Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Pers Assess ; 104(2): 281-288, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878964

RESUMO

There is debate regarding the utility of standardized instruments in the assessment of competence to stand trial (CST). Though the field generally has a positive view of the second-generation nomothetic instruments available, the frequency of use falls far behind this favorable impression. The current paper reviewed two standardized instruments used in CST evaluations, the Evaluation of Competency to Stand Trial - Revised (ECST-R) and the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA). We first review the psychometric properties of both instruments, including a review of limitations. Next, we discuss the legal standing of both instruments, including a review of past admissibility challenges and a discussion of potential issues in cross-examination. Finally, we end with practical guidance for clinicians; namely, that these instruments are generally valid indicators of competence to stand trial and are likely to be particularly useful in cases where competence is ambiguous and the clinician would benefit from additional standardized data to make a clear clinical decision.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Competência Mental , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Psicometria
2.
J Pers Assess ; : 1-6, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678090

RESUMO

Eating disorders are prevalent among college student populations. Although previous iterations of the instrument did not include specific measurement of eating pathology, the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-3 (MMPI-3) now includes a specific scale (i.e., Eating Concerns [EAT]) to assess problematic eating behaviors. The current study examined the MMPI-3 assessment of eating pathology among 249 undergraduate women. A pattern emerged where symptoms of internalizing psychopathology on the MMPI-3 were generally associated with symptoms of eating disorder. However, the newly included EAT scale demonstrated the strongest associations with most areas of eating dysfunction. Further, hierarchical regression analyses suggested that the EAT scale added substantial incremental predictive utility (up to 23%) over other MMPI-3 scales combined in assessing eating pathology. Classification accuracy statistics yielded high sensitivity and specificity coefficients when predicting eating disorder risk at an EAT scale score cutoff of 75 T or higher. These findings support the use of the MMPI-3 in assessing eating pathology in college women, although its performance with men and with women not of college age remains to be studied.

3.
Personal Disord ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435807

RESUMO

The concept of "successful" psychopathy has intrigued the field, yet relatively little actual science exists to understand what makes those high in psychopathic traits more or less successful, or even what constitutes "success." In the current study, we examined the validity of the moderated expression hypothesis, including an elaborated version that considers differential configuration of psychopathy traits, as accounting for differences in criminal and noncriminal (the most common operationalization of "success") expressions of psychopathy. The latter was conceptualized from the perspective of the triarchic psychopathy model. We recruited a community sample (n = 212) that had been overweighted toward psychopathic personality traits. The triarchic psychopathy domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition were modeled as latent constructs based on scores from multiple psychopathy measures. We examined affective processing dysfunction, various executive cognitive deficits, substance misuse, and socioeconomic indicators (income, education) as potential moderators of associations between psychopathy and criminality. We estimated a series of latent regression models in which we tested interaction effects between hypothesized moderators and a latent criminality variable. We found that affective processing dysfunction, substance misuse, and the triarchic psychopathy domain of disinhibition all moderated the association between meanness and criminality, in that the latter association was stronger as these moderators increased in severity. Disinhibition was also moderated by substance misuse and boldness by both personal income and commission errors from a go/no-go task, though in the case of the latter domain, these moderators served as protective factors against criminality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mentalization theory posits that interpersonal difficulties and maladaptive personality traits develop from an insecure attachment pattern with one's caregiver and corresponding deficits in mentalizing-the ability to understand others' and one's own mental states. Mentalizing deficits have been theorized as the basis for all psychopathology, with the paradigmatic case being Borderline Personality Disorder. Nevertheless, developments in the personality field indicate personality pathology is best represented dimensionally, and such a proposal was outlined by the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD). Despite evidence linking the mentalization theory to personality disorders, however, it has yet to be applied to Criterion B of the AMPD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the moderating role of mentalizing in the relation between attachment and Criterion B maladaptive trait function in a sample of undergraduates. We hypothesized a model in which: (1) attachment insecurity would be positively associated with the Negative Affectivity, Antagonism, and Disinhibition personality domains; (2) mentalizing ability would be negatively associated with these domains; and, (3) there would be an interaction effect between attachment and mentalizing when predicting these same domains. METHODS: Personality domains were measured dimensionally via the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-SF), while the dependence and avoidance domains of attachment were assessed via the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ). Mentalizing ability was tapped by the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). The AMPD personality domains and trait facets were examined as dependent variables; attachment dependence, attachment avoidance, and overall mentalizing ability were entered as independent variables; and interaction terms between mentalizing and each attachment dimension were used to test moderation via MANCOVAs. RESULTS: Consistent with expectations, results indicated overall mentalizing moderated the relation between attachment avoidance and Negative Affectivity. Posthoc analyses revealed similar effects on the relations between attachment avoidance and the Emotional Lability, Hostility, and Perseveration trait facets; however, there were no significant moderation findings related to attachment dependence. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the mentalization theory's application to Criterion B of the AMPD, particularly in relation to the links between Negative Affectivity and borderline-related traits, and encourage future research of dimensional maladaptive personality. They further bolster support for understanding maladaptive personality as a dimensional construct.

5.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-harm and personality psychopathology have been linked, with the most robust correlations existing between negative affectivity and self-harm. Psychological pain, an emotionally-based aversive feeling, has been linked to self-harm. Considering the connection between personality psychopathology and self-harm, psychological pain may enhance self-harm risk. Participants: Analyses were conducted on 525 undergraduate students in the Spring and Fall semesters of 2019. Methods/Results: Correlation analyses indicated that self-harm was moderately correlated with Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. Additionally, self-harm was correlated with psychological pain. When examining if psychological pain moderates the relation between personality psychopathology and self-harm, results were mixed. In the cases of Disinhibition and Psychoticism, psychological pain enhanced self-harm. There was no moderating effect on the relations with Negative Affectivity, Detachment, or Antagonism. Conclusions: These findings support the role of psychological pain in self-harm outcomes for those experiencing personality psychopathology; however, this varies depending on the maladaptive traits.

6.
Assessment ; 28(5): 1345-1357, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125172

RESUMO

The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF), a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Specifically, we used exploratory factor analysis to determine the best higher order structure for the CAT-PD-SF traits. Results suggested a five-factor structure, albeit with marginal model fit. Second, we used correlation analyses to compare the CAT-PD-SF with two additional dimensional measures of personality, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form and the Five-Factor Model Rating Form. The results demonstrated the CAT-PD-SF scale scores were associated with domain and facet scores from these two models in a conceptually expected manner. Finally, we explored the association between the CAT-PD-SF scores and functional impairment and found moderate associations between CAT-PD-SF trait and functional impairment scores (as measured by the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning Scale). Overall, findings add support to the structure of the CAT-PD model, and the use of the CAT-PD-SF in measuring dimensional personality psychopathology and impairment.


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Clin Psychol ; 77(4): 1090-1105, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in assessing ICD-11 personality psychopathology trait domain qualifiers. METHOD: Using a community sample (N = 217) weighted for externalizing dysfunction, this study evaluated the convergence between ICD-11 trait domains as measured by the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) with hypothesized MMPI-2-RF scales. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating the convergence between the ICD-11 trait domain qualifiers and the MMPI-2-RF personality psychopathology-5 (PSY-5) scales, as the latter are meant to represent broadband domains of personality pathology. RESULTS: Correlation and regression analyses demonstrated expected associations between ICD-11 domains and conceptually expected MMPI-2-RF scales, with some minor exceptions. Notably, the Anankastia domain showed associations with scales assessing negative affect, but did not show expected negative associations with scales related to disinhibition. CONCLUSIONS: The findings generally supported the use of the MMPI-2-RF in assessing individual expressions of personality dysfunction from the ICD-11 trait domain qualifier perspective.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , MMPI , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Personal Disord ; 11(6): 418-430, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916787

RESUMO

The current study investigated the internal structure and validity of a self-rating form for the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) model in a large sample consisting of American (n = 463) and Australian (n = 94) undergraduates along with a U.S. community sample (n = 182). More specifically, we explored the factor structure of the CAPP Lexical Rating Scale and examined its associations with measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and broad pathological personality traits. Neither exploratory factor analysis nor bass-ackward analyses supported the six proposed domains. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure, generally representing the behavioral, interpersonal, and affective domains of psychopathy. Correlations with conceptually relevant external criteria demonstrated the identified three-factor structure was not superior to the six proposed rational domains with respect to construct validity. Symptom-level analyses supported the use of CAPP symptom as measures of individual symptoms with good convergent validity. Overall, the current study supports the construct validity of the CAPP model, and the Lexical Rating Scale in particular, but more research is needed to further explore the optimal structure of the model. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(2): 162-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599632

