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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247696

RESUMO

Objectives: Nailfold capillaroscopy is being increasingly used by rheumatologists in the diagnosis of SSc. However, assessment of all nailfolds can be time-consuming in a busy outpatient clinic. Our aim was to answer the question as to how many (and which) fingers a clinician should routinely assess to capture accurately the true state. Methods: A total of 2994 assessments (by an international panel of expert observers) of 1600 images from 173 participants (101 with SSc, 22 with primary RP and 50 healthy controls) were included in this analysis. Seven single-finger or finger combinations (derived from the middle and ring fingers) were then tested for sensitivity for the presence of two markers of capillary abnormality [presence of giant capillaries and an SSc grade (early, active or late)] compared with assessment of all eight fingers. Results: For the eight-finger gold standard, sensitivity against the diagnostic criteria was 74.6% (53.0% for the presence of giants alone and 73.1% for image grade alone). Examining only one finger gave low sensitivity (ranging from right middle 31.7% to left ring 46.6%). Examining both ring fingers gave a sensitivity of 59.8%, whereas examining the four-finger combination of both ring and both middle fingers gave a sensitivity of 66.7%. Conclusion: During routine capillaroscopic examination, ideally all eight nailbeds (excluding thumbs) should be examined, otherwise some abnormalities will be missed. Examining only four fingers reduces capillaroscopy sensitivity.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(6): 903-911, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reliable and objective outcome measures to facilitate clinical trials of novel treatments for systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) are badly needed. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and thermography are noninvasive measures of perfusion that have shown excellent potential. This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the reliability and validity of a hand cold challenge protocol using LSCI, standard thermography, and low-cost cell phone/mobile phone thermography (henceforth referred to as mobile thermography) in patients with SSc-related RP. METHODS: Patients with RP secondary to SSc were recruited from 6 UK tertiary care centers. The patients underwent cold challenge on 2 consecutive days. Changes in cutaneous blood flow/skin temperature at each visit were imaged simultaneously using LSCI, standard thermography, and mobile thermography. Measurements included area under the curve (AUC) for reperfusion/rewarming and maximum blood flow rate/skin temperature after rewarming (MAX). Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Estimated latent correlations (estimated from multilevel models, taking values between -1 and 1; denoted as rho values) were used to assess the convergent validity of LSCI and thermography. RESULTS: In total, 159 patients (77% with limited cutaneous SSc) were recruited (84% female, median age 63.3 years). LSCI and standard thermography both had substantial reliability, with ICCs for the reperfusion/rewarming AUC of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.54, 0.76) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.58, 0.80), respectively, and ICCs for the MAX of 0.64 (95% CI 0.52, 0.75) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.64, 0.81), respectively. Very high latent correlations were present for the AUCs of LSCI and thermography (ρ = 0.94; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00) and for the AUCs of standard and mobile thermography (ρ = 0.98; 95% CI 0.94, 1.00). CONCLUSION: This is the first multicenter study to examine the reliability and validity of cold challenge using LSCI and thermography in patients with SSc-related RP. LSCI and thermography both demonstrated good potential as outcome measures. LSCI, standard thermography, and mobile thermography had very high convergent validity.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(4): 563-570, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to use the opportunity provided by the European Scleroderma Observational Study to (1) identify and describe those patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) with progressive skin thickness, and (2) derive prediction models for progression over 12 months, to inform future randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) was recorded every 3 months in 326 patients. 'Progressors' were defined as those experiencing a 5-unit and 25% increase in mRSS score over 12 months (±3 months). Logistic models were fitted to predict progression and, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, were compared on the basis of the area under curve (AUC), accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: 66 patients (22.5%) progressed, 227 (77.5%) did not (33 could not have their status assessed due to insufficient data). Progressors had shorter disease duration (median 8.1 vs 12.6 months, P=0.001) and lower mRSS (median 19 vs 21 units, P=0.030) than non-progressors. Skin score was highest, and peaked earliest, in the anti-RNA polymerase III (Pol3+) subgroup (n=50). A first predictive model (including mRSS, duration of skin thickening and their interaction) had an accuracy of 60.9%, AUC of 0.666 and PPV of 33.8%. By adding a variable for Pol3 positivity, the model reached an accuracy of 71%, AUC of 0.711 and PPV of 41%. CONCLUSIONS: Two prediction models for progressive skin thickening were derived, for use both in clinical practice and for cohort enrichment in RCTs. These models will inform recruitment into the many clinical trials of dcSSc projected for the coming years. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02339441.

