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1.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 38, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624177

RESUMO

Low bone mineral density is associated with spinal deformity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a modality that assesses bone density, portends a theoretical means to also assess spinal deformity. We found that DXA can reliably assess spine alignment. DXA may permit surveillance of spine alignment, i.e., scoliosis in the clinical setting. PURPOSE: Osteoporosis and scoliosis are interrelated disease processes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), used to assess bone density, can also be used to evaluate spinal deformity since it captures a posteroanterior (PA) image of the lumbar spine. We assessed the use of DXA to evaluate lumbar spine alignment. METHODS: A lumbar spine DXA phantom was used to assess the effects of axial and sagittal plane rotation on lumbar bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD), and L1-L4 Cobb angle measurements. Using two subject cohorts, intra- and inter-observer reliability and validity of using DXA for L1-L4 Cobb angle measurements in the coronal and sagittal planes were assessed. RESULTS: Axial and sagittal plane rotation greater than 15° and 10°, respectively, significantly reduced measured BMD and BMC; there was minimal effect on Cobb angle measurement reliability. In human subjects, excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability was observed using lumbar PA DXA images for Cobb angle measurements. Agreement between Cobb angles derived from lumbar PA DXA images and AP lumbar radiographs ranged from good to excellent. The mean difference in Cobb angles between supine lumbar PA DXA images and upright AP lumbar radiographs was 2.8° in all subjects and 5.8° in those with scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar spine rotation does not significantly affect BMD and BMC within 15° and 10° of axial and sagittal plane rotation, respectively, and minimally affects Cobb angle measurement. Spine alignment in the coronal plane can be reliably assessed using lumbar PA DXA images.


Assuntos
Escoliose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(8): 741-747, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587517

RESUMO

➤: Osteoporosis is common in orthopaedic patients, not only in those sustaining fragility fractures but also in patients ≥50 years old who are having elective orthopaedic surgery. ➤: The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) has developed consensus-based recommendations for secondary fracture prevention for all patients who are ≥65 years old with a hip or spine fracture. ➤: The ASBMR encourages orthopaedic surgeons to "Own the Bone," by beginning prevention of a secondary fracture during hospitalization for a fragility fracture, if practicable, and arranging follow-up for continued bone health care after discharge. ➤: The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recognized that many poor outcomes and complications of elective orthopaedic surgery are related to osteoporosis. ➤: The ISCD used an evidence-based approach to create official positions to identify which patients ≥50 years old who are having elective orthopaedic surgery should undergo assessment of bone health and how this should be performed.

4.
Instr Course Lect ; 70: 355-366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438921

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is common, affecting more than 40 million people, and is associated with increased fracture risk, loss of independence, chronic pain, and disability. Osteoporosis is underdiagnosed and undertreated even after fracture where secondary fracture prevention has been shown to be cost effective in reducing further fracture risk and mortality. Osteoporosis is also undiagnosed in patients undergoing orthopaedic and spine surgery in up to one-third of cases and negatively affects outcomes, need for revision surgery, and risk of complications. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was previously based on bone mineral density; however, recent clinical definitions include T-scores less than -2.5, the presence of hip and spine fractures, and high fracture risk. Surgeons should adopt bone health optimization for elective surgery. This program screens patients to determine whether a bone mineral density test is indicated and provides counseling for nutritional supplements, elimination of toxins, fall risk assessment, and education regarding bone health. Following assessment, patients meeting the criteria for osteoporosis are referred to a bone health specialist or a fracture liaison program. Both antiresorptive and anabolic antiosteoporotic medications appear effective at improving outcomes and reducing complications of orthopaedic and spine surgery, although a delay in surgery may be required.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Fraturas Ósseas , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos
5.
Instr Course Lect ; 70: 527-536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438933

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a skeletal condition characterized by decreased bone mineral density and poor bone quality with resultant greater fracture risk. There has been a focus on bone mineral density deficiency, which is easily measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and managed with pharmaceutic medications. More recently, impaired bone quality independent of bone mineral density has been recognized as a potential cause of fragility fracture and poor bone healing. Many conditions lead to poor bone quality; the most common is vitamin D deficiency and others are genetic causes and other nutritional deficits. In addition, the cellular and molecular changes associated with osteoporosis are being investigated and are potential targets for treatment. Treatment of patients with poor bone health include nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and calcium, weight-bearing exercises, and antiosteoporotic medications when warranted. Antiosteoporotic medications include antiresorptive drugs such as diphosphonate and denosumab that inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Anabolic agents such as teriparatide, abaloparatide, and romosozumab stimulate osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. All these agents are effective in reducing fracture risk.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos , Humanos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Global Spine J ; 10(8): 973-981, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875821

