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1.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 126(10): e2021JD034644, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221781

RESUMO

We analyzed the effect of the North American monsoon anticyclone (NAMA) on the meridional transport of summertime cross-tropopause convective outflow by applying a trajectory analysis to a climatology of convective overshooting tops (OTs) identified in GOES satellite images, which covers the domain from 29°S to 68°N and from 205°W to 1.25°W for the time period of May to September, 2013. From this analysis, we identify seasonal development of geographically distinct outflow regions of convectively influenced air masses (CIAMs) from the NAMA circulation to the global stratosphere and quantify the associated meridional displacement of CIAMs. We find that prior to the development of the NAMA, the majority of CIAMs exit the study area in a southeastern region between 5°N and 35°N at 45°W (75.5% in May). During July and August, when the NAMA is strongest, two additional outflow regions develop that constitute the majority of outflow: 68.1% in a northeastern region between 35°N and 60°N at 45°W and 13.4% in a southwestern region between 5°N and 35°N at 145°W. The shift in the location of most CIAM outflow from the pre-NAMA southeastern region to NAMA-dependent northeastern and southwestern regions corresponds to a change in average meridional displacement of CIAMs from 3.3° northward in May to 24.5° northward in July and August. Meridional transport of CIAMs through persistent outflow regions from the NAMA circulation to the global stratosphere has the potential to impact global stratospheric composition beyond convective source regions.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923271

RESUMO

Canine Chronic Ulcerative Stomatitis is a spontaneously occurring inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is suspected though not yet proven. We have recently reported on the clinical and histologic features, and identification of select leukocyte cell populations within the lesion. A clinical and histologic similarity to oral lichen planus of people was proposed. In the present study, these initial observations are extended by examining lesions from 24 dogs with clinical evidence of chronic ulcerative stomatitis. Because dogs with chronic ulcerative stomatitis often have concurrent periodontal disease, we wondered if dental plaque/biofilm may be a common instigator of inflammation in both lesions. We hypothesized that dogs with chronic ulcerative stomatitis would exhibit a spectrum of pathologic changes and phenotype of infiltrating leukocytes that would inform lesion pathogenesis and that these changes would differ from inflammatory phenotypes in periodontitis. Previously we identified chronic ulcerative stomatitis lesions to be rich in FoxP3+ and IL17+ cells. As such, we suspect that these leukocytes play an important role in lesion pathogenesis. The current study confirms the presence of moderate to large numbers of FoxP3+ T cells and IL17+ cells in all ulcerative stomatitis lesions using confocal immunofluorescence. Interestingly, the majority of IL17+ cells were determined to be non-T cells and IL17+ cell frequencies were negatively correlated with severity on the clinical scoring system. Three histologic subtypes of ulcerative stomatitis were determined; lichenoid, deep stomatitis and granulomatous. Periodontitis lesions, like stomatitis lesions, were B cell and plasma cell rich, but otherwise differed from the stomatitis lesions. Direct immunofluorescence results did not support an autoantibody-mediated autoimmune disease process. This investigation contributes to the body of literature regarding leukocyte involvement in canine idiopathic inflammatory disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/imunologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/diagnóstico , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/patologia , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/veterinária , Inflamação/etiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico
3.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 124(16): 9743-9770, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763110

RESUMO

Tropopause-penetrating convection is a frequent seasonal feature of the Central United States climate. This convection presents the potential for consistent transport of water vapor into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) through the lofting of ice, which then sublimates. Water vapor enhancements associated with convective ice lofting have been observed in both in situ and satellite measurements. These water vapor enhancements can increase the probability of sulfate aerosol-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions that convert reservoir chlorine (HCl and ClONO2) to free radical chlorine (Cl and ClO) that leads to catalytic ozone loss. In addition to water vapor transport, lofted ice may also scavenge nitric acid and further impact the chlorine activation chemistry of the UTLS. We present a photochemical model that resolves the vertical chemical structure of the UTLS to explore the effect of water vapor enhancements and potential additional nitric acid removal. The model is used to define the response of stratospheric column ozone to the range of convective water vapor transported and the temperature variability of the lower stratosphere currently observed over the Central United States in conjunction with potential nitric acid removal and to scenarios of elevated sulfate aerosol surface area density representative of possible future volcanic eruptions or solar radiation management. We find that the effect of HNO3 removal is dependent on the magnitude of nitric acid removal and has the greatest potential to increase chlorine activation and ozone loss under UTLS conditions that weakly favor the chlorine activation heterogeneous reactions by reducing NOx sources.