4.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(2): 370-381, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207002

RESUMO

Objectives: Our aim was to describe the burden of early dcSSc in terms of disability, fatigue and pain in the European Scleroderma Observational Study cohort, and to explore associated clinical features. Methods: Patients completed questionnaires at study entry, 12 and 24 months, including the HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI), the Cochin Hand Function Scale (CHFS), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-fatigue and the Short Form 36 (SF36). Associates examined included the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), current digital ulcers and internal organ involvement. Correlations between 12-month changes were also examined. Results: The 326 patients recruited (median disease duration 11.9 months) displayed high levels of disability [mean (s.d.) HAQ-DI 1.1 (0.83)], with 'grip' and 'activity' being most affected. Of the 18 activities assessed in the CHFS, those involving fine finger movements were most affected. High HAQ-DI and CHFS scores were both associated with high mRSS (ρ = 0.34, P < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.35, P < 0.0001, respectively). HAQ-DI was higher in patients with digital ulcers (P = 0.004), pulmonary fibrosis (P = 0.005), cardiac (P = 0.005) and muscle involvement (P = 0.002). As anticipated, HAQ-DI, CHFS, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy and SF36 scores were all highly correlated, in particular the HAQ-DI with the CHFS (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Worsening HAQ-DI over 12 months was strongly associated with increasing mRSS (ρ = 0.40, P < 0.0001), decreasing hand function (ρ = 0.57, P < 0.0001) and increasing fatigue (ρ = -0.53, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The European Scleroderma Observational Study highlights the burden of disability in early dcSSc, with high levels of disability and fatigue, associating with the degree of skin thickening (mRSS). Impaired hand function is a major contributor to overall disability.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Esclerodermia Difusa/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Europa (Continente) , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Dedos , Força da Mão , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Esclerodermia Difusa/complicações , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/fisiopatologia
5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(1): 152-157, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077900

RESUMO

Objectives: Patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) as an absolute state of well-being has shown promise as an outcome measure in many rheumatologic conditions. We aimed to assess whether PASS may be effective in active diffuse cutaneous SSc differentiating active from placebo. Methods: Data from the phase 2 Safety and Efficacy of Subcutaneous Tocilizumab in Adults with Systemic Sclerosis (faSScinate) trial were used, which compared tocilizumab (TCZ) vs placebo over 48 weeks followed by an open-label TCZ period to 96 weeks. Three different types of PASS questions were evaluated at weeks 8, 24, 48 and 96, including if a current state would be acceptable over time as a yes vs no response and Likert scales about how acceptable a current state is if remaining over time. Additional outcomes assessed included modified Rodnan skin score, HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI), physician and patient global assessments on a visual analogue scale, CRP and ESR. Results: The placebo group consisted of 44 patients and the TCZ group had 43 patients. At baseline, 33% achieved a PASS for all three PASS questions, with the proportion increasing to 69, 71 and 78%, respectively, at 96 weeks. Changes in PASS scores showed a moderately negative correlation with HAQ-DI and patient and physician global assessments visual analogue scales, which indicates expected improvements as PASS improved. The PASS question, 'Considering all of the ways your scleroderma has affected you, how acceptable would you rate your level of symptoms?' showed significant correlations with patient-reported outcomes and differentiating placebo vs TCZ at 48 weeks (P = 0.023). Conclusion: PASS may be used as a patient-centred outcome in SSc, especially as a 7-point Likert scale. Further validation is required to determine the utility as an outcome measure in trials and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Esclerodermia Difusa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerodermia Difusa/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(2): 212-220, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in a phase II study. METHODS: Patients with SSc were treated for 48 weeks in an open-label extension phase of the faSScinate study with weekly 162 mg subcutaneous tocilizumab. Exploratory end points included modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) and