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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy. A previous study of pregnant women from the Pamplona healthcare region showed mild iodine deficiency (mean urinary iodine level, 125 mcg/L). This study was intended to ascertain the iodine intake of pregnant women in our region and to analyze the change over time in their iodine nutritional status. METHODS: An observational study of 400 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. An iodine intake questionnaire was administered. To assess iodine status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a simple urine sample, and serum thyroglobulin levels were determined. In addition, thyroid volume was measured by cervical ultrasound examination. RESULTS: Iodized salt was used by 70.5% of all participants (55.3% since the pre-gestational period) and 98.5% of them received iodine-containing supplements (mean dose, 202.6±30.1 mcg/day). Mean urinary iodine concentration was 242 mcg/L (138.5-415.5 mcg/L) and the mean serum thyroglobulin level was 12.3 mcg/L (8.3-9 mcg/L). Iodized salt intake was associated with higher UICs and lower thyroid volume. No differences were found in any of the tested parameters regarding the intake of dairy products, fish, or eggs. CONCLUSIONS: Iodine intake by pregnant women in Pamplona has increased due to a greater use of iodized salt and to higher doses of iodine supplements. As a result of this, an adequate iodine status has been achieved in the last decade.

3.
Endocrine ; 66(2): 405-415, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism has been studied in registries and in surgical series with highly variable and imprecise results. However, the frequency of this hormonal deficiency in the clinical practice of endocrinologists is not known with accuracy. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoparathyroidism in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy in Spain. METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicentre and nation-wide protocol including all patients with total thyroidectomy who were seen in the endocrinology clinic of the participant centers from January to March 2018. Prevalence of hypoparathyroidism was evaluated at discharge of surgery, 3-6 months after surgery, 12 months after surgery and at last visit. Twenty hospitals participated in the study. RESULTS: Of 1792 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, 866 (48.3%) developed postoperative hypoparathyroidism at discharge of surgery. Most of them recover parathyroid function over time. Prevalence of hypoparathyroidism at 3-6 months, 12 months and at last visit was 22.9%, 16.7% and 14.5%, respectively. The risk of developing definitive hypoparathyroidism was related to the presence of parathyroid tissue at histology, lymph node dissection, and two-stage thyroidectomy. Patients with thyroid cancer, with higher postoperative calcium levels and treated by expert surgical teams exhibited lower risk of developing permanent hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism recover parathyroid function, the prevalence of permanent disease in clinical practice is non negligible (14.5%). Postoperative calcium, extent and timing of surgery, the presence of cancer, expert surgical team, and parathyroid tissue at histology are predictors of permanent hypoparathyroidism.

4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(5): 305-311, mayo 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182805

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar el riesgo de hipotiroidismo en gestantes con enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune y tirotropina (TSH) < 2,5 mUI/l al inicio del embarazo. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo longitudinal en gestantes de primer trimestre sin antecedentes de patología tiroidea y con TSH en primer trimestre < 2,5 mUI/l. Se determinaron TSH, tiroxina libre (T4l) y anticuerpos antiperoxidasa (TPO) y antitiroglobulina en los 3 trimestres. Se comparó la evolución de la función tiroidea y la aparición de hipotiroidismo gestacional (TSH > 4 mUI/l), entre las gestantes con autoinmunidad positiva y autoinmunidad negativa. Resultados: Se incluyeron 300 gestantes con TSH basal 1,3 ± 0,6 mUI/l (semana gestacional 9). El 17,7% (n = 53) tenían autoinmunidad positiva en el primer trimestre. Los títulos de anticuerpos TPO y antitiroglobulina disminuyeron entre el primer y el tercer trimestre un 76,8% y un 80,7% respectivamente. La evolución de la función tiroidea fue similar en el grupo con autoinmunidad positiva y el grupo con autoinmunidad negativa, y la aparición de hipotiroidismo fue del 1,9% (1/53) y del 2% (5/247) respectivamente. Las gestantes en las que la TSH aumentó por encima de 4 mUI/l (n = 6) tenían cifras superiores de TSH basal en comparación con las que mantuvieron TSH≤4 mUI/l a lo largo del embarazo (1,8 vs. 1,3 mUI/l; p = 0,047). Conclusión: En nuestra población, las mujeres con TSH < 2,5 mUI/l al inicio del embarazo tienen un riesgo mínimo de desarrollar hipotiroidismo durante la gestación, independientemente de la autoinmunidad tiroidea