4.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(2): 185-192, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of pathogens via the airborne route is often underestimated, and little is known about the extent to which airborne microbial contamination levels vary throughout the day and night in hospital facilities. AIMS: To evaluate airborne contamination levels within intensive care unit (ICU) isolation rooms over 10-24-h periods in order to improve understanding of the variability of environmental aerial bioburden, and the extent to which ward activities may contribute. METHODS: Environmental air monitoring was conducted within occupied and vacant inpatient isolation rooms. A sieve impactor sampler was used to collect 500-L air samples every 15 min over 10-h (08:00-18:00 h) and 24-h (08:00-08:00 h) periods. Samples were collected, room activity was logged, and bacterial contamination levels were recorded as colony-forming units (cfu)/m3 air. FINDINGS: A high degree of variability in levels of airborne contamination was observed across all scenarios in the studied isolation rooms. Air bioburden increased as room occupancy increased, with air contamination levels highest in rooms occupied for the longest time during the study (10 days) (mean 104.4 cfu/m3, range 12-510 cfu/m3). Counts were lowest in unoccupied rooms (mean 20 cfu/m3) and during the night. CONCLUSION: Peaks in airborne contamination were directly associated with an increase in activity levels. This study provides the first clear evidence of the extent of variability in microbial airborne levels over 24-h periods in ICU isolation rooms, and found direct correlation between microbial load and ward activity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Isolamento de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 124(24): 13750-13762, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140373

RESUMO

We analyzed the interaction between the North American monsoon anticyclone (NAMA) and summertime cross-tropopause convective outflow by applying a trajectory analysis to a climatology of convective overshooting tops (OTs) identified in GOES satellite images, which covers the domain from 29°S to 68°N and from 205 to 1.25°W for the time period of May through September 2013. With this analysis we identified seasonally, geographically, and altitude-dependent variability in NAMA strength and in cross-tropopause convection that control their interaction. We find that the NAMA has the strongest impact on the circulation of convectively influenced air masses in August. Over the entire time period examined the intertropical convergence zone contributes the majority of OTs with a larger fraction of total OTs at 370 K (on average 70%) than at 400 K (on average 52%). During August at 370 K, the convectively influenced air masses within the NAMA circulation, as determined by the trajectory analysis, are primarily sourced from the intertropical convergence zone (monthly average of 66.1%), while at 400 K the Sierra Madres and the Central United States combined constitute the dominant source region (monthly average of 44.1%, compared to 36.6% of the combined Intertropical Convergence Zone regions). When evaluating the impact of cross-tropopause convection on the composition and chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the effects of the NAMA on both the distribution of convective outflow and the residence time of convectively influenced air masses within the NAMA region must be considered.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(16): 10569-10587, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29638230