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanics study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the biomechanical advantage of interfacet allograft spacers in an unstable single-level and 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) pseudoarthrosis model. METHODS: Nine single-level and 8 two-level ACDF constructs were tested. Range of motion in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) at 1.5 N m were collected in 4 testing configurations: (1) intact spine, (2) ACDF with interbody graft and plate/screw, (3) ACDF with interbody graft and plate/loosened screws (loose condition), and (4) ACDF with interbody graft and plate/loosened screws supplemented with interfacet allograft spacers (rescue condition). RESULTS: All fixation configurations resulted in statistically significant decreases in range of motion in all bending planes compared with the intact spine (P < .05). One Level. Performing ACDF with interbody graft and plate on the intact spine reduced FE, LB, and AR 60.0%, 64.9%, and 72.9%, respectively. Loosening the ACDF screws decreased these reductions to 40.9%, 44.6%, and 52.1%. The addition of interfacet allograft spacers to the loose condition increased these reductions to 74.0%, 84.1%, and 82.1%. Two Level. Performing ACDF with interbody graft and plate on the intact spine reduced FE, LB, and AR 72.0%, 71.1%, and 71.2%, respectively. Loosening the ACDF screws decreased these reductions to 55.4%, 55.3%, and 51.3%. The addition of interfacet allograft spacers to the loose condition significantly increased these reductions to 82.6%, 91.2%, and 89.3% (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of a loose ACDF construct (pseudarthrosis model) with interfacet allograft spacers significantly increases stability and has potential applications in treating cervical pseudarthrosis.

7.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(2): E11, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Opportunistic Hounsfield unit (HU) determination from CT imaging has been increasingly used to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) in conjunction with assessments from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The authors sought to compare the effect of teriparatide on HUs across different regions in the pelvis, sacrum, and lumbar spine, as a surrogate measure for the effects of teriparatide on lumbosacropelvic instrumentation. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review of patients who had been treated with at least 6 months of teriparatide was performed. All patients had at least baseline DXA as well as pre- and post-teriparatide CT imaging. HUs were measured in the pedicle, lamina, and vertebral body of the lumbar spine, in the sciatic notch, and at the S1 and S2 levels at three different points (ilium, sacral body, and sacral ala). RESULTS: Forty patients with an average age of 67 years underwent a mean of 20 months of teriparatide therapy. Mean HUs of the lumbar lamina, pedicles, and vertebral body were significantly different from each other before teriparatide treatment: 343 ± 114, 219 ± 89.2, and 111 ± 48.1, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean HUs at the S1 level for the ilium, sacral ala, and sacral body were also significantly different from each other: 124 ± 90.1, -10.7 ± 61.9, and 99.1 ± 72.1, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean HUs at the S2 level for the ilium and sacral body were not significantly different from each other, although the mean HU at the sacral ala (-11.9 ± 52.6) was significantly lower than those at the ilium and sacral body (p = 0.003 and 0.006, respectively). HU improvement occurred in most regions following teriparatide treatment. In the lumbar spine, the mean lamina HU increased from 343 to 400 (p < 0.001), the mean pedicle HU increased from 219 to 242 (p = 0.04), and the mean vertebral body HU increased from 111 to 134 (p < 0.001). There were also significant increases in the S1 sacral body (99.1 to 130, p < 0.05), S1 ilium (124 vs 165, p = 0.01), S1 sacral ala (-10.7 vs 3.68, p = 0.04), and S2 sacral body (168 vs 189, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was significant regional variation in lumbar and sacropelvic HUs, with most regions significantly increasing following teriparatide treatment. The sacropelvic area had lower HU values than the lumbar spine, more regional variation, and a higher degree of correlation with BMD as measured on DXA. While teriparatide treatment resulted in HUs > 110 in the majority of the lumbosacral spine, the HUs in the sacral ala remained suggestive of severe osteoporosis, which may limit the effectiveness of fixation in this region.

