Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 258
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Neurology ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the sex differences in outcomes and management after stroke using a large sample with high-quality international trial data. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from 5 acute stroke randomized controlled trials. Data were obtained on demographics, medication use, in-hospital treatment, and functional outcome. Study-specific crude and adjusted models were used to estimate sex differences in outcomes and management, and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There were 19,652 participants, of whom 7,721 (40%) were women. After multivariable adjustments, women with ischemic stroke had higher survival at 3-6 months (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.97), higher likelihood of disability (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.36), and worse quality of life (weighted mean difference -0.07, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.04). For management, women were more likely to be admitted to an acute stroke unit (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.34), but less likely to be intubated (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.93), treated for fever (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.95), or admitted to an intensive care unit (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.93). For preadmission medications, women had higher odds of being prescribed antihypertensive agents (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31) and lower odds of being prescribed antiplatelets (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.93), glucose-lowering agents (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.94), or lipid-lowering agents (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that women who had ischemic stroke had better survival but were also more disabled and had poorer quality of life. Variations in hospital and out-of-hospital management may partly explain the disparities.

3.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119026823, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648630

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Despite evidence to support the prescription of antihypertensive medications before hospital discharge to promote medication adherence and prevent recurrent events, many patients with stroke miss out on these medications at discharge. We aimed to examine patient, clinical, and system-level differences in the prescription of antihypertensive medications at hospital discharge after stroke. Methods- Adults with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage alive at discharge were included (years 2009-2013) from 39 hospitals participating in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry. Patient comorbidities were identified using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (Tenth Edition, Australian Modification) codes from the hospital admissions and emergency presentation data. The outcome variable and other system factors were derived from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry dataset. Multivariable, multilevel logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the prescription of antihypertensive medications at hospital discharge. Results- Of the 10 315 patients included, 79.0% (intracerebral hemorrhage, 74.1%; acute ischemic stroke, 79.8%) were prescribed antihypertensive medications at discharge. Prescription varied between hospital sites, with 6 sites >2 SDs below the national average for provision of antihypertensives at discharge. Prescription was also independently associated with patient and clinical factors including history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, management in an acute stroke unit, and discharge to rehabilitation. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, females (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94), those who had greater stroke severity (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI 0.72-0.92), or dementia (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.52-0.81) were less likely to be prescribed. Conclusions- Prescription of antihypertensive medications poststroke varies between hospitals and according to patient factors including age, sex, stroke severity, and comorbidity profile. Implementation of targeted quality improvement initiatives at local hospitals may help to reduce the variation in prescription observed.

4.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3064-3071, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587658

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Pilot trials suggest that glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) may improve outcome when administered early after stroke onset. Methods- We undertook a multicentre, paramedic-delivered, ambulance-based, prospective randomized, sham-controlled, blinded-end point trial in adults with presumed stroke within 4 hours of ictus. Participants received transdermal GTN (5 mg) or a sham dressing (1:1) in the ambulance and then daily for three days in hospital. The primary outcome was the 7-level modified Rankin Scale at 90 days assessed by central telephone treatment-blinded follow-up. This prespecified subgroup analysis focuses on participants with an intracerebral hemorrhage as their index event. Analyses are intention-to-treat. Results- Of 1149 participants with presumed stroke, 145 (13%; GTN, 74; sham, 71) had an intracerebral hemorrhage: time from onset to randomization median, 74 minutes (interquartile range, 45-110). By admission to hospital, blood pressure tended to be lower with GTN as compared with sham: mean, 4.4/3.5 mm Hg. The modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days was nonsignificantly higher in the GTN group: adjusted common odds ratio for poor outcome, 1.87 (95% CI, 0.98-3.57). A prespecified global analysis of 5 clinical outcomes (dependency, disability, cognition, quality of life, and mood) was worse with GTN; Mann-Whitney difference, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.01-0.35; Wei-Lachin test). GTN was associated with larger hematoma and growth, and more mass effect and midline shift on neuroimaging, and altered use of hospital resources. Death in hospital but not at day 90 was increased with GTN. There were no significant between-group differences in serious adverse events. Conclusions- Prehospital treatment with GTN worsened outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Since these results could relate to the play of chance, confounding, or a true effect of GTN, further randomized evidence on the use of vasodilators in ultra-acute intracerebral hemorrhage is needed. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN26986053.

