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1.
Circulation ; 143(18): e902-e916, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779213

RESUMO

This statement summarizes evidence that adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age delivery, placental abruption, and pregnancy loss increase a woman's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and of developing subsequent CVD (including fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure). This statement highlights the importance of recognizing APOs when CVD risk is evaluated in women, although their value in reclassifying risk may not be established. A history of APOs is a prompt for more vigorous primordial prevention of CVD risk factors and primary prevention of CVD. Adopting a heart-healthy diet and increasing physical activity among women with APOs, starting in the postpartum setting and continuing across the life span, are important lifestyle interventions to decrease CVD risk. Lactation and breastfeeding may lower a woman's later cardiometabolic risk. Black and Asian women experience a higher proportion APOs, with more severe clinical presentation and worse outcomes, than White women. More studies on APOs and CVD in non-White women are needed to better understand and address these health disparities. Future studies of aspirin, statins, and metformin may better inform our recommendations for pharmacotherapy in primary CVD prevention among women who have had an APO. Several opportunities exist for health care systems to improve transitions of care for women with APOs and to implement strategies to reduce their long-term CVD risk. One proposed strategy includes incorporation of the concept of a fourth trimester into clinical recommendations and health care policy.

3.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000913, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269600

RESUMO

Population cardiovascular health, or improving cardiovascular health among patients and the population at large, requires a redoubling of primordial and primary prevention efforts as declines in cardiovascular disease mortality have decelerated over the past decade. Great potential exists for healthcare systems-based approaches to aid in reversing these trends. A learning healthcare system, in which population cardiovascular health metrics are measured, evaluated, intervened on, and re-evaluated, can serve as a model for developing the evidence base for developing, deploying, and disseminating interventions. This scientific statement on optimizing population cardiovascular health summarizes the current evidence for such an approach; reviews contemporary sources for relevant performance and clinical metrics; highlights the role of implementation science strategies; and advocates for an interdisciplinary team approach to enhance the impact of this work.

4.
Adv Nutr ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200182

RESUMO

In the field of human nutrition, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for establishing causal relations between exposure to nutrients, foods, or dietary patterns and prespecified outcome measures, such as body composition, biomarkers, or event rates. Evidence-based dietary guidance is frequently derived from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these RCTs. Each decision made during the design and conduct of human nutrition RCTs will affect the utility and generalizability of the study results. Within the context of limited resources, the goal is to maximize the generalizability of the findings while producing the highest quality data and maintaining the highest levels of ethics and scientific integrity. The aim of this document is to discuss critical aspects of conducting human nutrition RCTs, including considerations for study design (parallel, crossover, factorial, cluster), institutional ethics approval (institutional review boards), recruitment and screening, intervention implementation, adherence and retention assessment, and statistical analyses considerations. Additional topics include distinguishing between efficacy and effectiveness, defining the research question(s), monitoring biomarker and outcome measures, and collecting and archiving data. Addressed are specific aspects of planning and conducting human nutrition RCTs, including types of interventions, inclusion/exclusion criteria, participant burden, randomization and blinding, trial initiation and monitoring, and the analysis plan.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(11): e006378, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981337

RESUMO

Implementation of prevention policies has often been impeded or delayed due to the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with hard clinical outcomes (eg, incident disease, mortality). Despite the prominent role of RCTs in health care, it may not always be feasible to conduct RCTs of public health interventions with hard outcomes due to logistical and ethical considerations. RCTs may also lack external validity and have limited generalizability. Currently, there is insufficient guidance for policymakers charged with establishing evidence-based policy to determine whether an RCT with hard outcomes is needed before policy recommendations. In this context, the purpose of this article is to assess, in a case study, the feasibility of conducting an RCT of the oft-cited issue of sodium reduction on cardiovascular outcomes and then propose a framework for decision-making, which includes an assessment of the feasibility of conducting an RCT with hard clinical outcomes when such trials are unavailable. We designed and assessed the feasibility of potential individual- and cluster-randomized trials of sodium reduction on cardiovascular outcomes. Based on our assumptions, a trial using any of the designs considered would require tens of thousands of participants and cost hundreds of millions of dollars, which is prohibitively expensive. Our estimates may be conservative given several key challenges, such as the unknown costs of sustaining a long-term difference in sodium intake, the effect of differential cotreatment with antihypertensive medications, and long lag time to clinical outcomes. Thus, it would be extraordinarily difficult to conduct such a trial, and despite the high costs, would still be at substantial risk for a spuriously null result. A robust framework, such as the one we developed, should be used to guide policymakers when establishing evidence-based public health interventions in the absence of trials with hard clinical outcomes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742666