9.
10.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(2): E4, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare different recognized definitions of osteoporosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spine pathology undergoing elective spinal fusion surgery to determine which patient population should be considered for preoperative optimization. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients in whom lumbar spine surgery was planned at 2 academic medical centers was performed, and the rate of osteoporosis was compared based on different recognized definitions. Assessments were made based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), CT Hounsfield units (HU), trabecular bone score (TBS), and fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX). The rate of osteoporosis was compared based on different definitions: 1) the WHO definition (T-score ≤ -2.5) at total hip or spine; 2) CT HU of < 110; 3) National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) guidelines; and 4) "expanded spine" criteria, which includes patients meeting NBHA criteria and/or HU < 110, and/or "degraded" TBS in the setting of an osteopenic T-score. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with a DXA scan of the total hip and/or spine performed within 1 year and a lumbar spine CT scan within 6 months of the physician visit. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-four patients were included. The mean age was 68.3 years, with 70.5% female, 96.7% Caucasian, and the mean BMI was 28.8. Fracture history was reported in 53.8% of patients. The proportion of patients identified with osteoporosis on DXA, HUs, NBHA guidelines, and the authors' proposed "expanded spine" criteria was 25.4%, 36.5%, 75%, and 81.9%, respectively. Of the patients not identified with osteoporosis on DXA, 31.3% had osteoporosis based on HU, 55.1% had osteoporosis with NBHA, and 70.4% had osteoporosis with expanded spine criteria (p < 0.05), with poor correlations among the different assessment tools. CONCLUSIONS: Limitations in the use of DXA T-scores alone to diagnose osteoporosis in patients with lumbar spondylosis has prompted interest in additional methods of evaluating bone health in the spine, such as CT HU, TBS, and FRAX, to inform guidelines that aim to reduce fracture risk. However, no current osteoporosis assessment was developed with a focus on improving outcomes in spinal surgery. Therefore, the authors propose an expanded spine definition for osteoporosis to identify a more comprehensive cohort of patients with potential poor bone health who could be considered for preoperative optimization, although further study is needed to validate these results in terms of clinical outcomes.

11.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(2): E2, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the bone health in preoperative spine surgery patients. This information will provide a framework to understand the needs and methods for providing bone health optimization in elective spine surgery patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of 104 patients undergoing bone health optimization was performed. Patients were selected based on risk factors identified by the surgeon and suspected compromised bone health. Evaluation included history and examination, laboratory investigations, and bone mineral density (BMD) at 3 sites (femoral neck, lumbar spine, and radius). Patients' bone status was classified using WHO criteria and expanded criteria recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). The 10-year Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores of the hip and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) were calculated with and without femoral neck BMD, with spine BMD, and with the trabecular bone score (TBS). Antiresorptive and anabolic agents were provided in accordance with meeting NOF criteria for treatment of osteoporosis. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 69.0 years, and 81% of patients were female. The mean historical height loss was 5.6 cm, and 54% of patients had a history of fracture. Secondary osteoporosis due to chronic renal failure, inflammatory arthritis, diabetes, and steroid use was common (51%). The mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 42.4 ng/ml and was normal in 81% of patients, with only 4 patients being deficient. The mean T-scores were -2.09 (SD 0.71) of the femoral neck, -0.54 (1.71) of the lumbar spine, and -1.65 (1.38) of the distal radius. These were significantly different. The 10-year FRAX MOF score was 20.7%, and that for hip fracture was 6.9% using the femoral neck BMD and was not significantly different without the use of BMD. The FRAX risk-adjusted score using the lumbar spine BMD and TBS was significantly lower than that for the hip. Osteoporosis was present in 32.1% according to WHO criteria compared with 81.6% according to NOF criteria. Antiresorptive medications were recommended in 31 patients and anabolic medications in 44 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons can reliably identify patients with poor bone health by using simple criteria, including historical height loss, history of fracture, comorbidities associated with osteoporosis, analysis of available imaging, and calculation of FRAX score without BMD. High-risk patients should have BMD testing and bone health assessment. In patients with osteoporosis, a comprehensive preoperative bone health assessment is recommended and, if warranted, pharmacological treatment should be started.