5.
Sleep ; 42(10)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587046

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) commonly affects therapeutic response in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aimed to determine predictors of adherence to CPAP among participants of the Sleep Apnea and cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) trial. METHODS: SAVE was an international, randomized, open trial of CPAP plus usual care versus usual care (UC) alone in participants (45-75 years) with co-occurring moderate-to-severe OSA (≥12 episodes/h of ≥4% oxygen desaturation) and established cardiovascular (CV) disease. Baseline sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors, OSA symptoms, and 1-month change in daytime sleepiness, as well as CPAP side effects and adherence (during sham screening, titration week, and in the first month), were entered in univariate linear regression analyses to identify predictors of CPAP adherence at 24 months. Variables with p <0.2 were assessed for inclusion in a multivariate linear mixed model with country, age, and sex included a priori and site as a random effect. RESULTS: Significant univariate predictors of adherence at 24 months in 1,121 participants included: early adherence measures, improvement in daytime sleepiness at 1 month, fixed CPAP pressure, some measures of OSA severity, cardiovascular disease history, breathing pauses, and very loud snoring. While observed adherence varied between countries, adherence during sham screening, initial titration, and the first month of treatment retained independent predictive value in the multivariate model along with fixed CPAP pressure and very loud snoring. CONCLUSIONS: Early CPAP adherence had the greatest predictive value for identifying those at highest risk of non-adherence to long-term CPAP therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: SAVE is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00738179).

6.
Ann Neurol ; 86(4): 480-492, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364773

RESUMO

Significant hematoma expansion (HE) affects one-fifth of people within 24 hours after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and its prevention is an appealing treatment target. Although the computed tomography (CT)-angiography spot sign predicts HE, only a minority of ICH patients receive contrast injection. Conversely, noncontrast CT (NCCT) is used to diagnose nearly all ICH, so NCCT markers represent a widely available alternative for prediction of HE. However, different NCCT signs describe similar features, with lack of consensus on the optimal image acquisition protocol, assessment, terminology, and diagnostic criteria. In this review, we propose practical guidelines for detecting, interpreting, and reporting NCCT predictors of HE. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:480-492.

8.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(9): 857-864, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty persists over the effects of blood pressure lowering in acute intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to combine individual patient-level data from the two largest randomised controlled trials of blood pressure lowering strategies in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage to determine the strength of associations between key measures of systolic blood pressure control and safety and efficacy outcomes. METHODS: We did a preplanned pooled analysis of individual patient-level data acquired from the main phase of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) and the second Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH-II) trial. These trials included adult patients aged 19-99 years with spontaneous (non-traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage and elevated systolic blood pressure, without a clear indication or contraindication to treatment. Patients were excluded if they had a structural cerebral cause for the intracerebral haemorrhage, had a low score (3-5) on the Glasgow Coma Scale, or required immediate neurosurgery. Our primary analysis assessed the independent associations between three post-randomisation systolic blood pressure summary measures-magnitude of reduction in 1 h, mean achieved systolic blood pressure, and variability in systolic blood pressure between 1 h and 24 h-and the primary outcome of functional status, as defined by the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days post-randomisation. We analysed the systolic blood pressure measures as continuous variables using generalised linear mixed models, adjusted for baseline covariables and trial. The primary and safety analyses were done in a modified intention-to-treat population, which only included patients with sufficient data on systolic blood pressure. FINDINGS: 3829 patients (mean age 63·1 years [SD 12·9], 1429 [37%] women, and 2490 [65%] Asian ethnicity) were randomly assigned in INTERACT2 and ATACH-II, with a median neurological impairment defined by scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of 11 (IQR 6-16) and median time from the onset of symptoms of intracerebral haemorrhage to randomisation of 3·6 h (2·7-4·4). We excluded 20 patients with insufficient or no systolic blood pressure data, and we imputed missing systolic blood pressure data in 23 (1%) of the remaining 3809 patients. Overall, the mean magnitude of early systolic blood pressure reduction was 29 mm Hg (SD 22), and subsequent mean systolic blood pressure achieved was 147 mm Hg (15) and variability in systolic blood pressure was 14 mm Hg (8). Achieved systolic blood pressure was continuously associated with functional status (improvement per 10 mm Hg increase adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·90 [95% CI 0·87-0·94], p<0·0001). Symptomatic hypotension occurred in 28 (1%) patients, renal serious adverse events occurred in 26 (1%) patients, and cardiac serious adverse events occurred in 99 (3%) patients. INTERPRETATION: Our pooled analyses indicate that achieving early and stable systolic blood pressure seems to be safe and associated with favourable outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage of predominantly mild-to-moderate severity. FUNDING: None.

