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1.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(10): 278-281, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is often associated with ascending aorta dilation (AAD). AAD is amenable to surgical correction combined with aortic valve replacement. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) might represent a valid therapeutic option in these patients when AAD correction Is not indicated. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of concomitant AAD on early and mid-term outcomes after TAVI for symptomatic severe AS. METHODS: This is a single-center observational study including patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI. All patients with previous surgery on the left ventricular outflow tract, aortic valve, or ascending aorta (except coronary artery bypass graft surgery) were excluded from the analysis. Patients undergoing TAVI for congenital aortic valve defects or subjects in whom a computed tomography (CT) scan was not available were excluded from the analysis. Ascending aortas were measured on CT scans using appropriate multiplanar reconstructions. Ascending aortas were qualified as dilated if the measurement was >40 mm. Study outcomes were death from any cause, significant paravalvular leaks (PVLs), and new permanent pacemaker (PPM) implant. RESULTS: The final population consisted of 680 subjects, 61% females, mean age 82 ± 7 years. One hundred subjects (15%) had AAD. No differences in terms of significant PVL or PPM implantation were found between subjects with or without AAD (P>.99 and P=.13, respectively). At a median follow-up of 498 ± 216 days, no significant difference in terms of mortality was found between subjects with or without AAD (P=.78). CONCLUSIONS: AAD does not appear to impact the mid-term outcomes in a cohort of subjects undergoing TAVI.

2.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422925

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate nationwide trends and clinical outcomes of the Impella device for cardiogenic shock (CS) and high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HR-PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: The IMP-IT study was a multicenter observational national registry that enrolled all patients treated with Impella 2.5, Impella CP, Impella 5.0 and Impella RP, both for CS and HR-PCI indications, across 17 Italian centers from 2004 to June 2018. A total of 406 patients were included: 229 had CS (56.4%) and 177 underwent HR-PCI (43.6%). The use of Impella increased significantly during the study period (average annual percent change: 39.8%; 95% confidence interval: 30.4 to 49.9; p<0.0001) for both indications. The Impella 2.5 was the most commonly used device (N=242; 59.6%). Rates of in-hospital and 1-year all-cause death in patients with CS were 46.9% and 57.0%, respectively. 18.5% underwent left ventricular assist device or heart transplant at 1 year. Rates of in-hospital and 1-year all-cause death in patients who underwent HR-PCI were 5.7% and 15.6%, respectively. Rates of device-related complications were 37.1% and 10.7% in the setting of CS and HR-PCI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Use of Impella for CS and HR-PCI is increasing substantially in Italy, despite relatively high rates of device-related complications.

3.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(7): 940.e5-940.e7, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292097

RESUMO

Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) is emerging as a novel, effective, easy-to-perform, and safe therapy for plaque modification in calcified lesions. So far, data on its use and outcomes mostly derives from stable patients with moderate angiographic complexity. Here we report on a case in which IVL was performed in the context of a high-risk intervention involving calcified lesions of the left main bifurcation and proximal left anterior descending, which required mechanical support with a percutaneous left ventricular assist device. This guaranteed hemodynamic stability and optimal lesion preparation, which allowed achieving a good angiographic result and clinical outcome.