Objective: To determine the risk of hypothyroidism in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and thyrotropin (TSH) < 2,5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women with no personal history of thyroid disease, and with TSH < 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester. TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), anti peroxidase (TPO) and anti thyroglobulin antibodies were measured in the 3 trimesters of pregnancy. We compared thyroid function throughout pregnancy, and the development of gestational hypothyroidism (TSH >4 mIU/l) among pregnant women with positive thyroid autoimmunity and those with negative autoimmunity. Results: We included 300 pregnant women with mean baseline TSH 1.3 ± 0.6 mIU/l (9th gestational week). Positive thyroid autoinmunity was detected in 17.7% of women (n = 53) at the first trimester. Between the first and the third trimesters, TPO and anti thyroglobulin antibodies titers decreased 76.8% and 80.7% respectively. Thyroid function during pregnancy was similar among the group with positive autoimmunity and the group with negative autoimmunity, and the development of hypothyroidism was 1.9% (1/53) and 2% (5/247) respectively. Pregnant women in whom TSH increased above 4 mIU/l (n = 6), had higher baseline TSH levels compared to those who maintained TSH ≤4 mIU/l during pregnancy (1.8 vs. 1.3 mIU/l; p=.047). Conclusion: In our population, women with TSH levels <2.5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy have a minimal risk of developing gestational hypothyroidism regardless of thyroid autoimmunity


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Tireotropina/administração & dosagem , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Antitireóideos/uso terapêutico
5.
Thyroid ; 29(3): 421-429, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid function assessment in pregnancy requires specific reference intervals stratified by gestational age and according to each laboratory method. Thyroid nodules may influence thyroid function in pregnant women. The aims of this study were to define the reference values of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) in the three pregnancy trimesters in iodine-sufficient pregnant women, and to analyze the influence of thyroid nodules on thyroid function during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal study comprising 400 pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease and no medication influencing thyroid function. TSH, fT4, antithyroglobulin, and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were measured each trimester by chemiluminescent immunoassays. Urinary iodine concentration was measured in the first trimester when a thyroid echography was also performed. Women with multiple gestation pregnancies, positive thyroid autoimmunity, TSH values >5 or <0.1 mIU/L with a simultaneous fT4 level above the general population reference value in the first trimester, or clinically significant thyroid nodules (nodules ≥1 cm and/or multiple nodules) were excluded to establish TSH and fT4 reference values. RESULTS: Reference intervals in the first, second, and third trimesters were 0.13-4.16, 0.31-3.73, and 0.58-4.36 mIU/L, respectively, for TSH, and 0.85-1.24, 0.82-1.20, and 0.67-1.06 ng/dL, respectively, for fT4. The total prevalence of thyroid nodules was 28.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 24.4-33.5%], and 6.0% of the participants showed clinically significant nodules. Pregnant women with thyroid nodules (n = 115) showed consistently lower TSH values during all pregnancy stages (first trimester: median 1.14 mIU/L [interquartile range (IQR) 0.53-1.75 mIU/L] vs. 1.48 mIU/L [IQR 0.94-2.19 mIU/L], p < 0.001; second trimester: 1.22 mIU/L [IQR 0.66-1.77 mIU/L] vs. 1.45 mIU/L [1.04-2.05 mIU/L], p = 0.001; third trimester: 1.74 mIU/L [IQR 1.08-2.36 mIU/L] vs. 1.93 mIU/L [IQR 1.37-2.58 mIU/L], p = 0.041) and higher fT4 values in the first trimester (M ± SD = 1.08 ± 0.14 ng/dL vs. 1.03 ± 0.12, p < 0.001) compared to those without nodules (n = 285). Both pregnant women with clinically significant thyroid nodules and those with nonsignificant ones had lower TSH values than women without nodules. CONCLUSIONS: TSH/fT4 reference intervals in pregnant women from the authors' geographical area will thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy to be appropriately diagnosed. The prevalence of thyroid nodules is high in iodine-sufficient pregnant women, and is associated with low TSH values across pregnancy.