9.
Stroke ; 50(9): 2299-2306, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412754

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Women are reported to have poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stroke than men, but the underlying reasons are uncertain. We investigated factors contributing to the sex differences. Methods- Individual participant data on 4288 first-ever strokes (1996-2013) were obtained from 4 high-quality population-based incidence studies from Australasia and Europe. HRQoL utility scores among survivors after stroke (range from negative scores=worse than death to 1=perfect health) were calculated from 3 scales including European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Short-Form 6-Dimension, and Assessment of Quality of Life at 1 year (3 studies; n=1210) and 5 years (3 studies; n=1057). Quantile regression was used to estimate the median differences in HRQoL for women compared to men with adjustment for covariates. Study factors included sociodemographics, prestroke dependency, stroke-related factors (eg, stroke severity), comorbidities, and poststroke depression. Study-specific median differences were combined into pooled estimates using random-effect meta-analysis. Results- Women had lower pooled HRQoL than men (median differenceunadjusted 1 year, -0.147; 95% CI, -0.258 to -0.036; 5 years, -0.090; 95% CI, -0.119 to -0.062). After adjustment for age, stroke severity, prestroke dependency, and depression, these pooled median differences were attenuated, more greatly at 1 year (-0.067; 95% CI, -0.111 to -0.022) than at 5 years (-0.085; 95% CI, -0.135 to -0.034). Conclusions- Women consistently exhibited poorer HRQoL after stroke than men. This was partly attributable to women's advanced age, more severe strokes, prestroke dependency, and poststroke depression, suggesting targets to reduce the differences. There was some evidence of residual differences in HRQoL between sexes but they were small and unlikely to be clinically significant.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e030121, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results from multiple randomised trials indicate that the methods and effects of blood pressure (BP) reduction after acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are complex. The Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration is an international collaboration, which aims to determine the optimal management of BP after acute stroke including ICH. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review will be undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data (IPD) guideline. A search of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE from inception will be conducted to identify randomised controlled trials of BP management in adults with acute spontaneous (non-traumatic) ICH enrolled within the first 7 days of symptom onset. Authors of studies that meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to share their IPD. The primary outcome will be functional outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale. Safety outcomes will be early neurological deterioration, symptomatic hypotension and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes will include death and neuroradiological and haemodynamic variables. Meta-analyses of pooled IPD using the intention-to-treat dataset of included trials, including subgroup analyses to assess modification of the effects of BP lowering by time to treatment, treatment strategy and patient's demographic, clinical and prestroke neuroradiological characteristics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No new patient data will be collected nor is there any deviation from the original purposes of each study where ethical approvals were granted; therefore, further ethical approval is not required. Results will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019141136.

