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1.
Hepatology ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211856

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) mortality rates are increasing as a result of rising incidence and limited curative treatment(s) for patients with advanced disease. NOTCH pathway reactivation has been reported in biliary malignancies to conflicting degrees, hindering prioritization of key therapeutic targets within the network and identification of candidate responder patients for NOTCH-directed therapies. We analyzed genomic data from 341 patients with CCA and identified NOTCH1 significantly increased in a subgroup characterized by distinct stromal infiltration. Network-wide imbalance of the NOTCH pathway was seen in CCA, including correlation of NOTCH1 with NOTCH3 and NOTCH ligands. Given the diversity of observed NOTCH receptor engagement, γ-secretase modulation was rationalized as a therapeutic option. Indeed, subcutaneous transplantation of sensitive and resistant CCA cell lines pretreated with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSi) cocktail demonstrated the antineoplastic effects of GSi in a subset of CCA and led to the development of a 225-gene responder signature. This signature was validated in an independent cohort of 119 patients. Further, this signature was enriched in liver tumors initiated by hydrodynamic injections of activated-NOTCH as compared with the AKT-RAS-driven tumors. Candidate GSi-responder patients were characterized by distinct transcriptomes overlapping with previous hepatobiliary metastasis and stemness, unique stromal properties, and dysfunctional intratumoral immune infiltration. Pan-cancer analysis identified 41.9% of cancer types to harbor prospective GSi-responder patients, which was adapted into a 20-gene GSi-sensitivity score metric capable of discriminating nanomolar versus micromolar sensitivity to a cell-permeable GSi (Z-LLNle-CHO) across 60 diverse tumor lines (area under the curve = 1). Conclusion: We have established a GSi-responder signature with evidence across several patient cohorts, as well as in vitro and in vivo models, to enable precision medicine application of NOTCH-directed therapy in CCA as well as prospectively across diverse malignancies.

2.
Trends Cancer ; 5(6): 335-350, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208696

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) comprises a heterogeneous collection of malignancies arising within the biliary tract, characterized by late diagnosis, innate chemoresistance, and abysmal prognosis. Sequencing data have uncovered recurrent mutations in diverse epigenetic regulators, implicating epigenetic destabilization at the root of these tumors. However, few studies have characterized biliary tumor epigenomes. In this Opinion article, we argue that an epigenome-oriented approach to CCA could establish diverse interconnections between many key aspects of research on this disease, including molecular heterogeneity, diverse cells of origin, and prominent tumor microenvironments. Moreover, we discuss plausible causes of epigenome dysregulation in biliary tumors, including genetic, epigenetic, metabolic, microenvironmental, and physiological factors. Lastly, we assess the translational potential of epigenomics in CCA to uncover robust biomarkers and therapeutic opportunities for this growing group of patients with limited treatment options.

4.
Hepatology ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972782

RESUMO

Although the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib is useful in the treatment of several cancers, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is refractory to this drug. Among other mechanisms of chemoresistance, impaired uptake through human organic cation transporter type 1 (hOCT1) (gene SLC22A1) has been suggested. Here we have investigated the events accounting for this phenotypic characteristic and have evaluated the interest of selective gene therapy strategies to overcome this limitation. Gene expression and DNA methylation of SLC22A1 were analyzed using intrahepatic (iCCA) and extrahepatic (eCCA) biopsies (Copenhagen and Salamanca cohorts; n = 132) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-CHOL (n = 36). Decreased hOCT1 mRNA correlated with hypermethylation status of the SLC22A1 promoter. Treatment of CCA cells with decitabine (demethylating agent) or butyrate (histone deacetylase inhibitor) restored hOCT1 expression and increased sorafenib uptake. MicroRNAs able to induce hOCT1 mRNA decay were analyzed in paired samples of TCGA-CHOL (n = 9) and Copenhagen (n = 57) cohorts. Consistent up-regulation in tumor tissue was found for miR-141 and miR-330. High proportion of aberrant hOCT1 mRNA splicing in CCA was also seen. Lentiviral-mediated transduction of eCCA (EGI-1 and TFK-1) and iCCA (HuCCT1) cells with hOCT1 enhanced sorafenib uptake and cytotoxic effects. In chemically induced CCA in rats, reduced rOct1 expression was accompanied by impaired sorafenib uptake. In xenograft models of eCCA cells implanted in mouse liver, poor response to sorafenib was observed. However, tumor growth was markedly reduced by cotreatment with sorafenib and adenoviral vectors encoding hOCT1 under the control of the BIRC5 promoter, a gene highly up-regulated in CCA. Conclusion: The reason for impaired hOCT1-mediated sorafenib uptake by CCA is multifactorial. Gene therapy capable of selectively inducing hOCT1 in tumor cells can be considered a potentially useful chemosensitization strategy to improve the response of CCA to sorafenib.