4.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(8): 229-234, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) fractional flow reserve (FFR) in a prospective study. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective registry of patients undergoing PCI following a baseline FFR ≤0.80. Patients were divided according to the post-PCI FFR value (<0.90 vs ≥0.90). The primary endpoint was the proportion of cases in which further action was undertaken in light of a post-PCI FFR value <0.90. RESULTS: Of 65 PCIs, a total of 43 (66%) had a post-PCI FFR <0.90 and 22 (34%) had a post-PCI FFR ≥0.90. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Baseline FFR was similar between patients with post-PCI FFR <0.90 and ≥0.90 (0.72 ± 0.08 vs 0.69 ± 0.14; P=.40). Post-PCI FFR values were 0.82 ± 0.05 in post-PCI FFR <0.90 patients and 0.94 ± 0.02 in post-PCI FFR ≥0.90 patients (P<.001). The most common reason for a post-PCI <0.90 was residual small-vessel disease (42%). In 15 patients (35%) with a post-PCI FFR <0.90, an action was undertaken. An increase of 0.05 ± 0.07 in FFR value (P=.01) was noted after these maneuvers. However, a final FFR value ≥0.90 was achieved in only 3 patients (20%). The major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate at 1-year follow-up was higher in patients with final FFR <0.90 (31.6% vs 9.1%; P=.047). CONCLUSIONS: A suboptimal physiologic outcome is observed in two-thirds of patients undergoing PCI. Despite further interventions, a satisfactory outcome is achieved in only a minority of cases. A post-PCI suboptimal physiologic outcome appears to be associated with a higher incidence of MACE at follow-up.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(2): 183-189, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104777

RESUMO

Microcatheter derived fractional flow reserve (FFRMC) system has an increased profile compared with pressure-wire derived fractional flow reserve (FFRW). Consequently, the FFRMC system itself may increase the degree of coronary artery stenosis and lower the measured FFR value. This can affect the diagnostic accuracy of the FFRMC system and inadvertently result in erroneous therapy for patients. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy FFRMC measurements and provide a means for clinicians to interpret individual FFRMC results with respect to FFRW. Correlation between FFR measurement techniques was analyzed in this lesion level analysis of 413 patients and 441 lesions from 6 studies. The reference standard to determine physiological significant stenosis was FFRW value ≤0.80. The mean values for FFRMC and FFRW were 0.80 ± 0.11 and 0.83 ± 0.09, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias toward overestimation of FFR by FFRMC (bias, -0.03 [0.05]). The overall lesion level diagnostic accuracy of the FFRMC system was 80.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 76.2% to 84.0%). The diagnostic accuracy for FFRMC values <0.75, 0.75 to 0.85 and >0.85 were 83.7% (95% CI 71.4% to 92.4%), 72.3% (95% CI 59.8% to 75.6%), and 99.2% (95% CI 94.8% to 99.8%), respectively. Using the FFRW threshold of ≤0.80, 16.3% of lesions would have had inappropriate revascularization according to FFRMC measurements. Receiver-operating characteristics suggested the optimal cut-off value of FFRMC to determine ischemia was 0.78. In conclusion, the diagnostic accuracy of FFRMC varies markedly across the spectrum of disease with marked deterioration for values between 0.75 and 0.85. This may result in clinicians to inadvertently revascularize patients with FFR measurements >0.80.