Assuntos
Iodo/sangue , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Tireoglobulina/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea
6.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(5): 305-311, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of hypothyroidism in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and thyrotropin (TSH) < 2,5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women with no personal history of thyroid disease, and with TSH < 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester. TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), anti peroxidase (TPO) and anti thyroglobulin antibodies were measured in the 3 trimesters of pregnancy. We compared thyroid function throughout pregnancy, and the development of gestational hypothyroidism (TSH >4 mIU/l) among pregnant women with positive thyroid autoimmunity and those with negative autoimmunity. RESULTS: We included 300 pregnant women with mean baseline TSH 1.3 ± 0.6 mIU/l (9th gestational week). Positive thyroid autoinmunity was detected in 17.7% of women (n = 53) at the first trimester. Between the first and the third trimesters, TPO and anti thyroglobulin antibodies titers decreased 76.8% and 80.7% respectively. Thyroid function during pregnancy was similar among the group with positive autoimmunity and the group with negative autoimmunity, and the development of hypothyroidism was 1.9% (1/53) and 2% (5/247) respectively. Pregnant women in whom TSH increased above 4 mIU/l (n = 6), had higher baseline TSH levels compared to those who maintained TSH ≤4 mIU/l during pregnancy (1.8 vs. 1.3 mIU/l; p=.047). CONCLUSION: In our population, women with TSH levels <2.5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy have a minimal risk of developing gestational hypothyroidism regardless of thyroid autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Subunidade RIalfa da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/imunologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea
7.
Can J Diabetes ; 40(3): 258-63, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26976719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the incidence of nephropathy as well as potential risk factors involved in its onset in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes who were followed from diagnosis. METHODS: We studied 716 patients, who were followed for a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 10.1 (SD: 5.3) years. We analyzed the influence of demographic characteristics and levels of glycated hemoglobin (A1C), lipids and blood pressure during the course of the disease by univariate and multivariate survival methods. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of nephropathy was 2.6%, 6.3% and 11.9% at 5, 10 and 15 years of evolution, respectively. The factors associated with increased risk for nephropathy were systolic blood pressure and A1C levels. An increment of 10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure increases the risk by 36%, and an increment of 1% in A1C levels raises the risk by 13% at 5 years since onset and 68% at 10 years, and it doubles the risk at 15 years. Women have higher risk than men (hazard ratio 1.79; p=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that female gender and high levels of A1C and systolic blood pressure throughout the course of the disease are the main factors associated with an increased risk for development of nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 26(8): 1854-63, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21523828

RESUMO

Most patients with autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (AD-PHP-Ib) carry maternally inherited microdeletions upstream of GNAS that are associated with loss of methylation restricted to GNAS exon A/B. Only few AD-PHP-Ib patients carry microdeletions within GNAS that are associated with loss of all maternal methylation imprints. These epigenetic changes are often indistinguishable from those observed in patients affected by an apparently sporadic PHP-Ib form that has not yet been defined genetically. We have now investigated six female patients affected by PHP-Ib (four unrelated and two sisters) with complete or almost complete loss of GNAS methylation, whose healthy children (11 in total) showed no epigenetic changes at this locus. Analysis of several microsatellite markers throughout the 20q13 region made it unlikely that PHP-Ib is caused in these patients by large deletions involving GNAS or by paternal uniparental isodisomy or heterodisomy of chromosome 20 (patUPD20). Microsatellite and single-nucleotide variation (SNV) data revealed that the two affected sisters share their maternally inherited GNAS alleles with unaffected relatives that lack evidence for abnormal GNAS methylation, thus excluding linkage to this locus. Consistent with these findings, healthy children of two unrelated sporadic PHP-Ib patients had inherited different maternal GNAS alleles, also arguing against linkage to this locus. Based on our data, it appears plausible that some forms of PHP-Ib are caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation(s) in an unknown gene involved in establishing or maintaining GNAS methylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Cromograninas , Epigênese Genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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