12.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019858775, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Controversy persists over the benefits of low-dose versus standard-dose intravenous alteplase for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. We sought to determine individual patient factors that contribute to the risk-benefit balance of low-dose alteplase treatment. METHODS: Observational study using data from the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED), an international, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial that assessed low-dose (0.6 mg/kg) versus standard-dose (0.9 mg/kg) intravenous alteplase in acute ischemic stroke patients. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the benefit of good functional outcome (scores 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days) and risk (symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage), under both regimens for individual patients. The net advantage for low-dose, relative to standard-dose, alteplase was calculated by dividing excess benefit by excess risk according to a combination of patient characteristics. The algorithms were externally validated in a nationwide acute stroke registry database in South Korea. RESULTS: Patients with an estimated net advantage from low-dose alteplase, compared with without, were younger (mean age of 66 vs. 75 years), had lower systolic blood pressure (148 vs. 160 mm Hg), lower National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score (median of 8 vs. 16), and no atrial fibrillation (10.3% vs. 97.4%), diabetes mellitus (19.2% vs. 22.4%), or premorbid symptoms (defined by modified Rankin scale = 1) (16.3% vs. 37.8%). CONCLUSION: Use of low-dose alteplase may be preferable in acute ischemic stroke patients with a combination of favorable characteristics, including younger age, lower systolic blood pressure, mild neurological impairment, and no atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, or premorbid symptoms.

13.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019858778, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is associated with aspiration pneumonia after stroke. Data are limited on the influences of dysphagia screen and assessment in clinical practice. AIMS: To determine associations between a "brief" screen and "detailed" assessment of dysphagia on clinical outcomes in acute stroke patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed retrospectively using data from a multicenter, cluster cross-over, randomized controlled trial (Head Positioning in Acute Stroke Trial [HeadPoST]) from 114 hospitals in nine countries. HeadPoST included 11,093 acute stroke patients randomized to lying-flat or sitting-up head positioning. Herein, we report predefined secondary analyses of the association of dysphagia screening and assessment and clinical outcomes of pneumonia and death or disability (modified Rankin scale 3-6) at 90 days. RESULTS: Overall, 8784 (79.2%) and 3917 (35.3%) patients were screened and assessed for dysphagia, respectively, but the frequency and timing for each varied widely across regions. Neither use of a screen nor an assessment for dysphagia was associated with the outcomes, but their results were compared to "screen-pass" patients, those who failed had higher risks of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.18-4.10) and death or disability (aOR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.41-1.95). Similar results were evidence for the results of an assessment for dysphagia. Subsequent feeding restrictions were related to higher risk of pneumonia in patients failed dysphagia screen or assessment (aOR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.72-9.54). CONCLUSIONS: Failing a dysphagia screen is associated with increased risks of pneumonia and poor clinical outcome after acute stroke. Further studies concentrate on determining the effective subsequent feeding actions are needed to improve patient outcomes.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3135-3147, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221263

RESUMO

The burden of cardiovascular (CV) disease is very high in China, due to highly prevalent and poorly controlled risk factors resulting from changing sociodemographic structure and lifestyles in its large population. Rapid economic development and urbanization have been accompanied by changing patterns, expression, and management of CV disease. However, the health care system in China lacks a hierarchical structure, with a focus on treating acute diseases in hospital while ignoring long-term management, and primary health care is too weak to effectively control CV risk factors. To address these challenges, the Chinese central government has ensured health is a national priority and has introduced reforms that include implementing policies for a healthy environment, strengthening primary care, and improving affordability and accessibility within the health system. Turning the inverted pyramid of the health care system is essential in the ongoing battle against CV disease.

15.
Int J Stroke ; 14(7): 670-677, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the comparative efficacy and safety of the low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase using real-world acute stroke registry data from Asian countries. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from nine acute stroke registries from China, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan between 2005 and 2018. Inverse probability of treatment weight was used to remove baseline imbalances between those receiving low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase. The primary outcome was death or disability defined by modified Rankin Scale scores of 2 to 6 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and death. Generalized linear mixed models with the individual registry as a random intercept were performed to determine associations of treatment with low-dose alteplase and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 6250 patients (mean age 66 years, 36% women) included in these analyses, 1610 (24%) were treated with low-dose intravenous alteplase. Clinical outcomes for low-dose alteplase were not significantly different to those for standard-dose alteplase, adjusted odds ratios for death or disability: 1.00 (0.85-1.19) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage 0.87 (0.63-1.19), except for lower death with borderline significance, 0.77 (0.59-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present analyses of real-world Asian acute stroke registry data suggest that low-dose intravenous alteplase has overall comparable efficacy for functional recovery and greater potential safety in terms of reduced mortality, to standard-dose alteplase for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

16.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1825-1830, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177978