RESUMO

Research using a categorical-polythetic classification system for mental illness has raised concern regarding the validity of categorical classification systems. Recent efforts suggest psychopathology is better understood from a dimensional framework, though there has been varying evidence of a somatization factor. The current investigation seeks to produce and validate a dimensional model of psychopathology, with a particular emphasis on the placement of somatization, across three nonoverlapping medical samples. Using a bariatric surgery seeking sample (n = 1,268), a spine surgery/spinal cord stimulator seeking sample (n = 1,711), and a chronic pain treatment seeking sample (n = 1,388), a dimensional model of psychopathology was replicated across all three samples using a dimensional measure of psychopathology (the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form [MMPI-2-RF]). Clear evidence of a separate somatization factor was found in addition to broad internalizing, externalizing, and social detachment factors. Constructs assessable with the model yielded good convergent and discriminant validity coefficients with external criteria, and further supported the presence of a higher-order somatization construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , MMPI , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Violence Against Women ; 26(12-13): 1636-1655, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558117

RESUMO

Sexual aggression, harassment, and sexually aggressive cognitions (victim blaming, sexual entitlement) are serious societal problems. Although research has examined attributes of individuals who engage in overt sexual assault, few studies have focused on individual characteristics of those who perpetuate problematic negative beliefs surrounding sexual assault. This study sought to examine the relationship between pathological personality and sexually aggressive cognitions among 242 community men. Results showed that traits including antagonism, disinhibition, and negative affectivity were associated with sexually aggressive cognitions. These results have implications for understanding sexual aggression and the role personality plays in perpetuating sexually aggressive attitudes.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Cognição , Personalidade , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estupro/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Pers Disord ; 34(2): 231-249, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179575

RESUMO

This study evaluated the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD) proposed for ICD-11 and the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form 2.0 (LPFS-BF) developed for DSM-5 Section III and their relationships with external correlates. We used a clinical sample (N = 150; 33% women) of 65 psychiatric outpatients and 85 incarcerated addicts, who self-reported the SASPD and the LPFS-BF. We conducted correlation and regression analyses in order to determine the relative associations of these two measures with relevant external criteria. SASPD predominantly captured externalizing and other-related problems (e.g., potential harm to others), whereas LPFS-BF predominantly captured internalizing and self-related problems (e.g., identity and distress). Generally, LPFS-BF explained more variance of the external criteria relative to SASPD. The findings seem to reflect that the ICD-11 oriented SASPD emphasizes interpersonal and aggressive features, whereas the DSM-5-oriented LPFS-BF emphasizes self-pathology and distress. More conclusive findings warrant interview-rated personality functioning.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Mecanismos de Defesa , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
12.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 47(3): 310-320, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186365

RESUMO

The Americans with Disabilities Act has allowed for greater participation of individuals with disabilities across a variety of contexts, most notably in employment settings. Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are still precluded, however, from full participation in other contexts, and they are often relegated to the forensic arena without sufficient support, including after being adjudicated incompetent to stand trial (IST). Frequently, individuals who are adjudicated IST due to ID are committed to inpatient psychiatric hospitals that are unable to meet their unique needs. We argue that the provision requiring reasonable accommodations to secure meaningful participation in state-funded restoration efforts, explicitly covered by Title II of ADA, is both relevant and imperative for this group. Further, we argue that simple modifications to the forensic assessment process, as well as the trial itself, can provide the scaffolding to facilitate individuals' full and complete participation in the process, reducing the likelihood of an inappropriate determination as IST. In our opinion, failing to appropriately modify the forensic assessment, treatment, and trial process systematically excludes and uniquely disadvantages this population because individuals with ID are often able to meet the essential functions of participation except for interference from deficits commensurate with ID.


