead to malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of community-dwelling older adults, and explore the associations of malnutrition risk with physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological characteristics. METHODS: This study is part of the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet study, a cross-sectional observational study in Greece, and study participants were 1831 urban-dwelling elderly individuals (mean age: 73.1 ± 5.9 y; 40.8% men). Risk for malnutrition was assessed with the Determine Your Nutritional Health checklist. Data on age, sex, level of education, marital status, depression, cognitive performance, body mass index, total energy intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. Correlations and multivariate analyses were performed between these variables and risk for malnutrition. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of moderate and high nutritional risks was 34.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Risk for malnutrition was associated with marital status (unmarried), increased body mass index, male sex, lower level of education, lower cognitive performance, and lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional screening should be performed frequently in all community-dwelling older adults. Health experts should perform nutritional screening in all community-dwelling older adults as part of secondary prevention, and nutrition counselling and support should be offered in those at risk for malnutrition.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(3): 439-445, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the associations between social life and adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet (MD), in a population-representative cohort of older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Adherence to the MD was evaluated by an a priori score; tertiles of the score, indicating low, medium and high adherence, were used in the analyses. Social life was assessed by a questionnaire evaluating participation in leisure-time activities and the number of social contacts; primary occupation was also recorded and job characteristics were further explored. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Adults from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) study (n 1933; age range 65-99 years). RESULTS: Each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of intellectual, social and physical activities was associated with a 1·6, 6·8, 4·8 and 13·7 % increase in the likelihood of a participant being in the high MD adherence group, respectively. The analysis by age group revealed that younger elderly participants had a 1·4, 8·4 and 11·3 % higher likelihood to be in the high adherence group for each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of engagement in intellectual and physical activities, respectively. Similar associations were found for older elderly participants with high compared with low MD adherence, except for the intellectual activities. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that high MD adherence is associated with good social life, suggesting a clustering of health-promoting lifestyle factors in older adults.

13.
Front Nutr ; 6: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681787

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this observational study was to examine the incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in a 246-km continuous ultra-marathon. Methods: Over 2 years, 63 male finishers of the annual Spartathlon ultra-marathon foot race from Athens to Sparta, Greece were included in the data analysis. A blood sample was drawn from an antecubital vein the day before the race as well as within 15 min post-race and analyzed for sodium concentration. During the second year of data collection, blood was also drawn at the 93-km checkpoint (n = 29). Height and weight were measured pre and post-race. Results: Mean race time of all subjects was 33 ± 3 h with a range of 23.5 and 36.0 h. Of the 63 finishers recruited, nine began the race with values indicative of mild hyponatremia. Seven runners were classified as hyponatremic at the 93-km checkpoint, three of whom had sodium levels of severe hyponatremia. After the race, 41 total finishers (65%) developed either mild (n = 27, 43%) or severe hyponatremia (n = 14, 22%). Mean change in bodyweight percentage and serum sodium from pre-race to post-race was -3.6 ± 2.7% (-2.5 ± 1.9 kg) and -6.6 ± 5.6 mmol·L-1, respectively. Pre-race serum sodium level was not a significant predictor of post-race serum sodium levels (ß = 0.08, R 2 = 0.07, P = 0.698), however, there was a significant negative association between change in bodyweight percentage and post-race serum sodium concentration (ß = -0.79, R 2 = 0.29, P = 0.011). Conclusion: The incidence of EAH of 52 and 65%, when excluding or including these individuals with pre-race hyponatremia, was the highest reported in current literature.

14.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2261-e2272, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the limited information on cognitive function before Parkinson disease (PD) clinical onset in the general population, we sought to assess prodromal PD (pPD) probability and relate it to detailed cognitive performance in a community cohort. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 1,629 dementia-free and PD-free participants ≥65 years of age in Greece, we assessed probability of pPD according to the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society's criteria. Clinical cognitive diagnoses (cognitively unimpaired, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) considering neuropsychological testing and functional status were assigned in consensus conferences. Cognitive performance in 5 cognitive domains was assessed by a detailed neuropsychological battery and summarized in the form of z scores. We investigated associations between pPD probability (and its individual constituents) and cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: The median probability of pPD was 1.81% (0.2%-96.7%). Participants with MCI had higher probability of pPD compared to those with normal cognition (p < 0.001). Higher probability of pPD was related to lower performance in all cognitive domains (memory, language, executive, attention, and visuospatial function) (p < 0.001). Lower cognitive performance was further associated with certain nonmotor markers of pPD, such as daytime somnolence, depression, urinary dysfunction, constipation, and subthreshold parkinsonism (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher probability of pPD was associated with lower cognitive performance in all domains and higher probability of MCI. This may reflect a widespread pathologic process although future studies are warranted to infer causality. These results suggest to clinicians that they should assess cognition early, and to researchers that they should further look into the possible mechanisms that may underlie this observation.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Sintomas Prodrômicos
15.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(6): 846-854, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We studied the prevalence of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and its determinants in a sample of 1456 cognitively normal Greek adults ≥65 years old. METHODS/DESIGN: Subjects were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team on their neurological, medical, neuropsychological, and lifestyle profile to reach consensus diagnoses. We investigated various types of SCD, including single-question, general memory decline, specific subjective memory decline based on a list of questions and three types of subjective naming, orientation, and calculation decline. RESULTS: In a single general question about memory decline, 28.0% responded positively. The percentage of our sample that reported at least one complaint related to subjective memory decline was 76.6%. Naming difficulties were also fairly common (26.0%), while specific deficits in orientation (5.4%) and calculations/currency handling (2.6%) were rare. The majority (84.2%) of the population reported subjective deficits in at least one cognitive domain. Genetic predisposition to dementia increased the odds for general memory decline by more than 1.7 times. For each one-unit reduction in the neuropsychological composite score (a mean of memory, executive, language, visuospatial, and attention-speed composite scores), the odds for decline in orientation increased by 40.3%. Depression/anxiety and increased cerebrovascular risk were risk factors for almost all SCD types. CONCLUSIONS: SCD regarding memory is more frequent than non-memory decline in the cognitively normal Greek elderly population. Genetic predisposition to dementia, lower cognitive performance, affective symptoms, and increased cerebrovascular risk are associated with prevalent SCD. Further prospective research is needed to improve understanding of the evolution of SCD over time.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Metabolism ; 92: 153-162, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625301