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 290: 59-63, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with increased procedural challenges and high contrast load. We aimed to evaluate the association between complex PCI and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). METHODS: This single-center retrospective study included all-comers undergoing PCI between January 2012 and December 2016. Complex PCI was defined as a procedure with ≥1 of the following characteristics: 3 vessels treated, ≥3 stents implanted, two-stent bifurcation intervention, total stent length >60 mm, PCI on a chronic total occlusion, saphenous vein graft, or left main, protected PCI, use of rotational/laser atherectomy. CIN was defined as an increase in post-PCI creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl or ≥50% from baseline. RESULTS: We included 2660 patients (n = 1128 complex PCI, n = 1532 non-complex PCI). Complex PCI patients tended to be older, and had higher cardiovascular comorbidity and Mehran CIN risk score. They also had a higher prevalence of type B2/C lesions and need for mechanical circulatory support, and received a higher mean contrast volume (284 ±â€¯137 vs. 189 ±â€¯90 ml, p < 0.001). CIN incidence was similar in complex vs. non-complex PCI patients (12.1% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.63), as was the need for in-hospital dialysis (0.5% vs. 0.2%, p = 0.25). Upon multivariable adjustment, age, female sex, diabetes, ejection fraction, periprocedural hypotension, presentation with acute coronary syndrome, and contrast volume were independently associated with CIN, while complex PCI was not. CONCLUSIONS: Complex PCI is not associated with an increased risk of CIN in all-comers. Further studies should confirm our findings and investigate novel effective strategies to decrease the risk of this serious complication.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes after coronary covered stent (CS) implantation and to compare the results according to the indications. BACKGROUND: To date, data on the long-term follow-up of coronary CS are limited, and no studies have been conducted to compare outcomes on the basis of specific lesions treated. METHODS: A total of 190 consecutive patients (212 lesions) implanted with CS and surviving until discharge between May 1997 and February 2017 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared using the Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: CS was mainly used for the treatment of a saphenous vein graft (SVG) (51.4%), followed by coronary artery perforation (CAP) (25.0%) and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) (11.8%). The median follow-up duration was 6.0 (interquartile range: 1.6-13.5) years. Target vessel myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel occlusion, target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis, frequently occurred in the early follow-up period (7.3%, 16.6%, 21.5%, and 8.9% at 1 year, respectively) and continued to increase throughout the long-term follow-up (14.8%, 38.6%, 38.7%, and 17.8% at 10 years, respectively). Target vessel occlusion, target vessel MI, and ST were not identified in CAA with superiority to CAP (Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon p-value = 0.010, 0.047, and 0.046, respectively). SVG had a higher rate of target vessel occlusion than CAA (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical events after CS implantation frequently occurred in the early period and steadily increased in the long-term period. CS implantation in CAA was associated with fewer adverse cardiac events and may lead to safe and acceptable outcomes. However, CS implanted in CAP and SVG are associated with a high risk of long-term cardiac events.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 150, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406115