5.
Liver Int ; 39 Suppl 1: 32-42, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829432

RESUMO

The complexity of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cellularity and the molecular perturbation mechanisms that underlie the diversity of growth patterns of this malignancy remain a clinical concern. Tumours of the biliary system display significant intrinsic chemoresistance, caused by significant stromal involvement and genome-wide tumour heterogeneity, hampering disease remission and palliation as well as promoting the metastatic behaviour. It is crucial to advance our present understanding of the risk and molecular pathogenesis of CCA. This will facilitate the delineation of patient subsets based on molecular perturbations and adjust for precision therapies.

6.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(6): 787-800, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The expression of the human organic cation transporter-1 (hOCT1, gene SLC22A1) is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular bases of this reduction and its relationship with the poor response of HCC to sorafenib were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: HCC transcriptomes from 366 samples available at TCGA were analysed. Alternative splicing was determined by RT-PCR. The role of miRNAs in SLC22A1 downregulation was investigated. Expression of Oct1 was measured in rodent HCC models (spontaneously generated in Fxr-/- mice and chemically-induced in rats). hOCT1 was overexpressed in human hepatoma cells (HuH7 and HepG2). Sorafenib and regorafenib uptake was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. KEY RESULTS: hOCT1 overexpression enhanced sorafenib, but not regorafenib, quinine-inhibitable uptake by hepatoma cells. In rodent HCC, Oct1 was downregulated, which was accompanied by impaired sorafenib uptake. In mice with s.c.-implanted HCC, sorafenib inhibited the growth of hOCT1 overexpressing tumours. In human HCC, hOCT1 expression was inversely correlated with SLC22A1 promoter methylation, whereas demethylation with decitabine enhanced hOCT1 expression in hepatoma cells. Increased proportion of aberrant hOCT1 mRNA variants was found in HCC samples. In silico analysis identified six miRNAs as candidates to target hOCT1 mRNA. When overexpressed in HepG2 cells a significant hOCT1 mRNA decay was induced by hsa-miR-330 and hsa-miR-1468. Analysis of 39 paired tumour/adjacent samples from TCGA revealed that hsa-mir-330 was consistently upregulated in HCC. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Impaired hOCT1 expression/function in HCC, in part due to epigenetic modifications, plays an important role in the poor pharmacological response of this cancer to sorafenib.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485423

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer (PLC) ranks among the most lethal solid cancers worldwide due to lack of effective biomarkers for early detection and limited treatment options in advanced stages. Development of primary culture models that closely recapitulate phenotypic and molecular diversities of PLC is urgently needed to improve the patient outcome. Long-term cultures of 7 primary liver cancer cell lines of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular origin were established using defined culture conditions. Morphological and histological characteristics of obtained cell lines and xenograft tumors were analyzed and compared to original tumors. Time course analyses of transcriptomic and genomic changes were performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Key oncogenic alterations were identified by targeted NGS and cell lines carrying potentially actionable mutations were treated with corresponding specific inhibitors. PDCL fully resembled morphological features of the primary cancers in vitro and in vivo over extended period in culture. Genomic alterations as well as transcriptome profiles showed high similarity with primary tumors and remained stable during long-term culturing. Targeted-NGS confirmed that key oncogenic mutations such as TP53, KRAS, CTNNB1 as well as actionable mutations (e.g. MET, cKIT, KDR) were highly conserved in PDCL and amenable for individualized therapeutic approaches. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic approaches further demonstrated that PDCL more closely resemble molecular and prognostic features of PLC than established cell lines and are valuable tool for direct target evaluation. Our integrative analysis demonstrates that PDCL represents refined model for discovery of relevant molecular subgroups and exploration of precision medicine approaches for the treatment of this deadly disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Cell Syst ; 7(4): 422-437.e7, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268436

RESUMO

We present an integromic analysis of gene alterations that modulate transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)-Smad-mediated signaling in 9,125 tumor samples across 33 cancer types in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Focusing on genes that encode mediators and regulators of TGF-ß signaling, we found at least one genomic alteration (mutation, homozygous deletion, or amplification) in 39% of samples, with highest frequencies in gastrointestinal cancers. We identified mutation hotspots in genes that encode TGF-ß ligands (BMP5), receptors (TGFBR2, AVCR2A, and BMPR2), and Smads (SMAD2 and SMAD4). Alterations in the TGF-ß superfamily correlated positively with expression of metastasis-associated genes and with decreased survival. Correlation analyses showed the contributions of mutation, amplification, deletion, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression to transcriptional activity of TGF-ß signaling in each cancer type. This study provides a broad molecular perspective relevant for future functional and therapeutic studies of the diverse cancer pathways mediated by the TGF-ß superfamily.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196979, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787571

RESUMO

To identify coding and non-coding suppressor genes of anchorage-independent proliferation by efficient loss-of-function screening, we have developed a method for enzymatic production of low complexity shRNA libraries from subtracted transcriptomes. We produced and screened two LEGO (Low-complexity by Enrichment for Genes shut Off) shRNA libraries that were enriched for shRNA vectors targeting coding and non-coding polyadenylated transcripts that were reduced in transformed Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs). The LEGO shRNA libraries included ~25 shRNA vectors per transcript which limited off-target artifacts. Our method identified 79 coding and non-coding suppressor transcripts. We found that taurine-responsive GABAA receptor subunits, including GABRA5 and GABRB3, were induced during the arrest of non-transformed anchor-deprived MEFs and prevented anchorless proliferation. We show that taurine activates chloride currents through GABAA receptors on MEFs, causing seclusion of cell volume in large membrane protrusions. Volume seclusion from cells by taurine correlated with reduced proliferation and, conversely, suppression of this pathway allowed anchorage-independent proliferation. In human cholangiocarcinomas, we found that several proteins involved in taurine signaling via GABAA receptors were repressed. Low GABRA5 expression typified hyperproliferative tumors, and loss of taurine signaling correlated with reduced patient survival, suggesting this tumor suppressive mechanism operates in vivo.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Camundongos , Prognóstico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Hibridização Subtrativa , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Trends Cancer ; 4(3): 239-255, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506673

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a dismal disease which often is diagnosed at a late stage where the tumor is locally advanced, metastatic, and, as a result, is associated with low resectability. The heterogeneity of this cancer type is a major reason why the majority of patients fail to respond to therapy, and surgery remains their only curative option. Among patients who undergo surgical intervention, such tumors typically recur in 50% of cases within 1year. Thus, CCA is among the most aggressive and chemoresistant malignancies. CCA is characterized by marked tumor reactive stroma, a fibrogenic connective tissue which surrounds and infiltrates the tumor epithelium. This desmoplastic environment presents a clinical challenge, limiting drug delivery and supporting the growth of the tumor mass. In this review we attempt to highlight key pathways involved in cell to cell communication between the tumor epithelium and stroma, the immune components, and opportunities for novel strategies to improve patient outcome.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(4 Pt B): 1423-1434, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645654

RESUMO

Epigenomics is a fast-evolving field of research that has lately attracted considerable interest, mainly due to the reversibility of epigenetic marks. Clinically, among solid tumors, the field is still limited. In cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) it is well known that the epigenetic landscape is deregulated both during carcinogenesis and disease progression as a consequence of aberrant mechanisms leading to genome instability. In this article, we will briefly review the molecular alterations that have been described in the transformation of normal cholangiocytes into malignant derivatives, focusing on the role of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) interactions, DNA methylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones and chromatin remodeling complexes.