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for global disease burden. Self-management of high blood pressure (BP) through self-monitoring and self-titration of medications, has proved to be one successful and cost-effective tool to achieve better BP control in many high-income countries but not much is known about its potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used semi-structured questionnaires and focus groups in three LMICs; Peru, Cameroon and Malawi to examine perceptions and attitudes of patients diagnosed with essential hypertension towards living with hypertension, BP measurement and treatment, patient-physician relationship and opinions about self-management of high blood pressure. Results in all three countries were comparable. Patients showed varied levels of health literacy related to hypertension. BP measurement habits were mostly affected by resources available and caregiver support. Treatment and adherence to it were primarily affected by cost. Most patients were welcoming of the idea of self-management but skeptical about the ability to do self-monitoring accurately and the safety involving self-titration of medications.

8.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768632

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Current dietary guidelines recommend that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) restrict individual nutrients, such as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and protein. This approach can be difficult for patients to implement and ignores important nutrient interactions. Dietary patterns are an alternative method to intervene on diet. Our objective was to define the associations of 4 healthy dietary patterns with risk for CKD progression and all-cause mortality among people with CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 2,403 participants aged 21 to 74 years with estimated glomerular filtration rates of 20 to 70mL/min/1.73m2 and dietary data in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. EXPOSURES: Healthy Eating Index-2015, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean diet (aMed), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. OUTCOMES: (1) CKD progression defined as≥50% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, kidney transplantation, or dialysis and (2) all-cause mortality. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical covariates to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: There were 855 cases of CKD progression and 773 deaths during a maximum of 14 years. Compared with participants with the lowest adherence, the most highly adherent tertile of Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMed, and DASH had lower adjusted risk for CKD progression, with the strongest results for aMed (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.90). Compared with participants with the lowest adherence, the highest adherence tertiles for all scores had lower adjusted risk for all-cause mortality for each index (24%-31% lower risk). LIMITATIONS: Self-reported dietary intake. CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to several healthy dietary patterns is associated with lower risk for CKD progression and all-cause mortality among people with CKD. Guidance to adopt healthy dietary patterns can be considered as a strategy for managing CKD.

10.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(6): nzaa088, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551412

RESUMO

Background: Beverages are a source of calories and other bioactive constituents but are an understudied aspect of the diet. Different beverages have varying effects on health outcomes. Objectives: We created the Healthy Beverage Score (HBS) to characterize participants' beverage patterns and examined its association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality among individuals with CKD. Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of 2283 adults aged 21-74 y with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20-70 mL · min-1 · 1.73 m-2 from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Diet was assessed using a 124-item FFQ at visit 1 (2003-2008). The HBS, ranging from 7 to 28 possible points, consisted of 7 components, each scored from 1 to 4 based on rank distribution by quartile, except alcohol, which was based on sex-specific cutoffs. Participants were given more points for higher consumption of low-fat milk and of coffee/tea, for moderate alcohol, and for lower consumption of 100% fruit juice, whole-fat milk, artificially sweetened beverages, and sugar-sweetened beverages. CKD progression, incident CVD, and mortality were ascertained through January 2018. We conducted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: There were 815 cases of CKD progression, 285 cases of incident CVD, and 725 deaths over a maximum of 14 y of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest tertile of the HBS, participants in the highest tertile had a 25% lower likelihood of CKD progression (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.89; P-trend = 0.001) and a 17% lower likelihood of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69, 1.00; P-trend = 0.04) after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and dietary factors. There was no significant trend for incident CVD. Conclusions: Among individuals with CKD, a healthier beverage pattern was inversely associated with CKD progression and all-cause mortality. Beverage intake may be an important modifiable target in preventing adverse outcomes for individuals with CKD.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e014883, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397792