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Stroke disability is a major health burden in rural China where rehabilitation services are inadequate. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a novel nurse-led, caregiver-delivered model of stroke rehabilitation in rural China. Methods- A multicenter prospective, randomized open, blinded outcome assessed, controlled trial was conducted in 3 rural county hospitals in China: Zhangwu, Liaoning Province (Northeast); Qingtongxia, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Northwest); and Dianjiang, Chongqing Municipality (Southwest). Adult patients (age 18-79 years) with residual disability (Barthel Index score ≤80/100) after a recent acute stroke were randomized to a new service model or usual care. The new intervention was multifaceted and was based on a task-shifting / training-the-trainers model, supported by a custom-designed smartphone application, where patients and caregivers received evidence-based in-hospital education and stroke rehabilitation training (focus on mobility, self-care, and toileting), delivered by trained nurses before hospital discharge, and 3 postdischarge support telephone calls. Outcome assessments were undertaken before hospital discharge and at 3 and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical functioning (Barthel Index scores) at 6 months, assessed by research staff blind to treatment allocation, adjusted for baseline covariates in an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes included measures of mobility, health-related quality of life, mood, and caregiver burden. The study included a process evaluation that assessed intervention fidelity. Results- From November 2014 to December 2016, 246 stroke patients were randomized to intervention (n=118) or control (n=128) groups. There was no statistically significant difference in adjusted 6-month Barthel Index scores between groups (70.1 versus 74.1, mean difference, -4.0 [95% CI, -10.0 to 2.9]), nor any differences across the other outcome measures. Process evaluation interviews revealed that the intervention was desirable and positively accepted by nurses, caregivers, and patients but was considered too complex despite efforts to simplify materials for the rural context. Key strategies identified for future studies included the use of community health workers, smartphone application enhancement, and simpler and more frequent training for nurses, caregivers, and patients. Conclusions- A novel nurse-led, digital supported, caregiver-delivered stroke rehabilitation program did not improve patient physical functioning after stroke in rural China. Further stroke rehabilitation research suitable for resource-poor settings is required, with several components being suggested through stakeholder interviews in our study. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02247921.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e012640, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237173

RESUMO

Background The uptake of proven stroke treatments varies widely. We aimed to determine the association of evidence-based processes of care for acute ischemic stroke ( AIS ) and clinical outcome of patients who participated in the HEADPOST (Head Positioning in Acute Stroke Trial), a multicenter cluster crossover trial of lying flat versus sitting up, head positioning in acute stroke. Methods and Results Use of 8 AIS processes of care were considered: reperfusion therapy in eligible patients; acute stroke unit care; antihypertensive, antiplatelet, statin, and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation; dysphagia assessment; and physiotherapist review. Hierarchical, mixed, logistic regression models were performed to determine associations with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2) at 90 days, adjusted for patient and hospital variables. Among 9485 patients with AIS, implementation of all processes of care in eligible patients, or "defect-free" care, was associated with improved outcome (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.65) and better survival (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI , 1.62-3.09). Defect-free stroke care was also significantly associated with excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI , 1.04-1.43). No hospital characteristic was independently predictive of outcome. Only 1445 (15%) of eligible patients with AIS received all processes of care, with significant regional variations in overall and individual rates. Conclusions Use of evidence-based care is associated with improved clinical outcome in AIS . Strategies are required to address regional variation in the use of proven AIS treatments. Clinical Trial Registration URL : https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique Identifier: NCT02162017.