RESUMO

Worldwide obesity rates remain at a rise, and to treat obesity is at the top of the global public health agenda. In 2013, the AHA/ACC/TOS obesity management guidelines were published, in essence suggesting that any dietary scheme seems to be effective for weight loss, as long as it can induce a sustainable energy deficit. In the present review, we update and critically discuss available information regarding dietary modifications for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, published after the 2013 guidelines. Regarding weight loss, we found no proof to support that a single dietary scheme, be it nutrient-, food group- or dietary pattern- based, is more efficacious of the other for achieving weight loss. For weight loss maintenance, published interventions point towards the same direction, although inconclusively. Most research explores the effect of weight loss regimes on weight loss maintenance and not the effect of the diet during weight loss maintenance, and this literature gap should be more thoroughly investigated.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Dieta Redutora , Humanos
18.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(11): 1645-1650, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short sleep duration and low sleep quality are negatively associated with obesity in young adults, but in older people the results are inconsistent. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between sleep duration and quality with both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and to investigate sex- and age-specific associations in a population-representative cohort of older adults. METHODS: 1781 participants ≥ 65 years old from the HELIAD study were included. Sleep duration and quality were based on self-report, whereas BMΙ and WC were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: Sleep duration was inversely related to WC, only in women, even after adjustment for age, sex, years of education, total energy intake and level of physical activity. Furthermore, sleep quality was negatively related to both BMI and WC in women. In men, however, no significant relationships were observed between these variables. Associations between sleep and weight did not differ between those aged < 73 and ≥ 73 years old. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining both sleep duration and quality with BMI and WC in older adults, performing by-sex analysis. Although additional studies are needed, improvements in sleep habits should be considered in weight management of older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that poor sleep is associated to adverse weight effects in older women, but not men.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
19.
Mov Disord ; 34(1): 48-57, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society recently introduced a methodology for probability score calculation for prodromal PD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the probability of prodromal PD in an older population and investigate its possible association with Mediterranean diet adherence. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece were used. Probability of prodromal PD was calculated according to International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society research criteria. A detailed food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary intake and calculate Mediterranean diet adherence score, ranging from 0 to 55, with higher scores indicating higher adherence. RESULTS: Median probability of prodromal PD was 1.9%, ranging from 0.2 to 96.7% in 1,731 PD-free individuals aged ≥ 65 (41% male). Lower probability for prodromal PD (P < 0.001) in the higher Mediterranean diet adherence groups was noted, driven mostly by nonmotor markers of prodromal PD, depression, constipation, urinary dysfunction, and daytime somnolence. Each unit increase in Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 2% decreased probability for prodromal PD (P < 0.001). Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of Mediterranean diet adherence, those in the highest quartile were associated with a ∼21% lower probability for prodromal PD. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower probability of prodromal PD in older people. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential causality of this association, potential relation of the Mediterranean diet to delayed onset or lower incidence of PD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Constipação Intestinal , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
20.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347812

RESUMO

Many lifestyle factors have been linked to cognitive function but little is known about their combined effect. An overall lifestyle pattern for people living in the Mediterranean basin has been proposed, including diet, but also physical activity, sleep and daily living activities with social/intellectual aspects. We aimed to examine the associations between a combination of these lifestyle factors and detailed cognitive performance. A total of 1716 participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), a population-based study of participants ≥65 years, were included in this analysis. Lifestyle factors were evaluated using standard, validated questionnaires and a Total Lifestyle Index (TLI) was constructed. Cognitive outcomes included mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis, a composite z-score (either continuous or with a threshold at the 25th percentile) and z-scores for five cognitive domains. A higher TLI was associated with 65% reduced odds for MCI in the non-demented individuals and 43% reduced odds for low global cognition when MCI participants were excluded, a risk reduction equivalent to 9 and 2.7 fewer years of ageing, respectively. Each lifestyle factor was differentially associated with domain-specific cognitive performance. Our results suggest that a TLI, more so than single lifestyle parameters, may be related to cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono
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