RESUMO

Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with cardiometabolic risk. However, the association between total and type of SSB intake and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization is limited. Methods and Results We examined the prospective association of baseline SSB consumption with incident CVD in 106 178 women free from CVD and diabetes mellitus in the CTS (California Teachers Study), a cohort of female teachers and administrators, followed since 1995. SSBs were defined as caloric soft drinks, sweetened bottled waters or teas, and fruit drinks, and derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. CVD end points were based on annual linkage with statewide inpatient hospitalization records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between SSB consumption and incident CVD. A total of 8848 CVD incident cases were documented over 20 years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed higher hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.34), revascularization (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54]), and stroke (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41) in women who consumed ≥1 serving per day of SSBs compared with rare/never consumers. We also observed a higher risk of CVD in women who consumed ≥1 serving per day of fruit drinks (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.01 [P trend=0.021]) and caloric soft drinks (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44 [P trend=0.0002]), compared with rare/never consumers. Conclusions Consuming ≥1 serving per day of SSB was associated with CVD, revascularization, and stroke. SSB intake might be a modifiable dietary target to reduce risk of CVD among women.

13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(7): 1151-1162.e3, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy diet is essential in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and preventing related comorbidities. Food outlet access has been studied in the general population; however, the influence of the local food environment on dietary intake among people with CKD has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations of food outlet density and type of outlets with dietary intake in a multicenter cohort of racially and ethnically diverse patients with CKD. METHODS: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study is a multicenter prospective study of patients with CKD that used a validated food frequency questionnaire to capture dietary intake at the baseline visit. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 2,484 participants recruited in 2003-2006 from seven Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study centers. Food outlet data were used to construct a count of the number of fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores per 10,000 population for each geocoded census block group. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between measures of food outlet availability and dietary factors. RESULTS: The proportion of participants living in zero-, low-, and high-food outlet density areas differed by gender, race or ethnicity, and income level. Among male subjects, living in areas with zero or the highest number of outlets was associated with having the highest caloric intakes in multivariable models. Male subjects living in areas with zero outlets consumed the highest levels of sodium and phosphorous. Female subjects living in areas with zero outlets had the lowest average intake of calories, sodium, and phosphorous. Among low-income female subjects, close proximity to more outlets was associated with higher calorie consumption. Among all participants, access to fast-food restaurants was not associated with an unhealthy diet score, and access to grocery stores was not associated with a healthy diet score. CONCLUSIONS: Average caloric and nutrient intakes differed by outlet availability; however, there were no strong associations with type of food outlet. This should be considered when developing food-focused public health policies.

14.
BMJ ; 368: m315, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response relation between reduction in dietary sodium and blood pressure change and to explore the impact of intervention duration. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE(R), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley) and reference lists of relevant articles up to 21 January 2019. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing different levels of sodium intake undertaken among adult populations with estimates of intake made using 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two of three reviewers screened the records independently for eligibility. One reviewer extracted all data and the other two reviewed the data for accuracy. Reviewers performed random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regression. RESULTS: 133 studies with 12 197 participants were included. The mean reductions (reduced sodium v usual sodium) of 24 hour urinary sodium, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 130 mmol (95% confidence interval 115 to 145, P<0.001), 4.26 mm Hg (3.62 to 4.89, P<0.001), and 2.07 mm Hg (1.67 to 2.48, P<0.001), respectively. Each 50 mmol reduction in 24 hour sodium excretion was associated with a 1.10 mm Hg (0.66 to 1.54; P<0.001) reduction in SBP and a 0.33 mm Hg (0.04 to 0.63; P=0.03) reduction in DBP. Reductions in blood pressure were observed in diverse population subsets examined, including hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. For the same reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium there was greater SBP reduction in older people, non-white populations, and those with higher baseline SBP levels. In trials of less than 15 days' duration, each 50 mmol reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was associated with a 1.05 mm Hg (0.40 to 1.70; P=0.002) SBP fall, less than half the effect observed in studies of longer duration (2.13 mm Hg; 0.85 to 3.40; P=0.002). Otherwise, there was no association between trial duration and SBP reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of blood pressure lowering achieved with sodium reduction showed a dose-response relation and was greater for older populations, non-white populations, and those with higher blood pressure. Short term studies underestimate the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019140812.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
15.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 723-729, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957521

RESUMO

Two recent studies challenged traditional paradigms of mammalian sodium physiology, suggesting that sodium reduction might cause weight gain by altering metabolism. This new theory has important implications for population-wide dietary recommendations. However, these observations have not been confirmed. In the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium trial, 412 adults with systolic blood pressure of 120 to 159 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 95 mm Hg not taking antihypertensive medications were randomly assigned to the DASH diet or a control diet (parallel design). On their assigned diet, participants randomly consumed each of the 3 sodium levels for 4 weeks (crossover design). Participants were provided all meals but could drink noncaloric beverages (eg, water) freely. Throughout the trial, energy intake was adjusted to maintain weight constant. The 3 sodium levels (at 2100 kcal/day) were: low (1150 mg of Na/day), medium (2300 mg of Na/day), and high (3450 mg of Na/day). Energy intake, weight, self-reported thirst, and 24-hour urine volume were assessed after each period. Participants were 57% women and 57% black; mean age was 48 years [SD, 10]). Among those assigned the control, mean weight increased slightly with higher sodium but not among those assigned DASH. Energy intake did not vary across sodium levels in either diet (P-trends ≥0.36). Higher sodium resulted in more thirst (P-trends <0.001 on both diets) and higher urine volume (suggesting higher fluid intake) during the control diet (P-trend=0.007). Reducing sodium did not increase energy requirements to maintain stable weights but did decrease thirst and urine volume (control diet only), findings consistent with the traditional understanding of mammalian sodium physiology. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000608.

16.
Circulation ; 141(9): e120-e138, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992057

RESUMO

Each decade, the American Heart Association (AHA) develops an Impact Goal to guide its overall strategic direction and investments in its research, quality improvement, advocacy, and public health programs. Guided by the AHA's new Mission Statement, to be a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives, the 2030 Impact Goal is anchored in an understanding that to achieve cardiovascular health for all, the AHA must include a broader vision of health and well-being and emphasize health equity. In the next decade, by 2030, the AHA will strive to equitably increase healthy life expectancy beyond current projections, with global and local collaborators, from 66 years of age to at least 68 years of age across the United States and from 64 years of age to at least 67 years of age worldwide. The AHA commits to developing additional targets for equity and well-being to accompany this overarching Impact Goal. To attain the 2030 Impact Goal, we recommend a thoughtful evaluation of interventions available to the public, patients, providers, healthcare delivery systems, communities, policy makers, and legislators. This presidential advisory summarizes the task force's main considerations in determining the 2030 Impact Goal and the metrics to monitor progress. It describes the aspiration that these goals will be achieved by working with a diverse community of volunteers, patients, scientists, healthcare professionals, and partner organizations needed to ensure success.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Formulação de Políticas , Vigilância da População , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circulation ; 141(3): e39-e53, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838890

RESUMO

The elimination of specific dietary cholesterol target recommendations in recent guidelines has raised questions about its role with respect to cardiovascular disease. This advisory was developed after a review of human studies on the relationship of dietary cholesterol with blood lipids, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease risk to address questions about the relevance of dietary cholesterol guidance for heart health. Evidence from observational studies conducted in several countries generally does not indicate a significant association with cardiovascular disease risk. Although meta-analyses of intervention studies differ in their findings, most associate intakes of cholesterol that exceed current average levels with elevated total or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Dietary guidance should focus on healthy dietary patterns (eg, Mediterranean-style and DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension]-style diets) that are inherently relatively low in cholesterol with typical levels similar to the current US intake. These patterns emphasize fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or fat-free dairy products, lean protein sources, nuts, seeds, and liquid vegetable oils. A recommendation that gives a specific dietary cholesterol target within the context of food-based advice is challenging for clinicians and consumers to implement; hence, guidance focused on dietary patterns is more likely to improve diet quality and to promote cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Colesterol na Dieta , Dieta Ocidental , Política Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos
18.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 266-274, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838902