RESUMO

We present the chain of mechanisms linking free radical catalytic loss of stratospheric ozone, specifically over the central United States in summer, to increased climate forcing by CO2 and CH4 from fossil fuel use. This case directly engages detailed knowledge, emerging from in situ aircraft observations over the polar regions in winter, defining the temperature and water vapor dependence of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic conversion of inorganic chlorine (HCl and ClONO2) to free radical form (ClO). Analysis is placed in the context of irreversible changes to specific subsystems of the climate, most notably coupled feedbacks that link rapid changes in the Arctic with the discovery that convective storms over the central US in summer both suppress temperatures and inject water vapor deep into the stratosphere. This places the lower stratosphere over the US in summer within the same photochemical catalytic domain as the lower stratosphere of the Arctic in winter engaging the risk of amplifying the rate limiting step in the ClO dimer catalytic mechanism by some six orders of magnitude. This transitions the catalytic loss rate of ozone in lower stratosphere over the United States in summer from HOx radical control to ClOx radical control, increasing the overall ozone loss rate by some two orders of magnitude over that of the unperturbed state. Thus we address, through a combination of observations and modeling, the mechanistic foundation defining why stratospheric ozone, vulnerable to increased climate forcing, is one of the most delicate aspects of habitability on the planet.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Radicais Livres , Ozônio Estratosférico/química , Água/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Catálise , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Metano/química , Estações do Ano , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Temperatura
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 98(1): 67-73, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that a ceiling-mounted, 405 nm high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental decontamination system (HINS-light EDS) reduces bacterial contamination of environmental surfaces in a burns unit by between 27% and 75%. Examination of the efficacy of the light over extended exposure times and its probable mode of action was performed. AIM: To ascertain the correlation between bacterial kill achieved on sampled surface sites around the burns unit and both irradiance levels of the 405 nm light, and exposure time. METHODS: Seventy samples were taken using contact agar plates from surfaces within an occupied side-room in the burns unit before, during, and after a seven-day use of the HINS-light EDS. This was repeated in three separate studies. Statistical analysis determined whether there was significant decrease in environmental contamination during prolonged periods of HINS-light treatment, and whether there was an association between irradiance and bacterial kill. FINDINGS: A decrease of between 22% and 86% in the mean number of surface bacteria was shown during the use of the HINS-light EDS. When the light ceased to be used, increases of between 78% and 309% occurred. There was no correlation between bacterial kill and irradiance levels at each sampling site but strong correlation between bacterial kill and exposure time. CONCLUSION: Prolonged exposure to the HINS-light EDS causes a cumulative decontamination of the surfaces within a burns unit. The importance of exposure time and possible airborne effect over irradiance levels is emphasized.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Descontaminação/métodos , Microbiologia Ambiental , Luz , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Quartos de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Vet Pathol ; 54(3): 511-519, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28113036

RESUMO

Canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis, also known as chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis, is a painful condition of the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are commonalities in clinical and radiographic features among patients, whether the histopathologic evaluation might inform the pathogenesis, and whether the condition appears similar to human oral mucosal diseases. To do this, we prospectively collected clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic data from 20 dogs diagnosed with the disease. Clinical data were based on a clinical disease activity index, oral and periodontal examination parameters, and full-mouth dental radiographs. The histopathological and immunohistochemical data were based on oral mucosal samples obtained from erosive or ulcerated areas. Our findings revealed that canine chronic stomatitis is clinically characterized by painful oral mucosal ulcers of varying size, pattern, appearance, and distribution, most often associated with teeth with early periodontitis. Histologic examination revealed a subepithelial lichenoid band (interface mucositis) where B cells, T cells, and Forkhead-box protein 3 (FoxP3)- and interleukin-17-expressing cells were present. These cells might play a role in the underlying immune response and an immune-mediated pathogenesis is suspected. The clinical and histopathologic features of this chronic inflammatory mucosal disease in dogs resemble those of oral lichen planus in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/diagnóstico , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/patologia , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Radiografia Dentária/veterinária
9.
J Perinatol ; 36(11): 1008-1013, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) status on mortality and morbidity by gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: Logistic binomial regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals for infant mortality and preterm morbidities for SGA or LGA compared with appropriately grown (AGA) deliveries stratified by gestational age group. RESULTS: Compared with AGA infants of similar gestational age, SGA infants were at increased risk for infant mortality. Mortality risk was decreased for LGA infants born between 25 and 27 weeks (RR: 0.6) but increased for LGA infants born between 28 and 31 weeks (RR: 1.9). Risk of preterm morbidity was increased for SGA infants born between 28 and 38 weeks, but decreased for LGA infants born before 37 weeks. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the importance of considering birth weight for gestational age when evaluating morbidity and mortality risks.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Mortalidade Infantil , Mortalidade Perinatal , California , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
10.
Bone Joint J ; 97-B(2): 283-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25628296