per cent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC) through week 96. RESULTS: Overall, 24/44 (55%) placebo-tocilizumab and 27/43 (63%) continuous-tocilizumab patients completed week 96. Observed mean (SD (95% CI)) change from baseline in mRSS was -3.1 (6.3 (-5.4 to -0.9)) for placebo and -5.6 (9.1 (-8.9 to-2.4)) for tocilizumab at week 48 and -9.4 (5.6 (-8.9 to -2.4)) for placebo-tocilizumab and -9.1 (8.7 (-12.5 to -5.6)) for continuous-tocilizumab at week 96. Of patients who completed week 96, any decline in %pFVC was observed for 10/24 (42% (95% CI 22% to 63%)) placebo-tocilizumab and 12/26 (46% (95% CI 27% to 67%)) continuous-tocilizumab patients in the open-label period; no patients had >10% absolute decline in %pFVC. Serious infection rates/100 patient-years (95% CI) were 10.9 (3.0 to 27.9) with placebo and 34.8 (18.0 to 60.8) with tocilizumab during the double-blind period by week 48 and 19.6 (7.2 to 42.7) with placebo-tocilizumab and 0.0 (0.0 to 12.2) with continuous-tocilizumab during the open-label period. CONCLUSIONS: Skin score improvement and FVC stabilisation in the double-blind period were observed in placebo-treated patients who transitioned to tocilizumab and were maintained in the open-label period. Safety data indicated increased serious infections in patients with SSc but no new safety signals with tocilizumab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01532869; Results.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(7): 1207-1218, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational cohort study of early dcSSc (within three years of onset of skin thickening). Clinicians selected one of four protocols for each patient: methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclophosphamide or 'no immunosuppressant'. Patients were assessed three-monthly for up to 24 months. The primary outcome was the change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Confounding by indication at baseline was accounted for using inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weights. As a secondary outcome, an IPT-weighted Cox model was used to test for differences in survival. RESULTS: Of 326 patients recruited from 50 centres, 65 were prescribed methotrexate, 118 MMF, 87 cyclophosphamide and 56 no immunosuppressant. 276 (84.7%) patients completed 12 and 234 (71.7%) 24 months follow-up (or reached last visit date). There were statistically significant reductions in mRSS at 12 months in all groups: -4.0 (-5.2 to -2.7) units for methotrexate, -4.1 (-5.3 to -2.9) for MMF, -3.3 (-4.9 to -1.7) for cyclophosphamide and -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.3) for no immunosuppressant (p value for between-group differences=0.346). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between protocols before (p=0.389) or after weighting (p=0.440), but survival was poorest in the no immunosuppressant group (84.0%) at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may support using immunosuppressants for early dcSSc but suggest that overall benefit is modest over 12 months and that better treatments are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02339441.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Esclerodermia Difusa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Polimerase III/imunologia , Esclerodermia Difusa/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Lancet ; 387(10038): 2630-2640, 2016 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27156934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis is a rare disabling autoimmune disease with few treatment options. The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab, an interleukin 6 receptor-α inhibitor, was assessed in the faSScinate phase 2 trial in patients with systemic sclerosis. METHODS: We did this double-blind, placebo-controlled study at 35 hospitals in Canada, France, Germany, the UK, and the USA. We enrolled adults with progressive systemic sclerosis of 5 or fewer years' duration from first non-Raynaud's sign or symptom. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to weekly subcutaneous tocilizumab 162 mg or placebo. The primary endpoint was the difference in mean change from baseline in modified Rodnan skin score at 24 weeks. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01532869. FINDINGS: We enrolled 87 patients: 43 assigned to tocilizumab and 44 assigned to placebo. The least squares mean change in modified Rodnan skin score at 24 weeks was -3·92 in the tocilizumab group and -1·22 in the placebo group (difference -2·70, 95% CI -5·85 to 0·45; p=0·0915). The least squares mean change at 48 weeks was -6·33 in the tocilizumab group and -2·77 in the placebo group (treatment difference -3·55, 95% CI -7·23 to 0·12; p=0·0579). In one of several exploratory analyses, fewer patients in the tocilizumab group than in the placebo group had a decline in percent predicted forced vital capacity at 48 weeks (p=0·0373). However, we detected no significant difference in disability, fatigue, itching, or patient or clinician global disease severity. 