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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612200

RESUMO

Algorithms are regularly used to identify persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the Medicaid data. To the authors knowledge, there are no published reports of an HIV algorithm from claims codes that have been compared to an HIV surveillance system to assess its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in identifying PLWDH. The aims of this study were to: 1) develop an algorithm that could identify PLWDH in New York Medicaid data from 2006-2014; and 2) validate this algorithm using the New York HIV surveillance system. Classification and regression tree analysis identified 16 nodes that were combined to create a case-finding algorithm with five criteria. This algorithm identified 86,930 presumed PLWDH, of which 88.0% were verified by matching to the surveillance system. The algorithm yielded a sensitivity of 94.5%, a specificity of 94.5%, a positive predictive value of 88.0%, and a negative predictive value of 97.6%. This validated algorithm has the potential to improve the utility of the Medicaid data for assessing health outcomes and programmatic interventions.

3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 1: S13-S19, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focused attention on Data to Care underlines the importance of high-quality HIV surveillance data. This study identified the number of total duplicate and exact duplicate HIV case records in 9 separate Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) databases reported by 8 jurisdictions and compared this approach to traditional Routine Interstate Duplicate Review resolution. METHODS: This study used the ATra Black Box System and 6 eHARS variables for matching case records across jurisdictions: last name, first name, date of birth, sex assigned at birth (birth sex), social security number, and race/ethnicity, plus 4 system-calculated values (first name Soundex, last name Soundex, partial date of birth, and partial social security number). RESULTS: In approximately 11 hours, this study matched 290,482 cases from 799,326 uploaded records, including 55,460 exact case pairs. Top case pair overlaps were between NYC and NYS (51%), DC and MD (10%), and FL and NYC (6%), followed closely by FL and NYS (4%), FL and NC (3%), DC and VA (3%), and MD and VA (3%). Jurisdictions estimated that they realized a combined 135 labor hours in time efficiency by using this approach compared with manual methods previously used for interstate duplication resolution. DISCUSSION: This approach discovered exact matches that were not previously identified. It also decreased time spent resolving duplicated case records across jurisdictions while improving accuracy and completeness of HIV surveillance data in support of public health program policies. Future uses of this approach should consider standardized protocols for postprocessing eHARS data.

4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 1: S42-S46, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data-to-Care (D2C) programming is an important strategy in locating and relinking persons with HIV who are not in care (NIC), back to care. However, Health Department D2C programs have found a large proportion of individuals who seem NIC are living outside of their jurisdiction. Jurisdictions are limited in ability to cross-communicate regarding such individuals. SETTING: Two D2C programs [New York State (NYS) and Florida (FL)] funded through the Partnerships-for-Care Demonstration Project, partnered to conduct a feasibility pilot project to test cross-jurisdictional D2C reciprocity. METHODS: Jurisdictions made efforts to set up infrastructure for cross-jurisdictional D2C, and NYS worked to identify persons reported in NYS presumed in need of linkage/relinkage efforts in FL using 3 years of NYS D2C program outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred forty NYS NIC individuals were presumed to need linkage/relinkage efforts in FL. However, case dispositions for these individuals were not able to be advanced beyond determining HIV care status due to 4 critical challenges: (1) Local legal and regulatory permissibility for sharing identifiable HIV surveillance information outside of a specific jurisdiction varies; (2) Electronic infrastructure in place does not support public health follow-up of individuals who are not within a jurisdiction's HIV surveillance system; (3) An individual's verifiable current residence is not easily attained; and (4) Roles, responsibilities, and case prioritization within each state, and across jurisdictions vary and require clear delineation. CONCLUSIONS: Although programmatic challenges during this D2C feasibility pilot project were unsurmountable for NYS and FL, potential solutions presented may facilitate broader national cross-jurisdictional D2C reciprocity.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435885