RESUMO

High-intensity narrow-spectrum (HINS) light is a novel violet-blue light inactivation technology which kills bacteria through a photodynamic process, and has been shown to have bactericidal activity against a wide range of species. Specimens from patients with infected hip and knee arthroplasties were collected over a one-year period (1 May 2009 to 30 April 2010). A range of these microbial isolates were tested for sensitivity to HINS-light. During testing, suspensions of the pathogens were exposed to increasing doses of HINS-light (of 123mW/cm(2) irradiance). Non-light exposed control samples were also used. The samples were then plated onto agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours before enumeration. Complete inactivation (greater than 4-log10 reduction) was achieved for all of the isolates. The typical inactivation curve showed a slow initial reaction followed by a rapid period of inactivation. The doses of HINS-light required ranged between 118 and 2214 J/cm(2). Gram-positive bacteria were generally found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative. As HINS-light uses visible wavelengths, it can be safely used in the presence of patients and staff. This unique feature could lead to its possible use in the prevention of infection during surgery and post-operative dressing changes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:283-8.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Fototerapia/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Candidíase Invasiva/microbiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
J Hosp Infect ; 88(1): 1-11, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25066049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the germicidal properties of ultraviolet (UV) light have long been known, it is only comparatively recently that the antimicrobial properties of visible violet-blue 405 nm light have been discovered and used for environmental disinfection and infection control applications. AIM: To review the antimicrobial properties of 405 nm light and to describe its application as an environmental decontamination technology with particular reference to disinfection of the hospital environment. METHODS: Extensive literature searches for relevant scientific papers and reports. FINDINGS: A large body of scientific evidence is now available that provides underpinning knowledge of the 405 nm light-induced photodynamic inactivation process involved in the destruction of a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial species, including resistant forms such as bacterial and fungal spores. For practical application, a high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental disinfection system (HINS-light EDS) has been developed and tested in hospital isolation rooms. The trial results have demonstrated that this 405 nm light system can provide continuous disinfection of air and exposed surfaces in occupied areas of the hospital, thereby substantially enhancing standard cleaning and infection control procedures. CONCLUSION: Violet-blue light, particularly 405 nm light, has significant antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens and, although germicidal efficacy is lower than UV light, this limitation is offset by its facility for safe, continuous use in occupied environments. Promising results on disinfection efficacy have been obtained in hospital trials but the full impact of this technology on reduction of healthcare-associated infection has yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Microbiologia Ambiental , Fungos/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Humanos
12.
Appl Opt ; 53(13): C54-63, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24921890

RESUMO

System requirements for many military electro-optic and IR camera systems reflect the need for both wide-field-of-view situational awareness as well as high-resolution imaging for target identification. In this work we present a new imaging system architecture designed to perform both functions simultaneously and the AWARE 10 camera as an example at visible wavelengths. We first describe the basic system architecture and user interface followed by a laboratory characterization of the system optical performance. We then describe a field experiment in which the camera was used to identify several maritime targets at varying range. The experimental results indicate that users of the system are able to correctly identify ~10 m targets at between 4 and 6 km with 70% accuracy.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(4): 044101, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24784629

RESUMO

High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10(12). The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A(2)Π3/2 (v(') = 2) ← X(2)Π3/2 (v(″) = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Radicais Livres/análise , Compostos de Iodo/análise , Lasers , Óxidos/análise
14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(7): 074102, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23902086

RESUMO

We present a new instrument for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT∕LS), the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). HHH employs a tunable diode near-IR laser to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a Herriott cell. The direct absorption technique provides a direct link between the depth of the observed absorption line and the measured water vapor concentration, which is calculated based on spectroscopic parameters in the HITRAN database. While several other tunable diode laser (TDL) instruments have been used to measure water vapor in the UT∕LS, HHH is set apart by its use of an optical cell an order of magnitude smaller than those of other direct absorption TDLs in operation, allowing for a more compact, lightweight instrument. HHH is also unique in its integration into a common duct with the Harvard Lyman-α hygrometer, an independent photo-fragment fluorescence instrument which has been thoroughly validated over 19 years of flight measurements. The instrument was flown for the first time in the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) on NASA's WB-57 aircraft in spring, 2011, during which it demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1 s) with 1-sigma uncertainty of 5% ± 0.7 ppmv. Since the campaign, changes to the instrument have lead to improved accuracy of 5% ± 0.2 ppmv as demonstrated in the laboratory. During MACPEX, HHH successfully measured water vapor at concentrations from 3.5 to 600 ppmv in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. HHH and Lyman-α, measuring independently but under the same sampling conditions, agreed on average to within 1% at water vapor mixing ratios above 20 ppmv and to within 0.3 ppmv at lower mixing ratios. HHH also agreed with a number of other in situ water vapor instruments on the WB-57 to within their stated uncertainties, and to within 0.7 ppmv at low water. This agreement constitutes a significant improvement over past in situ comparisons, in which differences of 1.5-2 ppmv were routinely observed, and demonstrates that the accuracy of HHH is consistent with other instruments which use a range of detection methods and sampling techniques.