42 (98%) of 43 patients in the tocilizumab group versus 40 (91%) of 44 in the placebo group had adverse events. 14 (33%) versus 15 (34%) had serious adverse events. Serious infections were more common in the tocilizumab group (seven [16%] of 43 patients) than in the placebo group (two [5%] of 44). One patient died in relation to tocilizumab treatment. INTERPRETATION: Tocilizumab was not associated with a significant reduction in skin thickening. However, the difference was greater in the tocilizumab group than in the placebo group and we found some evidence of less decline in forced vital capacity. The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab should be investigated in a phase 3 trial before definitive conclusions can be made about its risks and benefits. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche, Genentech.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Canadá , Método Duplo-Cego , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Capacidade Vital
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD002069, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium channel blockers are the most commonly prescribed drugs for people with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Primary Raynaud's phenomenon is a common condition characterised by an exaggerated vasospastic response to cold or emotion: classically the digits (fingers and toes) turn white, then blue, then red. This is an update of the review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon as determined by attack rates, severity scores, participant-preference scores and physiological measurements. SEARCH METHODS: For this update the Cochrane Vascular Trial Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched January 2016) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 12). In addition the TSC searched clinical trials databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of oral calcium channel blockers for the treatment of primary Raynaud's phenomenon. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and their quality, and extracted the data. Data extraction included adverse events. We contacted trial authors for missing data. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven randomised trials with 296 participants. Four trials examined nifedipine and the remainder nicardipine. Comparisons were with placebo in six trials and with both dazoxiben and placebo in one trial (only the nifedipine versus placebo data were used within this review). Treatment with oral calcium channel blockers was minimally effective in primary Raynaud's phenomenon at decreasing the frequency of attacks (standardised mean difference of 0.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.38, P = 0.003). This translates to 1.72 (95% CI 0.60 to 2.84) fewer attacks per week on calcium channel blockers compared to placebo. One trial provided details on duration of attacks reporting no statistically significant difference between the nicardipine and placebo groups (no P value reported). Only two trials provided any detail of statistical comparisons of (unvalidated) severity scores between treatment groups: one of these trials (60 participants) reported a mean severity score of 1.55 on placebo and 1.36 on nicardipine, difference 0.2 (95% CI of difference 0 to 0.4, no P value reported) and the other trial (three participants only with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) reported a median severity score of 2 on both nicardipine and placebo treatment (P > 0.999) suggesting little effect on severity. Participant-preference scores were included in four trials, but in only two were results specific to participants with primary Raynaud's phenomenon, and scoring systems differed between trials: scores differed between treatments in only one trial, in which 33% of participants on placebo and 73% on nifedipine reported improvement in symptoms (P < 0.001). Physiological measurements were included as outcome measures in five trials (different methodologies were used in each): none of these trials found any statistically significant between-treatment group differences. Treatment with calcium channel blockers appeared to be associated with a number of adverse reactions, including headaches, flushing and oedema (swelling). Overall, the trials were classed as being at low or unclear risk of bias; and the quality of the evidence presented was moderate for number of attacks, very low for duration of attacks, high for severity scores and low for patient preference scores. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The randomised controlled trials included in this review provide moderate quality evidence that oral calcium channel blockers are minimally effective in the treatment of primary Raynaud's phenomenon as measured by the frequency of attacks and high-quality evidence that they have little effect on severity. We are unable to comment on duration of attacks or on patient preference due to the very low and low quality of evidence as a result of small sample sizes in the included studies and the variable data quality of outcome measures.