13.
Hepatology ; 68(3): 949-963, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278425

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma remains a highly heterogeneous malignancy that has eluded effective patient stratification to date. The extent to which such heterogeneity can be influenced by individual driver mutations remains to be evaluated. Here, we analyzed genomic (whole-exome sequencing, targeted exome sequencing) and epigenomic data from 496 patients and used the three most recurrently mutated genes to stratify patients (IDH, KRAS, TP53, "undetermined"). Using this molecular dissection approach, each subgroup was determined to possess unique mutational signature preferences, comutation profiles, and enriched pathways. High-throughput drug repositioning in seven patient-matched cell lines, chosen to reflect the genetic alterations specific for each patient group, confirmed in silico predictions of subgroup-specific vulnerabilities linked to enriched pathways. Intriguingly, patients lacking all three mutations ("undetermined") harbored the most extensive structural alterations, while isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant tumors displayed the most extensive DNA methylome dysregulation, consistent with previous findings. CONCLUSION: Stratification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients based on occurrence of mutations in three classifier genes (IDH, KRAS, TP53) revealed unique oncogenic programs (mutational, structural, epimutational) that influence pharmacologic response in drug repositioning protocols; this genome dissection approach highlights the potential of individual mutations to induce extensive molecular heterogeneity and could facilitate advancement of therapeutic response in this dismal disease. (Hepatology 2018).

14.
Gastroenterology ; 154(1): 260-261, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178970
15.
Gastroenterology ; 154(4): 1066-1079.e5, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are resistant to chemotherapy, so new therapeutic agents are needed. We performed a screen to identify small-molecule compounds that are active against CCAs. Levels of microRNA 21 (MIR21 or miRNA21) are increased in CCAs. We investigated whether miRNA21 mediates resistance of CCA cells and organoids to HSP90 inhibitors. METHODS: We performed a high-throughput screen of 484 small-molecule compounds to identify those that reduced viability of 6 human CCA cell lines. We tested the effects of HSP90 inhibitors on cells with disruption of the MIR21 gene, cells incubated with MIR21 inhibitors, and stable cell lines with inducible expression of MIR21. We obtained CCA biopsies from patients, cultured them as organoids (patient-derived organoids). We assessed their architecture, mutation and gene expression patterns, response to compounds in culture, and when grown as subcutaneous xenograft tumors in mice. RESULTS: Cells with IDH1 and PBRM1 mutations had the highest level of sensitivity to histone deacetylase inhibitors. HSP90 inhibitors were effective in all cell lines, irrespective of mutations. Sensitivity of cells to HSP90 inhibitors correlated inversely with baseline level of MIR21. Disruption of MIR21 increased cell sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitors. CCA cells that expressed transgenic MIR21 were more resistant to HSP90 inhibitors than cells transfected with control vectors; inactivation of MIR21 in these cells restored sensitivity to these agents. MIR21 was shown to target the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B5 (DNAJB5). Transgenic expression of DNAJB5 in CCA cells that overexpressed MIR21 re-sensitized them to HSP90 inhibitors. Sensitivity of patient-derived organoids to HSP90 inhibitors, in culture and when grown as xenograft tumors in mice, depended on expression of miRNA21. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA21 appears to mediate resistance of CCA cells to HSP90 inhibitors by reducing levels of DNAJB5. HSP90 inhibitors might be developed for the treatment of CCA and miRNA21 might be a marker of sensitivity to these agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Organoides , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transfecção , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Liver Int ; 38(1): 113-124, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a heterogeneous entity with diverse aetiologies, morphologies and clinical outcomes. Recently, histopathological distinction of cholangiolocellular differentiation (CD) of iCCA has been suggested. However, its genome-wide molecular features and clinical significance remain unclear. METHODS: Based on CD status, we stratified iCCAs into iCCA with CD (n=20) and iCCA without CD (n=102), and performed an integrative analysis using transcriptomic and clinicopathological profiles. RESULTS: iCCA with CD revealed less aggressive histopathological features compared to iCCA without CD, and iCCA with CD showed favourable clinical outcomes of overall survival and time to recurrence than iCCA without CD (P<.05 for all). Transcriptomic profiling revealed that iCCA with CD resembled an inflammation-related subtype, while iCCA without CD resembled a proliferation subtype. In addition, we identified a CD signature that can predict prognostic outcomes of iCCA (CD_UP, n=486 and CD_DOWN, n=308). iCCAs were subgrouped into G1 (positivity for CRP and CDH2, 7%), G3 (positivity for S100P and TFF1, 32%) and G2 (the others, 61%). Prognostic outcomes for overall survival (P=.001) and time to recurrence (P=.017) were the most favourable in G1-iCCAs, intermediate in G2-iCCAs and the worst in G3-iCCAs. Similar result was confirmed in the iCCA set from GSE26566 (n=68). CONCLUSIONS: CD signature was identified to predict the prognosis of iCCA. The combined evaluation of histology of CD and protein expression status of CRP, CDH2, TFF1 and S100P might help subtyping and predicting clinical outcomes of iCCA.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17667, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247214