Assuntos
Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Legislação como Assunto , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Civis , Comunicação , Compreensão , Humanos
13.
J Pers Assess ; 101(5): 468-480, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873521

RESUMO

This study investigated the ability of the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD) model to capture psychopathy in a sample consisting of U.S. (n = 565) and Australian (n = 99) undergraduates and a U.S. community sample (n = 210). More specifically, this study examined (a) the association between CAT-PD facets, particularly those consistent with DSM-5 Section III antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and measures of psychopathy, (b) the extent to which CAT-PD ASPD traits improve on DSM-5 Section II ASPD in measuring psychopathy, and (c) the utility of measuring functional impairment in additional to dimensional traits in assessing psychopathy. Analyses revealed CAT-PD ASPD traits, including traits' associations with Section III psychopathy specifier, were strongly associated with measures of psychopathy. Furthermore, CAT-PD ASPD was found to be an improvement over DSM-5 Section II ASPD in measuring psychopathy, and the dimensional nature of the CAT-PD was found to render the addition of measures of impairment unnecessary. These findings generally support the utility of the CAT-PD in the measurement of psychopathy, particularly as it relates to the dimensional assessment of psychopathy in the DSM-5 alternative model for personality disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 270: 1017-1026, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609984

RESUMO

DSM-5's Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) model states that an individual must show impairment in self and interpersonal functioning for PD diagnosis. The current study investigated dimensional personality trait associations with impairment, including differential patterns of impairment across specific PDs, and whether traits have improved our assessment of functional impairment in PDs. Two-hundred and seventy-seven participants were administered measures of Antisocial PD, Avoidant PD, Borderline PD, Narcissistic PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD, and Schizotypal PD from the perspectives of Section II (PDQ-4) and Section III (PID-5) PD models, as well as measures of functional impairment in interpersonal and intrapersonal domains. Pearson correlations showed associations between ratings of impairment and most Section II and Section III PDs and trait facets, with the exception of narcissistic PD. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Section III PDs added predictive validity beyond Section II PDs in predicting impairment, except narcissistic PD. These findings provide support both for the impairment criterion in the AMPD and for the association between trait-based PDs and impairment, and suggest that this trait-based measurement adds uniquely to the understanding of functional impairment.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Personal Disord ; 9(1): 51-61, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618341

RESUMO

The majority of research on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) Section III alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) has addressed the dimensional traits proposed in Criterion B, while limited research has evaluated Section III functional impairment criteria. The current study evaluated Section III impairment specific to the 6 personality disorder diagnoses included in the Section III model in a sample of 347 undergraduates. We evaluated the factor structure of disorder-specific impairment; their associations with other measures of impairment, Section III traits, and Section II PD symptoms; as well as the incremental utility of impairment above and beyond traits in predicting Section II PD symptoms. Factor analyses indicated limited support for the 2 domain and 4 subfacet levels of impairment, but showed some support for disorder-specific impairment. Furthermore, disorder-specific impairment was associated with other measures of functional impairment, Section II PD symptoms, and Section III traits with a generally good degree of convergence. However, these findings showed a lack of discriminant validity, suggesting a lack of utility in measuring disorder-specific impairment, as opposed to more broadly evaluating an individual's level of functional impairment. Finally, impairment only added incremental utility to traits in predicting Section II Avoidant PD. By and large, these findings suggested mixed support for disorder-specific impairment as presented in Criterion A and raised additional questions regarding the utility of impairment when paired with dimensional personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Assessment ; 25(5): 596-607, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27827808

RESUMO

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition ( DSM-5) Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup developed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for the assessment of the alternative trait model for DSM-5. Along with this measure, the American Psychiatric Association published an abbreviated version, the PID-5-Brief form (PID-5-BF). Although this measure is available on the DSM-5 website for use, only two studies have evaluated its psychometric properties and validity and no studies have examined the U.S. version of this measure. The current study evaluated the reliability, factor structure, and construct validity of PID-5-BF scale scores. This included an evaluation of the scales' associations with Section II PDs, a well-validated dimensional measure of personality psychopathology, and broad externalizing and internalizing psychopathology measures. We found support for the reliability of PID-5-BF scales as well as for the factor structure of the measure. Furthermore, a series of correlation and regression analyses showed conceptually expected associations between PID-5-BF and external criterion variables. Finally, we compared the correlations with external criterion measures to those of the full-length PID-5 and PID-5-Short form. Intraclass correlation analyses revealed a comparable pattern of correlations across all three measures, thereby supporting the use of the PID-5-BF as a screening measure of dimensional maladaptive personality traits.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Psicometria
17.
J Pers Disord ; 32(2): 262-276, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604276