18.
Neuroepidemiology ; 53(1-2): 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy influences the ability to drive. We undertook a systematic review to determine the prevalence of driving or holding a driver's license among people with seizures, the prevalence of traffic accidents among those who drive, and factors that may explain heterogeneity in these point estimates. METHOD: We followed MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines in searching 8 databases from inception to June 27, 2018. All published observational studies were included, with the exception of case-control studies where prevalence could not be determined, case reports, and studies with fewer than 50 participants. We assessed external and internal validity and quality of studies, produced forest plots, and conducted meta-regression in "Stata 13." RESULTS: Data were available from 67 studies published between 1967 and 2018. Across the studies there was a wide range in the prevalence of driving (3-90%) and holding a driver's license (8-98%). Up to 39% of people with epilepsy drove in violation of restrictions. Prevalence of traffic accidents ranged from 0 to 61% following seizure onset, or in the past 1-5 years. The percentage of people with seizures who drove decreased as time since diagnosis increased (p = 0.01, adjusted R2 = 31%). The number of people with seizures who drove or held a driver's license appears to have increased over time (p = 0.02, adjusted R2 = 7%) but without a corresponding increase in the number of traffic accidents. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies related to definitions, design, and population differences. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in the prevalence of driving after a diagnosis of epilepsy and in reported motor vehicle accidents. Further efforts are required to better understand the impact of epilepsy, and epilepsy surgery, on driving and road safety, especially where driving continues in violation of restrictions. Policy changes are needed to encourage the introduction of available and affordable alternatives for driving, for example, developing public transport networks, and promoting subsidy schemes to encourage use of public transport, taxis, Uber, and Lyft, among people experiencing seizures.

19.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1525-1530, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084337

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Hospital uptake of evidence-based stroke care is variable. We aimed to determine the impact of a multicomponent program involving financial incentives and quality improvement interventions, on stroke care processes. Methods- A prospective study of interventions to improve clinical care quality indicators at 19 hospitals in Queensland, Australia, during 2010 to 2015, compared with historical controls and 23 other Australian hospitals. After baseline routine audit and feedback (control phase, 30 months), interventions involving financial incentives (21 months) and then addition of externally facilitated quality improvement workshops with action plan development (9 months) were implemented. Postintervention phase was 13 months. Data were obtained for the analysis from a previous continuous audit in Queensland and subsequently the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry. Primary outcome: change in median composite score for adherence to ≤8 indicators. Secondary outcomes: change in adherence to self-selected indicators addressed in action plans and 4 national indicators compared with other Australian hospitals. Multivariable analyses with adjustment for clustered data. Results- There were 17 502 patients from the intervention sites (median age, 74 years; 46% women) and 20 484 patients from other Australian hospitals. Patient characteristics were similar between groups. There was an 18% improvement in the primary outcome across the study periods (95% CI, 12%-24%). The largest improvement was following introduction of financial incentives (14%; 95% CI, 8%-20%), while indicators addressed in action plans provided an 8% improvement (95% CI, 1%-17%). The national score (4 indicators) improved by 17% (95% CI, 13%-20%) versus 0% change in other Australian hospitals (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.03). Access to stroke units improved more in Queensland than in other Australian hospitals ( P<0.001). Conclusions- The quality improvement interventions significantly improved clinical practice. The findings were primarily driven by financial incentives, but were also contributed to by the externally facilitated, quality improvement workshops. Assessment in other regions is warranted.

20.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1409-1414, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136288

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We investigated factors associated with early and delayed neurological deterioration (END and DND, respectively) after acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the main INTERACT (Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial)-2. Methods- INTERACT-2 was a randomized trial of early intensive versus guideline-recommended blood pressure lowering in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (<6 hours from symptom onset) patients. END and DND were defined as a ≥4-point increase on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale or ≥2-point decrease on Glasgow Coma Scale, in periods baseline to 24 hours and 24 hours to 7 days, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine independent predictors of END and DND and 90-day outcomes (death and dependency on the modified Rankin Scale). Results- Of 2598 participants, 450 (17.3%) had either END or DND. Non-China recruitment, higher systolic blood pressure, larger baseline hematoma volume, left hemisphere hematoma location, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid extension, heterogeneous hematoma density, and cerebral white matter lesions, were predictors of END (all P≤0.045). Higher systolic blood pressure, lower diastolic blood pressure, higher glucose, larger baseline hematoma volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, lobar location, brain atrophy, and heterogeneous hematoma density were predictors of DND (all P≤0.042). END and DND were both related to death, and death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6), in adjusted analyses ( P<0.001). Conclusions- Common variables, most directly related to the intracerebral hemorrhage morphology and underlying cerebral features, determine END and DND and their influence on poor outcomes of death and major disability. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00716079.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA