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1.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the recently updated research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease (pPD) proposed by the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Society. METHODS: A total of 16 of 21 markers of pPD were ascertained in the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet cohort composed of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years. The probability of pPD was calculated for 961 individuals without Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies at baseline who were followed-up for a median of 3 years. The ability of the criteria to predict conversion to PD/dementia with Lewy bodies was assessed by estimating their sensitivity and specificity, plotting receiver operating characteristics curves, and using logistic regression. These analyses were repeated using the original criteria. RESULTS: No incident PD/dementia with Lewy bodies case had probable pPD at baseline (ie, ≥80% pPD probability). At cut-offs of 10%, 30%, and 50% probability of pPD, the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria ranged from 4.5% to 27.3%, and 85.7% to 98.3% respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.691 (95% confidence intervals, 0.605-0.777). In logistic regression models, the criteria-derived posttest odds of pPD were a significant predictor of conversion at follow-up. The updated criteria performed similarly to the original but showed a slight increase in sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The new criteria demonstrated suboptimal sensitivity in our random sample of community-dwelling individuals. The absence of specialized assessments with high likelihood ratios in our cohort could be hindering the demonstration of higher sensitivities. Such assessments should be a part of future validation attempts. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-19, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436489

RESUMO

Weight loss maintenance is crucial for obesity management, yet optimal dietary patterns for this period are not established. We aimed to explore the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and weight loss maintenance. Sample includes 565 adults (62% women) of the MedWeight study. Eligible volunteers were those reporting intentional weight loss of ≥10%, starting from a BMI≥25 kg/m2, over 12 months prior to enrollment. Based on current weight, participants were characterized as maintainers (≤90% max weight), or regainers (>95% max weight). Socio-demographics and weight history were recorded. Dietary intake was assessed by 2 non-consecutive 24-hour recalls within 10 days, and analyzed in energy, macronutrient, and food group intake. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was assessed with the MedDietScore (range 0-55, greater scores showing higher adherence). Protein intake was higher in maintainers than regainers (p<0.001). When MedDietScore quartiles were considered, a linear trend for weight loss maintenance was revealed (p<0.05). After adjustment for demographics, being in the 3rd or 4th quartile of the MedDietScore (vs. 1st) associated with 2.30 (95%CI 1.29-4.09) and 1.88 (95%CI 1.10-3.22) increased odds of maintenance. Regarding individual MedDietScore components, only fruit intake associated with increased odds for maintenance [1.03 (95%CI 1.01-1.06)]. Leave-one-out approach revealed that at least 6 MedDietScore components were essential for the observed relationship. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was associated with 2-fold increased likelihood of weight loss maintenance. Future studies should replicate these findings in non-Mediterranean populations as well.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260197

RESUMO

Research on hyponatremia during mountain marathons is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia during a 44-km trail running race that reached an altitude of 2780 m (Olympus Marathon). Sixty-two runners (five women) who completed the race participated in the study (age: 34.4 ± 8.6 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m; and weight: 75.3 ± 10.0 kg). Anthropometric characteristics, blood, and urine samples were collected pre- and post-race. Food and fluid intake were recorded at each checkpoint. Due to race regulations, the runners could not carry any additional food and fluids besides the ones provided at specific checkpoints. Five runners (8%) exhibited asymptomatic hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol∙L-1). Serum sodium in the hyponatremic runners decreased from 138.4 ± 0.9 (pre) to 131.4 ± 5.0 mmol∙L-1 (post), p < 0.05. Plasma osmolality increased only in the eunatremic runners (pre: 290 ± 3; post: 295 ± 6 mmol∙kg-1; p < 0.05). Plasma volume decreased more in the hyponatremic compared to eunatremic runners (-4.4 ± 2.0 vs. -3.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.05). Lastly, dietary sodium intake was lower in the hyponatremic runners compared to eunatremic (789 ± 813 vs. 906 ± 672 mg; p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia among the athletes was relatively low, possibly due to race conditions.

4.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 135, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of diet and physical activity and their determinants still remains a demanding task, especially when the objective is to evaluate the efficacy of lifestyle interventions. In the context of the Feel4Diabetes study (a European community based intervention study in families with school aged children and at high risk of developing diabetes), we aimed to develop questionnaires for the assessment of food-frequency and eating behaviors, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors in both parents and school-aged children and a questionnaire for overall family's energy balance-related behaviors. METHODS: Questionnaires were developed to be used in 6 countries under standardized harmonization procedures and included questions regarding not only food intake and physical activity, but also questions of their determinants. A reliability study was conducted in 191 pairs of parents and their children (N = 191). Parents completed the questionnaires on two occasions, within a 1-2 week interval. Reliability was tested by the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of test-retest. RESULTS: Most of the questions in all questionnaires had excellent reliability, assessed as an ICC of > 0.810. Mean ICCs for food-frequency and eating behaviors questionnaires were 0.838 and 0.787, and for physical activity and sedentary behaviors questionnaires were 0.734 and 0.793, in adults and children respectively. Mean ICC for overall family's energy balance-related behaviors and their determinants was 0.659. CONCLUSION: The developed questionnaires showed acceptable reliability and may be valuable tools in the assessment of children's and parents' behaviors related to diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and overall energy balance in school- and community-based interventions.

5.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(2): 225-229, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. METHODS: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18-65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. RESULTS: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (Padjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (Padjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (Padjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.

6.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(3): 439-445, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the associations between social life and adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet (MD), in a population-representative cohort of older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Adherence to the MD was evaluated by an a priori score; tertiles of the score, indicating low, medium and high adherence, were used in the analyses. Social life was assessed by a questionnaire evaluating participation in leisure-time activities and the number of social contacts; primary occupation was also recorded and job characteristics were further explored. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Adults from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) study (n 1933; age range 65-99 years). RESULTS: Each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of intellectual, social and physical activities was associated with a 1·6, 6·8, 4·8 and 13·7 % increase in the likelihood of a participant being in the high MD adherence group, respectively. The analysis by age group revealed that younger elderly participants had a 1·4, 8·4 and 11·3 % higher likelihood to be in the high adherence group for each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of engagement in intellectual and physical activities, respectively. Similar associations were found for older elderly participants with high compared with low MD adherence, except for the intellectual activities. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that high MD adherence is associated with good social life, suggesting a clustering of health-promoting lifestyle factors in older adults.

7.
Nutrition ; 71: 110640, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older adults is increasing rapidly. Malnutrition is a major problem in this age group, which may adversely affect health and quality of life. Several physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological factors can lead to malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of community-dwelling older adults, and explore the associations of malnutrition risk with physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological characteristics. METHODS: This study is part of the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet study, a cross-sectional observational study in Greece, and study participants were 1831 urban-dwelling elderly individuals (mean age: 73.1 ± 5.9 y; 40.8% men). Risk for malnutrition was assessed with the Determine Your Nutritional Health checklist. Data on age, sex, level of education, marital status, depression, cognitive performance, body mass index, total energy intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. Correlations and multivariate analyses were performed between these variables and risk for malnutrition. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of moderate and high nutritional risks was 34.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Risk for malnutrition was associated with marital status (unmarried), increased body mass index, male sex, lower level of education, lower cognitive performance, and lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional screening should be performed frequently in all community-dwelling older adults. Health experts should perform nutritional screening in all community-dwelling older adults as part of secondary prevention, and nutrition counselling and support should be offered in those at risk for malnutrition.

8.
Front Nutr ; 6: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681787

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this observational study was to examine the incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in a 246-km continuous ultra-marathon. Methods: Over 2 years, 63 male finishers of the annual Spartathlon ultra-marathon foot race from Athens to Sparta, Greece were included in the data analysis. A blood sample was drawn from an antecubital vein the day before the race as well as within 15 min post-race and analyzed for sodium concentration. During the second year of data collection, blood was also drawn at the 93-km checkpoint (n = 29). Height and weight were measured pre and post-race. Results: Mean race time of all subjects was 33 ± 3 h with a range of 23.5 and 36.0 h. Of the 63 finishers recruited, nine began the race with values indicative of mild hyponatremia. Seven runners were classified as hyponatremic at the 93-km checkpoint, three of whom had sodium levels of severe hyponatremia. After the race, 41 total finishers (65%) developed either mild (n = 27, 43%) or severe hyponatremia (n = 14, 22%). Mean change in bodyweight percentage and serum sodium from pre-race to post-race was -3.6 ± 2.7% (-2.5 ± 1.9 kg) and -6.6 ± 5.6 mmol·L-1, respectively. Pre-race serum sodium level was not a significant predictor of post-race serum sodium levels (ß = 0.08, R 2 = 0.07, P = 0.698), however, there was a significant negative association between change in bodyweight percentage and post-race serum sodium concentration (ß = -0.79, R 2 = 0.29, P = 0.011). Conclusion: The incidence of EAH of 52 and 65%, when excluding or including these individuals with pre-race hyponatremia, was the highest reported in current literature.

9.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2261-e2272, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the limited information on cognitive function before Parkinson disease (PD) clinical onset in the general population, we sought to assess prodromal PD (pPD) probability and relate it to detailed cognitive performance in a community cohort. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 1,629 dementia-free and PD-free participants ≥65 years of age in Greece, we assessed probability of pPD according to the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society's criteria. Clinical cognitive diagnoses (cognitively unimpaired, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) considering neuropsychological testing and functional status were assigned in consensus conferences. Cognitive performance in 5 cognitive domains was assessed by a detailed neuropsychological battery and summarized in the form of z scores. We investigated associations between pPD probability (and its individual constituents) and cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: The median probability of pPD was 1.81% (0.2%-96.7%). Participants with MCI had higher probability of pPD compared to those with normal cognition (p < 0.001). Higher probability of pPD was related to lower performance in all cognitive domains (memory, language, executive, attention, and visuospatial function) (p < 0.001). Lower cognitive performance was further associated with certain nonmotor markers of pPD, such as daytime somnolence, depression, urinary dysfunction, constipation, and subthreshold parkinsonism (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher probability of pPD was associated with lower cognitive performance in all domains and higher probability of MCI. This may reflect a widespread pathologic process although future studies are warranted to infer causality. These results suggest to clinicians that they should assess cognition early, and to researchers that they should further look into the possible mechanisms that may underlie this observation.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Sintomas Prodrômicos
10.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(6): 846-854, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We studied the prevalence of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and its determinants in a sample of 1456 cognitively normal Greek adults ≥65 years old. METHODS/DESIGN: Subjects were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team on their neurological, medical, neuropsychological, and lifestyle profile to reach consensus diagnoses. We investigated various types of SCD, including single-question, general memory decline, specific subjective memory decline based on a list of questions and three types of subjective naming, orientation, and calculation decline. RESULTS: In a single general question about memory decline, 28.0% responded positively. The percentage of our sample that reported at least one complaint related to subjective memory decline was 76.6%. Naming difficulties were also fairly common (26.0%), while specific deficits in orientation (5.4%) and calculations/currency handling (2.6%) were rare. The majority (84.2%) of the population reported subjective deficits in at least one cognitive domain. Genetic predisposition to dementia increased the odds for general memory decline by more than 1.7 times. For each one-unit reduction in the neuropsychological composite score (a mean of memory, executive, language, visuospatial, and attention-speed composite scores), the odds for decline in orientation increased by 40.3%. Depression/anxiety and increased cerebrovascular risk were risk factors for almost all SCD types. CONCLUSIONS: SCD regarding memory is more frequent than non-memory decline in the cognitively normal Greek elderly population. Genetic predisposition to dementia, lower cognitive performance, affective symptoms, and increased cerebrovascular risk are associated with prevalent SCD. Further prospective research is needed to improve understanding of the evolution of SCD over time.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(11): 1645-1650, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short sleep duration and low sleep quality are negatively associated with obesity in young adults, but in older people the results are inconsistent. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between sleep duration and quality with both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and to investigate sex- and age-specific associations in a population-representative cohort of older adults. METHODS: 1781 participants ≥ 65 years old from the HELIAD study were included. Sleep duration and quality were based on self-report, whereas BMΙ and WC were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: Sleep duration was inversely related to WC, only in women, even after adjustment for age, sex, years of education, total energy intake and level of physical activity. Furthermore, sleep quality was negatively related to both BMI and WC in women. In men, however, no significant relationships were observed between these variables. Associations between sleep and weight did not differ between those aged < 73 and ≥ 73 years old. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining both sleep duration and quality with BMI and WC in older adults, performing by-sex analysis. Although additional studies are needed, improvements in sleep habits should be considered in weight management of older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that poor sleep is associated to adverse weight effects in older women, but not men.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
13.
Metabolism ; 92: 153-162, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625301

RESUMO

Worldwide obesity rates remain at a rise, and to treat obesity is at the top of the global public health agenda. In 2013, the AHA/ACC/TOS obesity management guidelines were published, in essence suggesting that any dietary scheme seems to be effective for weight loss, as long as it can induce a sustainable energy deficit. In the present review, we update and critically discuss available information regarding dietary modifications for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, published after the 2013 guidelines. Regarding weight loss, we found no proof to support that a single dietary scheme, be it nutrient-, food group- or dietary pattern- based, is more efficacious of the other for achieving weight loss. For weight loss maintenance, published interventions point towards the same direction, although inconclusively. Most research explores the effect of weight loss regimes on weight loss maintenance and not the effect of the diet during weight loss maintenance, and this literature gap should be more thoroughly investigated.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Dieta Redutora , Humanos
14.
Mov Disord ; 34(1): 48-57, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society recently introduced a methodology for probability score calculation for prodromal PD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the probability of prodromal PD in an older population and investigate its possible association with Mediterranean diet adherence. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece were used. Probability of prodromal PD was calculated according to International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society research criteria. A detailed food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary intake and calculate Mediterranean diet adherence score, ranging from 0 to 55, with higher scores indicating higher adherence. RESULTS: Median probability of prodromal PD was 1.9%, ranging from 0.2 to 96.7% in 1,731 PD-free individuals aged ≥ 65 (41% male). Lower probability for prodromal PD (P < 0.001) in the higher Mediterranean diet adherence groups was noted, driven mostly by nonmotor markers of prodromal PD, depression, constipation, urinary dysfunction, and daytime somnolence. Each unit increase in Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 2% decreased probability for prodromal PD (P < 0.001). Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of Mediterranean diet adherence, those in the highest quartile were associated with a ∼21% lower probability for prodromal PD. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower probability of prodromal PD in older people. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential causality of this association, potential relation of the Mediterranean diet to delayed onset or lower incidence of PD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Constipação Intestinal , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
15.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347812

RESUMO

Many lifestyle factors have been linked to cognitive function but little is known about their combined effect. An overall lifestyle pattern for people living in the Mediterranean basin has been proposed, including diet, but also physical activity, sleep and daily living activities with social/intellectual aspects. We aimed to examine the associations between a combination of these lifestyle factors and detailed cognitive performance. A total of 1716 participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), a population-based study of participants ≥65 years, were included in this analysis. Lifestyle factors were evaluated using standard, validated questionnaires and a Total Lifestyle Index (TLI) was constructed. Cognitive outcomes included mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis, a composite z-score (either continuous or with a threshold at the 25th percentile) and z-scores for five cognitive domains. A higher TLI was associated with 65% reduced odds for MCI in the non-demented individuals and 43% reduced odds for low global cognition when MCI participants were excluded, a risk reduction equivalent to 9 and 2.7 fewer years of ageing, respectively. Each lifestyle factor was differentially associated with domain-specific cognitive performance. Our results suggest that a TLI, more so than single lifestyle parameters, may be related to cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono
16.
Brain Sci ; 8(9)2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208568

RESUMO

Even though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of weight loss maintainers may provide a much-needed insight towards sustained obesity management. In this narrative review, we evaluate and critically discuss available evidence regarding the food-related neural responses of weight loss maintainers, as opposed to those of obese or lean persons. While research is still ongoing, available data indicate that following weight loss, maintainers exhibit persistent reward related feeling over food, similar to that of obese persons. However, unlike in obese persons, in maintainers, reward-related brain activity appears to be counteracted by subsequently heightened inhibition. These findings suggest that post-dieting, maintainers acquire a certain level of cognitive control which possibly protects them from weight regaining. The prefrontal cortex, as well as the limbic system, encompass key regions of interest for weight loss maintenance, and their contributions to long term successful weight loss should be further explored. Future possibilities and supportive theories are discussed.

17.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(11): 1006-1015, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244829

RESUMO

Nutrition is an important lifestyle factor that can modify the risk of future cognitive impairment and dementia. Some, but not conclusive, evidence (mostly from observational studies and infrequently from clinical trials) exists of a protective association between certain nutrients (eg, folate, flavonoids, vitamin D, and certain lipids) or food groups (eg, seafood, vegetables, and fruits, and potentially moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption) and cognitive outcomes in older people. For some nutrients and food groups, protection might be greater in individuals with either deficiencies in certain nutrients or a genetic predisposition to cognitive impairment. Identification of potentially different associations between such subgroups should be a priority for future research. At present, evidence of an association between nutrition and cognitive outcomes is somehow stronger for healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean-type diet, than for individual nutrients and food groups, possibly because of the cumulative beneficial effects of the many ingredients in these diets. Multidomain interventions (including a nutrition component) might also hold some promise for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia, but their effectiveness is still uncertain. Use of advanced technologies for nutrition assessment (eg, metabolomics and innovative methods of dietary intake assessment) and recently identified biomarkers of nutrition and neurobiological outcomes will be important to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Humanos
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 18(11): 1543-1548, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187649

RESUMO

AIM: Although there is some evidence of the relationships between sleep duration/quality and nutrient and/or food intake, the associations between sleep and dietary patterns have been poorly explored. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration and quality in relation to adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and to investigate the sex- and age-specific associations in a population-representative cohort of older adults. METHODS: Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet were included. The sample consisted of 1639 adults aged ≥65 years. Sleep duration and quality were assessed through a self-report questionnaire, whereas adherence to the MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score. RESULTS: Sleep quality was positively associated with the MeDi in the unadjusted and the adjusted model (age, sex, depression, years of education, body mass index, level of physical activity and total energy intake were added as covariates). In contrast, sleep duration was not associated with MeDi adherence either in the unadjusted or the adjusted models. In relation to the age-related associations, sleep quality was positively associated with MeDi adherence in those aged ≤75 years, and not in those aged >75 years. Associations between sleep and MeDi did not differ between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that sleep quality is associated with MeDi adherence in older adults; there are also age-specific associations between sleep quality and the MeDi. Although additional studies are required, improvements in diet quality should be considered in the context of sleep management interventions in older individuals. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 1543-1548.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Sono , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Grécia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
Maturitas ; 114: 14-21, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907241

RESUMO

Nutrition is a modifiable factor affecting the quality of life and independence of older people. The physiological, psychological and social changes during aging affect their dietary choices. Many older adults have inadequate energy and protein intake. Carbohydrate intake and intake of total lipids, in terms of contribution to total energy intake, generally are within the recommended levels, but a decline in overall energy intake as well as the limited variety of micronutrient-dense foods that older people tend to consume result in an inadequate intake of several micronutrients. Adherence to healthy dietary patterns has been described as only moderate among older adults. Health-care practitioners should educate older people and promote healthy diets, in particular adequate energy and protein intake.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 32(3): 232-239, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Study of the epidemiology of dementia to gain insight into putative predisposing and prophylactic factors is the first step toward establishing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for this ever-growing public health problem. Relevant data in Greece are scattered and outdated. METHODS: We investigated dementia prevalence as part of a population-representative epidemiological study [Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD)] in 2 Greek regions. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 1792 adults 65 years of age or older, who received a full neurological and neuropsychological evaluation that led to a consensus diagnosis. The overall prevalence of dementia was 5.0%, with 75.3% of the cases attributed to Alzheimer disease. Dementia odds were 15.8% higher for every year of advancing age and 9.4% lower for every additional year of education. Carrying at least 1 APOE-ε4 allele doubled the risk of dementia, whereas sex did not exert a statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with previous research in Southern European countries; dementia prevalence in Greece is in the lower range of what has been reported globally.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Dieta , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Demência/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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