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doença de Raynaud/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Nicardipino/uso terapêutico , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 54(11): 2015-24, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26116156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Digital vasculopathy (comprising RP, digital ulceration and critical digital ischaemia) is responsible for much of the pain and disability experienced by patients with SSc. However, there is a limited evidence base to guide clinicians in the management of SSc-related digital vasculopathy. Our aim was to produce recommendations that would be helpful for clinicians, especially for those managing patients outside specialist centres. METHODS: The UK Scleroderma Study Group set up several working groups to develop a number of consensus best practice pathways for the management of SSc-specific complications, including digital vasculopathy. RESULTS: This overview presents the background and best practice consensus pathways for SSc-related RP, digital ulceration and critical ischaemia. Examples of drug therapies, including doses, are suggested in order to inform prescribing practice. CONCLUSION: A number of treatment algorithms are provided that are intended to provide the clinician with accessible reference tools for use in daily management.


Assuntos
Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Padrões de Prática Médica , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/terapia , Algoritmos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Dedos/patologia , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Doença de Raynaud/etiologia , Doença de Raynaud/terapia , Úlcera/etiologia , Úlcera/terapia , Reino Unido
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (1): CD002069, 2014 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24482037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium channel blockers are the most commonly prescribed drugs for people with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Primary Raynaud's phenomenon is a common condition characterised by an exaggerated vasospastic response to cold or emotion: classically the digits (fingers and toes) turn white, then blue, then red. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon as determined by attack rates, severity scores, participant-preference scores and physiological measurements. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (last searched February 2013) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1). In addition the TSC searched clinical trials databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of oral calcium channel blockers for the treatment of primary Raynaud's phenomenon. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and their quality, and extracted the data. Data extraction included adverse events. We contacted trial authors for missing data. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven randomised trials with 296 participants. Although overall all the trials were classed as being at low or unclear risk of bias, the sample size of the included trials was small and there was unclear reporting of outcomes. Four trials examined nifedipine and the remainder nicardipine. Comparisons were with placebo in six trials and with both dazoxiben and placebo in one trial (only the nifedipine versus placebo data were used within this review). Treatment with oral calcium channel blockers was minimally effective in primary Raynaud's phenomenon at decreasing the frequency of attacks (standardised mean difference of 0.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.38, P = 0.003). This translates to 1.72 (95% CI 0.60 to 2.84) fewer attacks per week on calcium channel blockers compared to placebo. One trial provided details on duration of attacks reporting no statistically significant difference between the nicardipine and placebo groups (no P value reported). Only two trials provided any detail of statistical comparisons of (unvalidated) severity scores between treatment groups: one of these trials (60 participants) reported a mean severity score of 1.55 on placebo and 1.36 on nicardipine, difference 0.2 (95% CI of difference 0 to 0.4, no P value reported) and the other trial (three participants only with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) reported a median severity score of 2 on both nicardipine and placebo treatment (P > 0.999). Participant-preference scores were included in four trials, but in only two were results specific to participants with primary Raynaud's phenomenon, and scoring systems differed between trials: scores differed between treatments in only one trial, in which 33% of participants on placebo and 73% on nifedipine reported improvement in symptoms (P < 0.001). Physiological measurements were included as outcome measures in five trials (different methodologies were used in each): in none of these trials were any statistically significant between-treatment group differences found. Treatment with calcium channel blockers appeared to be associated with a number of adverse reactions, including headaches, flushing and oedema (swelling). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The randomised controlled trials included in this review provide moderate-quality evidence that oral calcium channel blockers are minimally effective in the treatment of primary Raynaud's phenomenon as measured by the frequency of attacks. However, the results of this review were limited by small sample sizes in the included studies and by variable data quality, particularly with regard to outcome measures.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doença de Raynaud/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Nicardipino/uso terapêutico , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 51(7): 1166-9, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22351900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc. Neutrophils constitute a major source of ROS during inflammation. Here, we examined endogenous and stimulated ex vivo ROS production of SSc neutrophils compared with control neutrophils with and without prior priming with TNF-α. METHODS: ROS generation was measured using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Neutrophils isolated from SSc patients and healthy controls were unprimed or were primed with TNF-α. ROS production was stimulated in vitro with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP). To examine the effects of serum mediators on ROS generation, control neutrophils were also stimulated with SSc or control serum. RESULTS: Neutrophil stimulation with PMA and fMLP resulted in a greater increase in ROS generation in SSc neutrophils compared with controls. However, unstimulated SSc neutrophils generated lower levels of ROS than controls. SSc neutrophils demonstrated an increased response to fMLP in the absence of in vitro TNF-α priming indicating priming of SSc neutrophils in vivo. SSc serum did not stimulate neutrophil ROS generation in vitro. CONCLUSION: SSc neutrophils are primed for ROS generation. Neutrophils binding to activated endothelium in SSc, may induce local production of ROS, perpetuating endothelial dysfunction and mediating fibrosis.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Vasodilatação
13.
Int J Rheumatol ; 2011: 721608, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21941555

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 is currently attracting significant interest as a potential therapeutic target in systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this paper, the biology of interleukin-6 is reviewed, and the evidence for interleukin-6 dysregulation in SSc is explored. The role of inteleukin-6 classical and trans signalling pathways in SSc relevant phenomena such as chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, endothelial cell dysfunction, and fibrogenesis is discussed. The existing evidence that interventions designed to block interleukin-6 signalling are of therapeutic relevance in SSc is evaluated.

14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 50(8): 1373-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21454304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil elastase is secreted by neutrophils during activation and circulates in the plasma where it can play a role in inflammation and fibrosis. This study examines the role of neutrophil elastase in SSc, a systemic CTD that is typified by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis and inflammation. METHODS: Serum neutrophil elastase and α1-anti-trypsin concentrations were assessed in SSc patients and healthy controls by ELISA. Serum neutrophil elastase activity was assessed by the elastase-dependent conversion of methoxy-succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-valyl-p-nitroanilide to p-nitroanilide using a colourimetric assay. Elastase concentration and activity were correlated with clinical disease features. RESULTS: Serum neutrophil elastase concentration and activity were equivalent in patients and controls; however, in SSc serum, there was an increase in elastase activity for each unit of elastase concentration (P = 0.03). This was due to a decrease in serum α1-anti-trypsin concentrations (P = 0.04). Serum elastase concentration (P = 0.03) and activity (P = 0.02) were significantly lower in RNP-positive patients and serum elastase concentrations were lower in ANA-positive patients (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Relative deficiency in serum α1-anti-trypsin concentrations in SSc could have important and pathogenically relevant effects since elastase has pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic roles. Elastase inhibitors are available in clinical practice and could represent potential therapeutic options in SSc.