RESUMO

The DSM-5 includes an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs). Although there has been growing support for this model there has been little investigation into how it will be utilized by clinicians. The current study evaluated clinician perspectives of a "prototypical" individual with antisocial and borderline PD using Section III traits in a sample of 105 mental health professionals. Results showed that clinicians' perspectives of these disorders were generally consistent with the Section III trait operationalizations. Indeed, clinicians rated each trait facet as more prototypical than nonproposed facets. Similarly, they rated nonproposed facets as less prototypical than included facets for both disorders, with some exceptions for borderline PD. Furthermore, the authors found that these ratings were generally in statistical agreement with empirical associations between Section III traits and Section II PDs found in previous studies. Overall, results suggest support for the trait operationalizations of these disorders by clinicians.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fenótipo
18.
J Pers Disord ; 32(4): 447-464, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594631

RESUMO

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form is a widely used measure of psychopathology and includes the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales, which measure dimensional maladaptive personality traits similar to those in the DSM-5 alternative model for personality disorder (PD) diagnosis. The current study evaluated the role of these dimensional personality psychopathology characteristics in a sample of 1,110 inpatients in a forensic psychiatric setting, where personality psychopathology plays a significant but understudied role. The authors examined the extent to which dimensional personality psychopathology characteristics (as measured by the PSY-5) were associated with borderline and antisocial PD diagnoses and institutional aggression. Results support the usefulness of measuring dimensional personality traits for understanding PD diagnoses, as well as incidents of institutional aggression. More specifically, the PSY-5 scales appear to measure the core features of borderline and antisocial PDs. This study supports the inclusion of dimensional personality assessment in understanding aggressive behavior in inpatient settings.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/psicologia , MMPI/normas , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Psychol Assess ; 29(6): 776-785, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594219

RESUMO

Adjudicative competence is the most frequently referred evaluation in the forensic context, and it is because of this that periodic evaluation of competence assessment instruments is imperative. Among those instruments, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) has demonstrated adequate psychometric properties suggesting its utility in informing the forensic inquiry. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate the psychometric properties and ultimate utility of subscale scores using archival data from a sample of 103 male and female forensic patients who were hospitalized for competence restoration treatment. Results of the present study suggested adequate internal consistency and good model fit for the factor structure. Interrater reliability was evaluated by comparing the absolute agreement of scores derived from 2 independent research assistants for each of the subscales; 2 of the 3 subscales fell within the acceptable range given established interpretative benchmarks for forensic assessment. Of particular interest was that the Appreciation subscale, while heralding the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient, explained the largest proportion of variance in clinician opinion relative to the other 2 subscales. In other words, the most subjective subscale (as evidenced by the lowest intraclass correlation), explained the largest proportion of variance in ultimate opinion. The authors argue that, although these results are an important consideration in these assessments, they are neither surprising nor entirely problematic when considering the case-specific nature of the inquiries on the subscale, as well as the subjectivity of scoring criteria for each of the Appreciation items. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Criminosos , Psiquiatria Legal/normas , Pacientes Internados , Competência Mental , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Pers Disord ; 30(2): 193-210, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25905733

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the relative associations of the DSM-5 Section II operationalization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and dimensional traits included in a diagnosis of BPD in DSM-5 Section III with conceptually relevant external criterion variables. It is important to determine whether or not Section II BPD and constellation of Section III BPD traits have similar positions in the nomological network representing the BPD construct. Moreover, it is important to determine whether or not the trait-based Section III BPD diagnosis is an improvement upon the categorical Section II diagnosis in regard to its associations with external criteria. To evaluate this, we used two samples, a patient sample consisting of 145 psychiatric patients and a university sample consisting of 399 undergraduate students. We conducted a series of correlation and regression analyses in order to determine the relative associations of these two diagnostic methodologies with relevant external criteria. Correlation analyses did not favor either model, but indicated that both Section II and Section III BPD have associations with external criterion variables relevant to BPD. The regression analyses tended to favor the trait-based Section III model, supporting the construct validity and use of the trait profile for BPD in DSM-5 Section III. Generally, it was concluded that the Section II and Section III operationalizations have similar positions in a nomological network representing the BPD construct.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Inventário de Personalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...