13.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 1023-1033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636617

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common and debilitating condition characterized by diminished bone mass and architecture leading to bone fragility. Antiresorptive medicines like bisphosphonates (and less commonly denosumab) are the typical first-line agents for the medical treatment of osteoporosis. However, newer anabolic agents have been shown to improve bone mass and architecture, as well as reduce fracture risk, to a greater degree than traditional antiresorptive therapies. Teriparatide (human recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34, Forteo, Ely Lilly, Indianapolis, IN), which was the first in class to be approved in the United States, is the most widely used anabolic osteoporosis medicine and has shown significant benefit over traditional antiresorptive therapies. However, abaloparatide (synthetic parathyroid-related peptide (PTHrP), Tymlos, Radius Health, Waltham, MA), the second drug in this family, has recently become available for use. In this narrative review, we review the mechanism, effects, and benefits of abaloparatide compared to alternative treatments as well as discuss the current literature in regard to its effect on osteoporosis-related complications in the spine.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/farmacologia , Coluna Vertebral , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
14.
JBJS Case Connect ; 10(2): e1900341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649147

RESUMO

CASE: A 12-year-old boy with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) Type II presented 5 years after undergoing spinal growing rod placement with cervical kyphosis at C2-3. He underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion but 6 years later developed significant kyphosis at the adjacent C3-4 level. CONCLUSION: We describe a rare adjacent segment kyphotic condition in a young man with SMA Type II. Clinicians should be cognizant of the risk of cervical kyphosis in adolescent patients with SMA.

15.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): E343-E352, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BenchMarket Medical (BMM) Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF) Registry, now known as Talosix, is a collaborative effort between Talosix (the authorized registry vendor), Noridian Healthcare Solutions, and clinicians to gather outcomes evidence for cement augmentation treatments in patients with acute painful osteoporotic VCFs. The VCF Registry was designed to provide outcomes evidence to inform the Medicare payer's "coverage with evidence development" decision to authorize reimbursement for cement augmentation treatments. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article was to present a pathway for appropriate use of vertebral augmentation based on the findings of the VCF Registry. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational data, including patient characteristics, diagnosis, process of care, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for pain and function, were collected from patients undergoing cement augmentation treatment. The PROs were collected at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months following the procedure. SETTING: The VCF Registry is a national ongoing registry with no specified end time or designated sample size. METHODS: Primary outcomes were pain improvement measured using the Numeric Rating Scale and function improvement, measured using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Secondary outcomes included cement leakage, new neurologic deficits, adverse events, readmissions, and death. RESULTS: The VCF Registry delivered outcomes data to support Noridian's "coverage with evidence development" decision. A total of 732 patients were included in this study. Registry outcomes confirmed postmarket evidence of highly significant pain relief with mean pain score improvement of 6.5/10 points at 6 months. Function also improved significantly with mean RMDQ score change of 11.4/24 points 6 months after surgery. Results also showed the safety and reliability of cement augmentation. LIMITATIONS: The nature of the registry data is that it contains nonrandomized, nonplacebo controlled data and should not be perceived as such. The real-world setting and the large number of patients within the dataset should increase the external validity of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Cement augmentation treatments of patients with acute painful VCFs reliably results in highly significant benefits of pain decrease and functional improvement for this Medicare population. KEY WORDS: Vertebral compression fractures, osteoporosis, kyphoplasty, back pain, registry.


Assuntos
Cimentos para Ossos , Fraturas por Compressão/cirurgia , Cifoplastia/normas , Sistema de Registros , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Vertebroplastia/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cimentos para Ossos/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Fraturas por Compressão/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Compressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cifoplastia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vertebroplastia/métodos
16.
J Orthop Trauma ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether Hounsfield units (HU) measured on perioperative computed tomographic (CT) scans are associated with radiographic outcomes and reoperations after femoral neck fracture fixation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Level I trauma center. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen patients age ≥18 years who presented to a Level I trauma center who underwent surgical fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fracture and had perioperative CT scans and adequate follow-up. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Screw penetration, femoral neck shortening >5 mm, revision surgery. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 23 months. HU measurement of the femoral head was significantly associated with screw penetration and femoral neck shortening but not revision surgery. Patients with middle femoral head HU measurements <146 had 17 times (95% CI: 4.32-78.9, P < 0.001) increased odds of screw penetration. Greater than 5 mm shortening was seen in Patients with HU <212.5 in the low head section by an odds ratio of 7.8 (95% CI: 2.15-33.0, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Outcome differences regarding screw penetration and femoral neck shortening related to the HU or densities of femoral head and neck at the time of fracture are significant. These findings can help the clinician with developing a treatment plan for either arthroplasty or fixation of a femoral neck fracture based on objective bone quality measurements rather than relying on an arbitrary age recommendation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level II. Development of diagnostic criteria.