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating liver tumour arising from malignant transformation of bile duct epithelial cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a subset of tumour cells endowed with stem-like properties, which play a role in tumour initiation, recurrence and metastasis. In appropriate conditions, CSC form 3D spheres (SPH), which retain stem-like tumour-initiating features. Here, we found different expression of iron proteins indicating increased iron content, oxidative stress and higher expression of CSC markers in CCA-SPH compared to tumour cells growing as monolayers. Exposure to the iron chelator desferrioxamine decreased SPH forming efficiency and the expression of CSC markers and stem-like genes, whereas iron had an opposite effect. Microarray profiles in CCA samples (n = 104) showed decreased H ferritin, hepcidin and ferroportin expression in tumours respect to surrounding liver, whereas transferrin receptor was up-regulated. Moreover, we found a trend toward poorer outcome in CCA patients with elevated expression of ferritin and hepcidin, two major proteins of iron metabolism. These findings, which represent the first evidence of a role for iron in the stem cell compartment as a novel metabolic factor involved in CCA growth, may have implications for a better therapeutic approach.

18.
Cancer Cell ; 32(1): 57-70.e3, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648284

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are clinically disparate primary liver cancers with etiological and biological heterogeneity. We identified common molecular subtypes linked to similar prognosis among 199 Thai ICC and HCC patients through systems integration of genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics. While ICC and HCC share recurrently mutated genes, including TP53, ARID1A, and ARID2, mitotic checkpoint anomalies distinguish the C1 subtype with key drivers PLK1 and ECT2, whereas the C2 subtype is linked to obesity, T cell infiltration, and bile acid metabolism. These molecular subtypes are found in 582 Asian, but less so in 265 Caucasian patients. Thus, Asian ICC and HCC, while clinically treated as separate entities, share common molecular subtypes with similar actionable drivers to improve precision therapy.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma
20.
Mol Carcinog ; 56(9): 2146-2157, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467612

RESUMO

High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been addressed yet. Therefore, we determined HMGA1 mRNA expression in CCA samples in a transcriptome array (n = 104) and a smaller cohort (n = 13) by qRT-PCR. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (n = 67). In addition, we analyzed changes in cell proliferation, colony formation, response to gemcitabine treatment, and target gene expression after modulation of HMGA1 expression in CCA cell lines. mRNA levels of HMGA1 were found to be upregulated in 15-62% depending on the cohort analyzed. Immunohistochemistry showed HMGA1 overexpression in 51% of CCA specimens. Integration with clinico-pathological data revealed that high HMGA1 expression was associated with reduced time to recurrence and a positive lymph node status in extrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma. In vitro experiments showed that overexpression of HMGA1 in CCA cell lines promoted cell proliferation, whereas its suppression reduced growth rate. HMGA1 further promoted colony formation in an anchorage independent growth and conferred resistance to gemcitabine treatment. Finally, HMGA1 modulated the expression of two genes involved in CCA carcinogenesis, iNOS and ERBB2. In conclusion, our findings indicate that HMGA1 expression is increased in a substantial number of CCA specimens. HMGA1 further promotes CCA tumorigenicity and confers resistance to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Carcinogênese , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas HMGA/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
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