Assuntos
Elastase de Leucócito/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , alfa 1-Antitripsina/sangue , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/sangue
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 70(2): 366-72, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21068092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality and generally inadequate treatment. Endothelial cell activation and apoptosis are thought to be pivotal in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms that mediate this remain unknown. METHODS: Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were cultured with healthy control neutrophils in the presence of 25% healthy control or SSc serum for 24 h. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V-FITC binding and endothelial cell activation was measured using an allophycocyanin-conjugated E-selectin antibody. Fluorescence was quantified and localised using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: SSc serum resulted in significantly increased apoptosis (p=0.006) and E-selectin expression (p=0.00004) in endothelial cells compared with control serum, effects that were critically dependent on the presence of neutrophils. Recombinant interleukin 6 (IL-6) reproduced these findings. Immunodepletion of IL-6 and the use of an IL-6 neutralising antibody decreased the effect of SSc serum on E-selectin expression. Soluble gp130, which specifically blocks IL-6 trans-signalling, negated the effect of SSc serum on both E-selectin expression and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: SSc serum induces endothelial cell activation and apoptosis in endothelial cell-neutrophil co-cultures, mediated largely by IL-6 and dependent on the presence of neutrophils. Together with other pathologically relevant effects of IL-6, these data justify further exploration of IL-6 as a therapeutic target in SSc.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Selectina E/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 49(12): 2357-61, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20719883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Arthropathy, particularly synovial inflammation in SSc, is not well characterized. We explored the role of MRI and musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in detecting and characterizing synovial inflammation in SSc patients with arthralgia while comparing the two imaging modalities. METHODS: Seventeen SSc patients with arthralgia and no overt inflammatory arthritis had a baseline MSUS of their hands. Six months later, 13 unselected patients had a second MSUS and 8 of these 13 patients also had MRI with gadolinium of their most symptomatic hand. RESULTS: Of the eight patients undergoing MRI scan, all (100%) patients had synovitis and 88% of patients had tenosynovitis. MRI also showed erosions in 75% of patients. On MSUS, on baseline and second scans, tenosynovitis was seen in 46% and 47% of the patients and synovitis in 6% and 23%, respectively. No erosions were identified. Applying the RAMRIS system (a semi-quantitative MRI scoring system used in RA), the mean values for synovitis, oedema and erosions fell within the range seen in RA. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the presence of a persistent inflammatory, erosive, peripheral arthropathy, similar to that seen in RA, in SSc patients with arthralgia without overt inflammatory joint disease. While both MRI and MSUS are useful in characterizing synovial inflammation in SSc, MRI is clearly more sensitive than MSUS in this setting. Further studies to establish the clinical and radiological musculoskeletal outcomes over time in this group of patients are required in order to identify the appropriate management of arthralgia in SSc.


Assuntos
Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Sinovite/fisiopatologia , Tenossinovite/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artralgia/complicações , Artralgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sinovite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tenossinovite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
17.
J Rheumatol ; 32(5): 841-8, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15868619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a computer based nailfold video capillaroscopy system with enhanced image quality and to assess its disease-subgroup resolving power in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). METHODS: Using frame registration software, digitized video images from the microscope were combined to form a panoramic mosaic of the nailfold. Capillary dimensions (apex, arterial, venous, and total width) and density were measured onscreen. Significantly, the new system could guarantee analysis of the same set of capillaries by 2 observers. Forty-eight healthy control subjects, 21 patients with primary RP, 40 patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), and 11 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) were studied. Intra- and interobserver variability were calculated in a subset of 30 subjects. RESULTS: The number of loops/mm was significantly lower, and all 4 capillary dimensions significantly greater, in SSc patients versus controls plus primary RP patients (p < 0.001 for all measures). When comparing control (+ primary RP) patients with SSc patients (lcSSc + dcSSc) the most powerful discriminator was found to be the number of loops/mm. Results for intra- and interobserver reproducibility showed that the limits of agreement were closer when both observers measured the same capillaries. CONCLUSION: The key feature of the newly developed system is that it improves reproducibility of nailfold capillary measurements by allowing reidentification of the same capillaries by different observers. By allowing access to previous measurements, the new system should improve reliability in longitudinal studies, and therefore has the potential of being a valuable outcome measure of microvessel disease/involvement in clinical trials of scleroderma spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Angioscopia Microscópica/instrumentação , Angioscopia Microscópica/métodos , Doença de Raynaud/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Capilares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Angioscopia Microscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Microscopia de Vídeo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/irrigação sanguínea , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Doença de Raynaud/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Software
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