15.
Fungal Biol ; 117(7-8): 519-27, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23931117

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of high-intensity violet light on selected yeast and mould fungi. Cell suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and dormant and germinating spores (conidia) of the mould Aspergillus niger were exposed to high-intensity narrow band violet light with peak output at 405 nm generated from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. All three fungal species were inactivated by the 405-nm light without a requirement for addition of exogenous photosensitiser chemicals. Of the fungal species tested, S. cerevisiae was most sensitive and dormant conidia of A. niger were most resistant to 405-nm light exposure. Five-log10 colony forming units per millilitre (CFU ml(-1)) reductions of the tested species required exposure doses of 288 J cm(-2) for S. cerevisiae, 576 J cm(-2) for C. albicans, and a much higher value of 2.3 kJ cm(-2) for dormant conidia of A. niger. During germination, A. niger conidia became more sensitive to 405-nm light exposure and sensitivity increased as germination progressed over an 8 h test period. Light exposure under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with results obtained using ascorbic acid as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, revealed that 405-nm light inactivation in fungi involved an oxygen-dependent mechanism, as previously described in bacteria. The inactivation results achieved with yeast cells and fungal spores together with operational advantages associated with the use of a visible (nonultraviolet (UV)) light source highlight the potential of 405-nm light for fungal decontamination applications.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/efeitos da radiação , Candida albicans/efeitos da radiação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos da radiação , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus niger/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Eur Cell Mater ; 25: 204-14, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23471732

RESUMO

Infection rates after arthroplasty surgery are between 1-4 %, rising significantly after revision procedures. To reduce the associated costs of treating these infections, and the patients' post-operative discomfort and trauma, a new preventative method is required. High intensity narrow spectrum (HINS) 405 nm light has bactericidal effects on a wide range of medically important bacteria, and it reduced bacterial bioburden when used as an environmental disinfection method in a Medical Burns Unit. To prove its safety for use for environmental disinfection in orthopaedic theatres during surgery, cultured osteoblasts were exposed to HINS-light of intensities up to 15 mW/cm2 for 1 h (54 J/cm2). Intensities of up to 5 mW/cm2 for 1 h had no effect on cell morphology, activity of alkaline phosphatase, synthesis of collagen or osteocalcin expression, demonstrating that under these conditions this dose is the maximum safe exposure for osteoblasts; after exposure to 15 mW/cm2 all parameters of osteoblast function were significantly decreased. Viability (measured by protein content and Crystal Violet staining) of the osteoblasts was not influenced by exposure to 5 mW/cm2 for at least 2 h. At 5 mW/cm2 HINS-light is an effective bactericide. It killed 98.1 % of Staphylococcus aureus and 83.2 % Staphylococcus epidermis populations seeded on agar surfaces, and is active against both laboratory strains and clinical isolates from infected hip and knee arthroplasties. HINS-light could have potential for development as a method of disinfection to reduce transmission of bacteria during arthroplasty, with wider applications in diverse surgical procedures involving implantation of a medical device.


Assuntos
Artroplastia , Desinfecção/métodos , Luz , Osteoblastos/efeitos da radiação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos da radiação , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Forma Celular/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Ratos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 76(3): 247-51, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20864210

RESUMO

The performance of a new decontamination technology, referred to as 'high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental decontamination system' (HINS-light EDS) was evaluated by a series of three studies carried out in a hospital isolation room used to treat burns patients. The ceiling-mounted HINS-light EDS emits high-intensity 405nm light which, although bactericidal, is harmless to patients and staff thereby permitting continuous environmental disinfection throughout the day. Performance efficacy was assessed by contact agar plate sampling and enumeration of staphylococcal bacteria on environmental surfaces within the room before, during and after HINS-light EDS treatment. When the room was unoccupied, use of HINS-light EDS resulted in ∼90% reduction of surface bacterial levels and when the room was occupied by an MRSA-infected burns patient, reductions between 56% and 86% were achieved, with the highest reduction (86%) measured following an extended period of HINS-light EDS operation. In an on/off intervention study, surface bacterial levels were reduced by 62% by HINS-light EDS treatment and returned to normal contamination levels two days after the system was switched off. These reductions of staphylococci, including Staphylococcus aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus, by HINS-light EDS treatment were greater than the reductions achieved by normal infection control and cleaning activities alone. The findings provide strong evidence that HINS-light EDS, used as a supplementary procedure, can make a significant contribution to bacterial decontamination in clinical environments.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Unidades Hospitalares , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Luz , Isolamento de Pacientes , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos da radiação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação
18.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 80(4): 044102, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19405676