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is the therapy of choice for patients with severe aortic stenosis who have prohibitive or high surgical risk. However, the benefit of TAVR is attenuated by the occurrence of major disabling stroke which is associated with increased mortality and early-reduced quality of life. Despite advances in TAVR technology, stroke remains a serious complication that is associated with significant negative outcomes. The majority of these occur in the acute phase following TAVR where cerebral embolic events are frequent. Cerebral embolic protection devices (CEPD) have been developed to minimize the risk of peri-procedural ischemic stroke during TAVR. CEPD have the potential to reduce intraprocedural burden of new silent ischemic injury. In this review we outline the etiology and incidence of stroke in TAVR population, and systematically review current evidence for cerebral embolic protection devices.

12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 129, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283790

RESUMO

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) may affect as much as 65-85% of the population with the prevalence of moderate-to-severe TR in the United States reported at greater than 1.6 million. However, only 8,000 tricuspid valve operations are performed annually in the United States. As severe TR is associated with poor outcomes, there is an unmet clinical need for surgical or percutaneous transcatheter based treatment of TR. Over the last two decades there have been significant developments in percutaneous transcatheter based therapies for valvular disease. However, this progress has not been mirrored for the tricuspid valve until recently; we are now at a cross-roads of new transcatheter devices becoming available for treatment of TR. In this review, we discuss the principles of performing transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement, analyze the devices that can be utilized and outline the challenges related to this procedure.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to predict the displacement of self-expanding transcatheter heart valves (THV) during final deployment. BACKGROUND: Accurate device positioning during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is crucial for optimal results. METHODS: At our institution, 103 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI with Evolut R were retrospectively identified. Multiple linear regression models were created, and a predictor equation was built to quantify the factors that may affect THV behavior. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis for THV displacement on the left coronary cusp (LCC) identified the angle between the THV and the ascending aorta (ATA), predilation, and less operator experience as independent predictors of upward displacement, whereas estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was inversely related with THV behavior (95% confidence interval: 0.219 to 0.340, 0.447 to 2.092, 0.165 to 1.757, and -0.053 to -0.011, respectively). Predictors of THV displacement on the noncoronary cusp side could not be identified using this model. CONCLUSIONS: The ATA at the point of recapture, predilation, and less operator experience were independent predictors of upward displacement of THV on the LCC side. eGFR was an independent predictor of THV downward displacement on the LCC side. Of them, the ATA was the strongest predictor. Physicians may need to adjust this angle adequately before deployment to achieve the appropriate position.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(15): 1519-1526, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine predictors of advanced conduction disturbances requiring late (≥48 h) permanent pacemaker replacement (PPM) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Data of consecutive patients were identified by retrospective review of a TAVR database of a single center in Milan, Italy, between October 2007 and July 2015. We defined delta PR (ΔPR) and delta QRS (ΔQRS) interval as the difference between the last PR and QRS length available 48 h after TAVR and the baseline PR and QRS length. RESULTS: Overall population included 740 patients. We excluded 78 patients who already had a PPM and 51 patients who received a PPM <48 h after TAVR. The final analysis included 611 patients. Fifty-four patients (8.8%) developed an advanced conduction disturbance requiring PPM ≥48 h following TAVR. Patients who required a late PPM implant had a wider QRS width (113 ± 25 ms vs. 105 ± 23 ms; p = 0.009) and a higher prevalence of baseline right bundle branch block (12.9% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.026) and were more likely to have a self-expandable valve implanted (51.8% vs. 31.9%; p = 0.003). The ΔPR was 40 ± 51 ms (p = 0.0001) and the ΔQRS was 22 ± 61 ms (p = 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that baseline right bundle branch block (odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 11.77; p = 0.037) and ΔPR (odds ratio for each 10-ms increase: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 1.45; p = 0.0001) are independent predictors of delayed advanced conduction disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis showed that baseline right bundle branch block and the amount of increase of PR length after TAVR are independent predictors of late (≥48 h) advanced conduction disturbances requiring PPM replacement after TAVR in this cohort. A simple ECG analysis could help in detecting potentially lethal advanced conduction disturbances that could occur more than 48 h after TAVR.

16.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 66(6): 735-743, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963813

RESUMO

Tricuspid valve regurgitation has a high prevalence and, when severe, is associated with poor outcomes. Nevertheless, surgical repair or replacement (isolated or as a part of a combined procedure) is rarely performed due to high surgical risk. Therefore, there is a significant unmet clinical need for percutaneous transcatheter-based treatments. Significant development in percutaneous therapies for both aortic and mitral valve disease has been accomplished over the last two decades, while transcatheter therapies for the tricuspid valve are still at an early stage. We are today at a cross-road of new transcatheter devices that are becoming available for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation; the current review evaluates the challenges that current and future technologies have to face in order to become a safer, less invasive and equally effective alternative to surgery.

17.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(8): 1088.e1-1088.e2, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056846

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is usually based on the correction of both annular dilation and leaflet disease to minimize the risk of recurrence of MR at follow-up. This combined approach may also represent an interesting strategy during transcatheter mitral valve repair systems. We report a successful case of combined Cardioband (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) and MitraClip (Abbott, Santa Clara, California) implantation for the treatment of functional MR, with good acute and medium-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(6): 517-528, 2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566796

RESUMO

As new transcatheter mitral valve (MV) interventions continuously evolve, potential procedure-related adverse events demand careful investigation. The risk of cerebral embolic damage is ubiquitous in any left-sided structural heart intervention (and potentially linked to long-term neurocognitive sequelae); therefore, efforts to evaluate these aspects in the field of catheter-based MV procedures are justified. Given the peculiarities of MV anatomy, MV disease, and MV procedures, the lessons learned from other transcatheter heart interventions (i.e., transcatheter aortic valve replacement) cannot be directly translated to MV applications. Through a systematic assessment of available evidence, the authors present and discuss procedure- and patient-related factors potentially associated with cerebral embolic risk during catheter-based MV interventions. Given the paucity of available data in this field, future large, dedicated studies are needed to understand whether cerebral embolic injury represents a real clinical issue during MV procedures.

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