RESUMO

Older persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) are also at risk for age-related chronic conditions. With conflicting results on studies assessing health literacy and durable viral suppression, this study is the first in assessing this relationship using representative data on older in-care HIV-diagnosed persons with multimorbidity. Weighted data collected 2009-2014 from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) was used. Health literacy was assessed using the three-item Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). The mean health literacy score was 11.22 (95% CI 10.86-11.59), and the mean multimorbidity was 4.75 (SE = 0.32). After adjusting, health literacy (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) was found to be significantly associated with durable viral suppression. Adequate health literacy can help with achieving durable viral suppression. For these persons, addressing health literacy might increase their ability to access and navigate the healthcare system, thereby helping them stay engaged and maintain adherence to HIV care.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 220(3): 377-385, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, older people who inject drugs (PWID) have had the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden; however, young PWID now account for recent increases. We assessed factors associated with past or present HCV infection (HCV antibody [anti-HCV] positive) among young (≤35 years) and older (>35 years) PWID. METHODS: We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine sociodemographic and past 12-month injection behaviors associated with HCV infection. RESULTS: Of 4094 PWID, 55.2% were anti-HCV positive. Among young PWID, anti-HCV prevalence was 42.1% and associated with ≤high school diploma/General Education Development diploma (GED) (aPR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.03-1.33]), receptive syringe sharing (aPR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.21-1.56]), sharing injection equipment (aPR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.01-1.35]), arrest history (aPR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.02-1.29]), and injecting speedball (aPR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.16-1.61]). Among older PWID, anti-HCV prevalence was 62.2% and associated with ≤high school diploma/GED (aPR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.02-1.15]), sharing injection equipment (aPR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.02-1.15]), high injection frequency (aPR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.01-1.34]), and injecting speedball (aPR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01-1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HCV prevalence is high among PWID and varies with age. Scaling up direct-acting antiviral treatment, syringe service programs, and medication-assisted therapy is critical to mitigating transmission risk and infection burden.

7.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 1): 83-93, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611095

RESUMO

Existing data dissemination structures primarily rely on top-down approaches. Unless designed with the end user in mind, this may impair data-driven clinical improvements to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention and care. In this study, we implemented a data visualization activity to create region-specific data presentations collaboratively with HIV providers, consumers of HIV care, and New York State (NYS) Department of Health AIDS Institute staff for use in local HIV care decision-making. Data from the NYS HIV Surveillance Registry (2009-2013) and HIV care facilities (2010-2015) participating in a Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Systems Linkages and Access to Care project were used. Each data package incorporated visuals for: linkage to HIV care, retention in care and HIV viral suppression. End-users were vocal about their data needs and their capacity to interpret public health data. This experience suggests that data dissemination strategies should incorporate input from the end user to improve comprehension and optimize HIV care.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , New York/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
AIDS Behav ; 22(9): 2773-2787, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468492

RESUMO

Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location. In multivariable analysis gay/bisexual men, heterosexual women, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) women were more likely to exchange sex compared to heterosexual men. Exchange sex was also associated with race/ethnicity, homelessness, incarceration, location, and non-injection crack and cocaine use. We find that heterosexual women and LGB women who injected drugs residing in Newark were more likely to report exchange sex compared to NYC. This study highlights how local conditions impact exchange sex.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75 Suppl 3: S383-S391, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of HIV was approved in 2012 and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in 2005. We report the differences in awareness of PrEP/PEP and factors associated with awareness by examining 3 risk groups (men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs, and high-risk heterosexuals). METHODS: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data collected in New York City (NYC) and Long Island, NY in 2011-2013 were used. Logistic regressions by region were developed to estimate adjusted associations [Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)] and determine differences in awareness of PrEP/PEP. RESULTS: Awareness of PrEP/PEP was low for all groups. In multivariate analysis controlling for sociodemographic factors, noninjection drug use, HIV status, and exposure to HIV prevention, males who inject drugs in NYC had significantly decreased odds of PrEP/PEP awareness [AOR: 0.45; confidence interval (CI): 0.25 to 0.81] compared with MSM. MSM aged 18-29 years had increased awareness of PrEP (AOR: 2.94; 95% CI 1.11 to 7.80). On Long Island, females who inject drugs (AOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.62), males who inject drugs (AOR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.39), female heterosexuals (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.59), and male heterosexuals (AOR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.73) had significantly decreased odds of PrEP/PEP awareness. Black MSM had increased awareness of PrEP (AOR: 4.08 CI:1.21 to 13.73). CONCLUSIONS: Large proportions of groups at-risk for HIV were unaware of PrEP/PEP. When comparing risk groups to MSM, we found MSM to have greater awareness in both regions. On Long Island, people who inject drugs and heterosexuals were far less likely to have PrEP/PEP awareness than in NYC. On Long Island, Black MSM had increased PrEP awareness and in NYC MSM aged 18-29 had increased PrEP awareness. These findings suggest that awareness may be spreading through networks and highlight the importance of targeted educational and prevention efforts by group and region.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
AIDS Care ; 29(4): 511-515, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550614