RESUMO

We describe here the Harvard integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) isotope instrument, a mid-IR infrared spectrometer using ICOS to make in situ measurements of the primary isotopologues of water vapor (H(2)O, HDO, and H(2) (18)O) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The long path length provided by ICOS provides the sensitivity and accuracy necessary to measure these or other trace atmospheric species at concentrations in the ppbv range. The Harvard ICOS isotope instrument has been integrated onto NASA's WB-57 high-altitude research aircraft and to date has flown successfully in four field campaigns from winter 2004-2005 to the present. Off-axis alignment and a fully passive cavity ensure maximum robustness against the vibrationally hostile aircraft environment. The very simple instrument design permitted by off-axis ICOS is also helpful in minimizing contamination necessary for accurate measurements in the dry UTLS region. The instrument is calibrated in the laboratory via two separate water addition systems and crosscalibrated against other instruments. Calibrations have established an accuracy of 5% for all species. The instrument has demonstrated measurement precision of 0.14 ppmv, 0.10 ppbv, and 0.16 ppbv in 4 s averages for H(2)O, HDO, and H(2) (18)O, respectively. At a water vapor mixing ratio of 5 ppmv the isotopologue ratio precision is 50[per thousand] and 30[per thousand] for deltaD and delta(18)O, respectively.

19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 79(6): 064101, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18601418

RESUMO

We present a new instrument, Hoxotope, for the in situ measurement of H(2)O and its heavy deuterium isotopologue (HDO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere aboard the NASA WB-57. Sensitive measurements of deltaD are accomplished through the vacuum UV photolysis of water followed by laser-induced fluorescence detection of the resultant OH and OD photofragments. The photolysis laser-induced fluorescence technique can obtain S/N>20 for 1 ppbv HDO and S/N>30 for 5 ppmv H(2)O for 10 s data, providing the sensitivity required for deltaD measurements in the tropopause region. The technique responds rapidly to changing water concentrations due to its inherently small sampling volume, augmented by steps taken to minimize water uptake on instrument plumbing. Data from the summer 2005 Aura Validation Experiment Water Isotope Intercomparison Flights (AVE-WIIF) out of Houston, TX show agreement for H(2)O between Hoxotope and the Harvard water vapor instrument and for HDO between Hoxotope and the Harvard ICOS water isotope instrument, to within stated instrument uncertainties. The successful intercomparison validates Hoxotope as a credible source of deltaD data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 92(3): 180-4, 2008 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18657991

RESUMO

Exposure to visible-light causes the photoinactivation of certain bacteria by a process that is believed to involve the photo-stimulation of endogenous intracellular porphyrins. Studies with some bacterial species have reported that this process is oxygen-dependent. This study examines the role of oxygen in the visible-light inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus. Suspensions of S. aureus were exposed to broadband visible-light under both oxygen depletion and oxygen enhancement conditions to determine whether these environmental modifications had any effect on the staphylococcal inactivation rate. Oxygen enhancement was achieved by flowing oxygen over the surface of the bacterial sample during light inactivation and results demonstrated an increased rate of staphylococcal inactivation, with approximately 3.5 times less specific dose being required for inactivation compared to that for a non-enhanced control. Oxygen depletion, achieved through the addition of oxygen scavengers to the S. aureus suspension, further demonstrated the essential role of oxygen in the light inactivation process, with significantly reduced staphylococcal inactivation being observed in the presence of oxygen scavengers. The results of the present study demonstrate that the presence of oxygen is important for the visible-light inactivation of S. aureus, thus providing supporting evidence that the nature of the mechanism occurring within the visible-light-exposed staphylococci is photodynamic inactivation through the photo-excitation of intracellular porphyrins.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Catalase/farmacologia , Luz , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Tioureia/farmacologia
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