RESUMO

Use of salt substitutes containing potassium chloride is a potential strategy to reduce sodium intake, increase potassium intake, and thereby lower blood pressure and prevent the adverse consequences of high blood pressure. In this review, we describe the rationale for using potassium-enriched salt substitutes, summarize current evidence on the benefits and risks of potassium-enriched salt substitutes and discuss the implications of using potassium-enriched salt substitutes as a strategy to lower blood pressure. A benefit of salt substitutes that contain potassium chloride is the expected reduction in dietary sodium intake at the population level because of reformulation of manufactured foods or replacement of sodium chloride added to food during home cooking or at the dining table. There is empirical evidence that replacement of sodium chloride with potassium-enriched salt substitutes lowers systolic and diastolic blood pressure (average net Δ [95% CI] in mm Hg: -5.58 [-7.08 to -4.09] and -2.88 [-3.93 to -1.83], respectively). The risks of potassium-enriched salt substitutes include a possible increased risk of hyperkalemia and its principal adverse consequences: arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, especially in people with conditions that impair potassium excretion such as chronic kidney disease. There is insufficient evidence regarding the effects of potassium-enriched salt substitutes on the occurrence of hyperkalemia. There is a need for additional empirical research on the effect of increasing dietary potassium and potassium-enriched salt substitutes on serum potassium levels and the risk of hyperkalemia, as well as for robust estimation of the population-wide impact of replacing sodium chloride with potassium-enriched salt substitutes.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Hipertensão , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1916641, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800068

RESUMO

Importance: The association of dietary patterns, or the combinations of different foods that people eat, with cognitive change and dementia is unclear. Objective: To examine the association of dietary patterns in midlife with cognitive function in later life in a US population without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational cohort study with analysis of data collected from 1987 to 2017. Analysis was completed in January to February 2019. Community-dwelling black and white men and women from Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburban Minneapolis, Minnesota, participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were included. Exposures: Two dietary pattern scores were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. A Western, or unhealthy, dietary pattern was characterized by higher consumption of meats and fried foods. A so-called prudent, or healthier, dietary pattern was characterized by higher amounts of fruits and vegetables. Main Outcomes and Measures: Results of 3 cognitive tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Word Fluency Test, and Delayed Word Recall) performed at 3 points (1990-1992, 1996-1998, and 2011-2013) were standardized and combined to represent global cognitive function. The 20-year change in cognitive function was determined by tertile of diet pattern score using mixed-effect models. The risk of incident dementia was also determined by tertile of the diet pattern score. Results: A total of 13 588 participants (7588 [55.8%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 54.6 (5.7) years at baseline were included; participants in the top third of Western and prudent diet pattern scores were considered adherent to the respective diet. Cognitive scores at baseline were lower in participants with a Western diet (z score for tertile 3 [T3], -0.17 [95% CI, -0.20 to -0.14] vs T1, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.14-0.20]) and higher in participants with a prudent diet (z score for T3, -0.09 [95% CI, -0.12 to -0.06] vs T1, -0.09 [95% -0.12 to -0.06]). Estimated 20-year change in global cognitive function did not differ by dietary pattern (difference of change in z score for Western diet, T3 vs T1: -0.01 [95% CI, -0.05 to 0.04]; and difference of change in z score for prudent diet, T3 vs T1: 0.02 [95% CI, -0.02 to 0.06]). The risk of incident dementia did not differ by dietary pattern (Western hazard ratio for T3 vs T1, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.92-1.22]; prudent hazard ratio for T3 vs T1, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.88-1.12]). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the dietary pattern of US adults at midlife was not associated with processing speed, word fluency, memory, or incident dementia in later life.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Vida Independente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Mississippi/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861788

RESUMO

Implementing interventions that manipulate food store environments are one potential strategy for improving dietary behaviors. The present study evaluated intervention effects, from the El Valor de Nuestra Salud (The Value of Our Health) study, on in-store environmental changes within Latino/Hispanic-focused food stores (tiendas). Sixteen tiendas were randomly assigned to either: a six-month structural and social food store intervention or a wait-list control condition. Store-level environmental measures of product availability, placement, and promotion were assessed monthly from baseline through six-months post-baseline using store audits. Linear mixed effects models tested for condition-by-time interactions in store-level environmental measures. Results demonstrated that the intervention was successful at increasing the total number of fruit and vegetable (FV) promotions (p < 0.001) and the number of FV promotions outside the produce department (p < 0.001) among tiendas in the intervention versus control condition. No changes in product availability or placement were observed. Results suggests changing the marketing mix element of promotions within small stores is measurable and feasible in an in-store intervention. Difficulties in capturing changes in product availability and placement may be due to intervention implementation methods chosen by tiendas. It is important to build upon the lessons learned from these types of interventions to disseminate evidence-based in-store interventions.


Assuntos
Comércio/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Frutas/provisão & distribução , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Verduras/provisão & distribução , Grupos Étnicos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Marketing
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