RESUMO

The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on HIV care patients, aged 18-64, was evaluated in three jurisdictions with Medicaid expansion (Chicago, New York State, and Washington) and three jurisdictions without Medicaid expansion (Georgia, Texas, and Virginia) using data from the Medical Monitoring Project. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate insurance status that was reported pre- and post-ACA; self-reported impact of ACA on HIV care was explored with descriptive statistics. The likelihood of having insurance was significantly greater post-ACA compared to pre-ACA in Chicago (aRR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.20, 1.47), Washington (aRR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.08, 1.22), and Virginia (aRR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.29). In Washington and Chicago, the likelihood of being Medicaid-insured was greater post-ACA compared to pre-ACA implementation (Chicago: aRR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.03,1.53; Washington: aRR = 1.66 95% CI = 1.30, 2.13). No other significant differences were observed. Only a subset of HIV care patients (range: 15-35%) reported a change in insurance that would have coincided with the implementation of ACA; and within this subset, a change in medical care costs was the most commonly noted issue. In conclusion, the influence of ACA on insurance coverage and other factors affecting HIV care likely varies by jurisdiction.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Chicago , Feminino , Georgia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Texas , Estados Unidos , Virginia , Washington
11.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 23(3): 255-263, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27902561

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Data to Care (DTC) represents a public health strategy using HIV surveillance data to link persons living with diagnosed HIV infection (PLWDHI) to HIV-related medical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of the DTC approach applied to a Partner Services program serving a geographically diffuse area of New York State. DESIGN: Disease intervention specialists received training to function as Expanded Partner Services (ExPS) advocates. HIV surveillance data identified PLWDHI presumed to be out of care (OOC). ExPS advocates attempted to locate and reengage OOC individuals in HIV-related care. The pilot ran from September 1, 2013, to August 31, 2014. SETTING: Four upstate New York counties, home to one-third of all PLWDHI in upstate New York. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1155 PLWDHI presumed to be OOC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Linked to HIV medical care-cases verified as attending 1 or more HIV medical appointments subsequent to case assignment; reengaging in HIV care-any HIV laboratory test in the 6 months following case closure; and retention in HIV care-2 or more HIV laboratory tests in the 6 months following case closure. RESULTS: The majority of assigned cases (85.3%) were located; 23.7% (n = 233) of located cases confirmed as OOC; and 71.2% of OOC cases (n = 166) were successfully relinked into care. Relinkage success did not differ by gender, transmission risk, or major race/ethnicity categories; however, there was a direct relationship between age and successful relinkage (P < .001). Ninety-five percent of relinked cases reengaged in medical care, and 63.3% were retained in care. Individuals relinked by ExPS advocates were more likely to reengage in care (95%) than individuals interviewed but not relinked to care by advocates (53.7%) and individuals ineligible for the ExPS intervention (34.2%). CONCLUSION: DTC can be effective when conducted outside large metropolitan areas and/or closed health care systems. It can also be effectively incorporated into existing Partner Services programs; however, the relative priority of DTC work must be established in this context.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Relações Interpessoais , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Projetos Piloto , Parceiros Sexuais
12.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160775, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513953

RESUMO

Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in the United States has been greatly reduced, with clear benefits for the child. However, little is known about factors that predict maternal loss to HIV care in the postpartum year. This retrospective cohort study included 980 HIV-positive women, diagnosed with HIV at least one year before pregnancy, who had a live birth during 2008-2010 in New York State. Women who did not meet the following criterion in the 12 months after the delivery-related hospital discharge were considered to be lost to HIV care: two or more laboratory tests (CD4 or HIV viral load), separated by at least 90 days. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for predictors of postpartum loss to HIV care were identified with Poisson regression, solved using generalized estimating equations. Having an unsuppressed (>200 copies/mL) HIV viral load in the postpartum year was also evaluated. Overall, 24% of women were loss to HIV care during the postpartum year. Women with low participation in HIV care during preconception were more likely to be lost to HIV care during the postpartum year (aRR: 2.70; 95% CI: 2.09-3.49). In contrast, having a low birth weight infant was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of loss to HIV care (aRR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53-0.98). While 75% of women were virally suppressed at the last viral load before delivery only 44% were continuously suppressed in the postpartum year; 12% had no viral load test reported in the postpartum year and 44% had at least one unsuppressed viral load test. Lack of engagement in preconception HIV-related health care predicts postpartum loss to HIV care for HIV-positive parturient women. Many women had poor viral control during the postpartum period, increasing the risk of disease progression and infectivity.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Vivo , Perda de Seguimento , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 128(1): 44-51, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27275796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with continuity of care and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virologic suppression among postpartum women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy in New York State. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among 228 HIV-infected women diagnosed during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010. Initial receipt of HIV-related medical care (first CD4 or viral load test after diagnosis) was evaluated at 30 days after diagnosis and before delivery. Retention in care (2 or more CD4 or viral load tests, 90 days or greater apart) and virologic suppression (viral load 200 copies/mL or less) were evaluated in the 12 months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: Most women had their initial HIV-related care encounter within 30 days of diagnosis (74%) and before delivery (87%). Of these women, 70% were retained in the first year postpartum. Women waiting more than 30 days for their initial HIV-related care encounter were more likely diagnosed in the first (29%) compared with the third (11%) trimester and were of younger (younger than 25 years, 32%) compared with older (35 years or older, 13%) age. Loss to follow-up within the first year was significantly greater among women diagnosed in the third compared with the first trimester (adjusted relative risk 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.45) and among women who had a cesarean compared with vaginal delivery (adjusted relative risk 1.76, 95% CI 1.07-2.91). Of the 178 women with one or more HIV viral load test in the first year postpartum, 58% had an unsuppressed viral load. CONCLUSION: Despite the high proportion retained in care, many women had poor postpartum virologic control. Robust strategies are needed to increase virologic suppression among newly diagnosed postpartum HIV-infected women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Carga Viral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , New York/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral/métodos , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 68 Suppl 1: S10-4, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25545488

RESUMO

As of September 2010, New York State (NYS) Public Health Law mandates the offer of HIV testing to all persons aged 13-64 years receiving hospital or primary care services. Changes in the number of HIV tests 13 months before and after law enactment were assessed using HIV test volume data from 166 laboratories holding NYS permits to conduct HIV testing on specimens originating in NYS. Compared with the pre-enactment baseline, overall HIV testing volume increased by 13% following enactment, with the volume of conventional and rapid HIV screening tests increasing by 12.0% and 13.7%, respectively. These data suggest that testing law is having an impact consistent with the legislative intent to increase HIV testing in NYS. Monitoring should be continued to assess testing trends across a variety of health care venues to identify and address additional barriers to HIV testing access.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Jurisprudência , New York
15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 68 Suppl 1: S37-44, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25545492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The New York State HIV testing law requires that patients aged 13-64 years be offered HIV testing in health care settings. We investigated the extent to which HIV testing was offered and accepted during the 24 months after law enactment. METHODS: We added local questions to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) surveys asking respondents aged 18-64 years whether they were offered an HIV test in health care settings, and whether they had accepted testing. Statewide prevalence estimates of test offers and acceptance were obtained from a combined 2011-2012 BRFSS sample (N = 6,223). Local estimates for 2 high-risk populations were obtained from NHBS 2011 men who have sex with men (N = 329) and 2012 injection drug users (N = 188) samples. RESULTS: BRFSS data showed that 73% of New Yorkers received care in any health care setting in the past 12 months, of whom 25% were offered an HIV test. Sixty percent accepted the test when offered. The levels of test offer increased from 20% to 29% over time, whereas acceptance levels decreased from 68% to 53%. NHBS data showed that 81% of men who have sex with men received care, of whom 43% were offered an HIV test. Eighty-eight percent accepted the test when offered. Eighty-five percent of injection drug users received care, of whom 63% were offered an HIV test, and 63% accepted the test when offered. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of partial and increasing implementation of the HIV testing law. Importantly, these studies demonstrated New Yorkers' willingness to accept an offered HIV test as part of routine care in health care settings.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 68 Suppl 1: S54-8, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25545495

RESUMO

Prompt entry to care after HIV diagnosis benefits the infected individual and reduces the likelihood of further transmission of the virus. The New York State HIV Testing Law of 2010 requires diagnosing providers to refer persons newly diagnosed with HIV to follow-up medical care. This study used routinely collected HIV-related laboratory data from the New York State HIV surveillance system to assess whether the fraction of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days of diagnosis increased after the implementation of the law. Laboratory data on 23,302 newly diagnosed cases showed that entry to care within 90 days rose steadily from 72.0% in 2007 to 85.4% in 2012. The rise was observed across all race/ethnic groups, ages, transmission risk groups, sexes, and regions of residence. Logistic regression analyses of entry to care pre-law and post-law, controlling for demographic characteristics, transmission risk, and geographic area, indicate that percentage of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days grew more rapidly in the post-law period. This is consistent with a positive effect of the law on entry to care.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jurisprudência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto Jovem
17.
AIDS Behav ; 18 Suppl 3: 305-15, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23709253

RESUMO

Prevention and treatment of injection drug use remains a public health concern. We used data from the 2005 Centers for Disease Control and prevention National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system to assess substance abuse treatment utilization, risk behaviors, and recruitment processes in a respondent driven sample of suburban injectors. Twelve service utilization and injection risk variables were analyzed using latent class analysis. Three latent classes were identified: low use, low risk; low use, high risk; and high use, moderate/high risk. In multivariate analysis, annual income <$15,000 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.19 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 3.83-17.51]) and self-reported hepatitis C virus infection (aOR = 4.32, 95 % CI (1.84-10.17)) were significantly associated with class membership. Homophily, a measure of preferential recruitment showed that injectors with recent treatment utilization appear a more cohesive group than out-of-treatment injectors. Preferentially reaching injection drug users with high risk behaviors and no recent drug treatment history via respondent driven sampling will require future research.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Assunção de Riscos , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas , New York/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Open AIDS J ; 6: 90-7, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23056161

RESUMO

Laboratory data reported through HIV surveillance can provide information about disease severity and linkage to care; however these measures are only as accurate as the quality and completeness of data reported. Using data from five states that implemented enhanced collection of laboratory data in HIV surveillance from 2005-2006, we determined completeness of reporting, stage of disease at diagnosis, the most common opportunistic illnesses (OI) at diagnosis, and linkage to medical care. Methods to enhance laboratory reporting included increasing active surveillance efforts, identifying laboratories not reporting to HIV surveillance, increasing electronic reporting, and using laboratory results from auxiliary databases. Of 3,065 persons ≥13 years of age diagnosed with HIV, 35.5% were diagnosed with stage 3 (AIDS) and 37.7% progressed to stage 3 within 12-months after diagnosis. Overall, 78.5% were linked to care within 3 months; however, a higher proportion of persons with ≥1 CD4 or viral load test was found among whites compared with blacks/African Americans (82.1% vs 73.6%, p<0.001). Few (12.3%) had an OI within 3 months of diagnosis. The completeness of laboratory data collected through surveillance was improved with enhanced reporting and provided a more accurate picture of stage of disease and gaps in linkage to care. Additional interventions are needed to meet the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy on linkage to care and the reduction of HIV-related disparities.

19.
PLoS One ; 7(8): e40533, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22879878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a public health concern because it has the potential to compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the population level. In New York State, high prevalence of TDR in a local cohort and a multiclass resistant case cluster led to the development and implementation of a statewide resistance surveillance system. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 13,109 cases of HIV infection that were newly diagnosed and reported in New York State between 2006 and 2008, including 4,155 with HIV genotypes drawn within 3 months of initial diagnosis and electronically reported to the new resistance surveillance system. We assessed compliance with DHHS recommendations for genotypic resistance testing and estimated TDR among new HIV diagnoses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 13,109 new HIV diagnoses, 9,785 (75%) had laboratory evidence of utilization of HIV-related medical care, and 4,155 (43%) had a genotype performed within 3 months of initial diagnosis. Of these, 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.2%-12.1%) had any evidence of TDR. The proportion with mutations associated with any antiretroviral agent in the NNRTI, NRTI or PI class was 6.3% (5.5%-7.0%), 4.3% (3.6%-4.9%) and 2.9% (2.4%-3.4%), respectively. Multiclass resistance was observed in <1%. TDR did not increase significantly over time (p for trend = 0.204). Men who have sex with men were not more likely to have TDR than persons with heterosexual risk factor (OR 1.0 (0.77-1.30)). TDR to EFV+TDF+FTC and LPV/r+TDF+FTC regimens was 7.1% (6.3%-7.9%) and 1.4% (1.0%-1.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TDR appears to be evenly distributed and stable among new HIV diagnoses in New York State; multiclass TDR is rare. Less than half of new diagnoses initiating care received a genotype per DHHS guidelines.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Demografia , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , New York/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 26(2): 131-9, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22324499

RESUMO

Decreasing mother-to-child transmission is changing the population of children and adolescents with HIV. This project used recent epidemiological data to develop short-term projections of children and adolescents living with diagnosed HIV infection in New York State. A population simulation model was created to project prevalence of diagnosed HIV cases aged 0-19 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity and risk for years 2007-2014. Using 2006 data as the baseline population and 2001-2006 diagnosis and death data, annual diagnoses and deaths were calculated for each age/sex/race/risk category and known cases were 'aged' into the next year. The model produced annual estimates until 2014. The model predicts a decline in the number of persons aged 0-19 years living with diagnosed HIV in New York from 2810 in 2006 to 1431 in 2014, a net decrease of 49%. Living cases with paediatric risk continue to decrease. Cases aged 13-19 with non-paediatric risk increase slowly, leading to a shift in the risk composition of the population. The dominant effect seen in the model is the ageing out of perinatally infected children born before measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission were broadly implemented in the mid- to late 1990s. Changing trends in the young HIV-infected population should be considered in developing public health programmes for HIV prevention and care in New York State for the coming years.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Educação em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , New York/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto Jovem
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