17.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(7): 574-581, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is associated with adverse orthopaedic surgical outcomes. Bone health optimization is a preoperative intervention intended to reduce the likelihood of postoperative complications. We aimed to characterize a patient cohort referred for bone health optimization to test the hypothesis that poor bone quality is common in orthopaedic surgery and that many such patients meet guidelines for osteoporosis treatment. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 124 patients referred for bone health optimization who were ≥50 years of age and candidates for arthroplasty or thoracolumbar surgery. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk factors and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results were collected. When available, opportunistic computed tomographic (CT) imaging and the trabecular bone score were evaluated. The World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic and National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) treatment guidelines were applied. RESULTS: All patients were referred by their orthopaedic surgeon; their mean age was 69.2 years, 83% of patients were female, 97% were Caucasian, and 56% had sustained a previous fracture. The mean historical height loss (and standard deviation) was 5.3 ± 3.3 cm for women and 6.0 ± 3.6 cm for men. The mean lowest T-score of the hip, spine, or wrist was -2.43 ± 0.90 points in women and -2.04 ± 0.81 points in men (p < 0.08). Osteoporosis (T-score of ≤-2.5 points) was present in 45% of women and 20% of men; only 3% of women and 10% of men had normal bone mineral density. Opportunistic CT scans identified 60% of patients as likely having osteoporosis. The trabecular bone score identified 34% of patients with degraded bone microarchitecture and 30% of patients with partially degraded bone microarchitecture. The NOF threshold for osteoporosis treatment was met in 91% of patients. Treatment was prescribed in 75% of patients (45% anabolic therapy and 30% antiresorptive therapy). CONCLUSIONS: Osteoporosis, degraded bone microarchitecture, prior fracture, and elevated fracture risk were common. Given the high prevalence of impaired bone health in this cohort, we believe that bone health screening, including FRAX assessment, should be considered in selected patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery as part of the preoperative optimization for all adults who are ≥50 years of age. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(8): E430-E438, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770343

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of the Own the Bone database which is a fracture liaison service designed to improve recognition and treatment of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: To use the Own the Bone (OTB) database to 1) examine the specific demographics of patients presenting with a low-energy clinical vertebral fracture (VFX) and 2) compare demographic and fracture-specific risk factors between patients with clinical VFX versus patients with nonvertebral low-energy fracture (NVFX). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Large database studies have described risk factors for developing VFX. It is well described that a history of previous VFX portends an increased risk of future VFX. Few studies have reported cohorts from a fracture liaison service such as the OTB initiative. METHODS: 35,039 unique cases of fragility fracture occurred between 2009 and 2016 and were included in analysis. VFX accounted for 3395 (9.9%) of the presenting fractures at OTB enrollment. The demographics, lifestyle factors, medication use, and fracture-specific data for patients in the OTB registry with vertebral fractures were summarized and then statistically compared to those with nonvertebral fragility fractures. RESULTS: The majority of VFX patients were Caucasian, postmenopausal women (74.4%). There was an increased likelihood of presenting with a vertebral fracture in patients who sustained a previous VFX after the age of 50, while patients who sustained a prior nonvertebral fracture (NVFX) were more likely to present with a subsequent NVFX. After controlling for patients with a history of fracture after the age of 50, VFX patients (vs. NVFX) were more likely to be age 70-79, class 1 obesity, with a history of taking anti-osteoporotic prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors were associated with a significantly increased risk of VFX compared with NVFX. Understanding the risk factors unique to fragility VFX is a critical component for targeting "at-risk" patients and preventing future osteoporosis-related fractures and their consequences. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Ortopedia/tendências , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Gerenciamento de Dados/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to assess whether Hounsfield units (HU) increase following teriparatide treatment and to compare HU increases with changes in bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed from 1997 to 2018 across all campuses at our institution. The authors identified patients who had been treated with at least 6 months of teriparatide and compared HU and BMD as measured on DEXA scans before and after treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were identified for analysis (46 women and 6 men, average age 67 years) who underwent an average of 20.9 ± 6.5 months of teriparatide therapy. The mean ± standard deviation HU increase throughout the lumbar spine (L1-4) was from 109.8 ± 53 to 133.9 ± 61 HU (+22%, 95% CI 1.2-46, p value = 0.039). Based on DEXA results, lumbar spine BMD increased from 0.85 to 0.93 g/cm2 (+9%, p value = 0.044). Lumbar spine T-scores improved from -2.4 ± 1.5 to -1.7 ± 1.5 (p value = 0.03). Average femoral neck T-scores improved from -2.5 ± 1.1 to -2.3 ± 1.0 (p value = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Teriparatide treatment increased both HU and BMD on DEXA in the lumbar spine, without a change in femoral BMD. The 22% improvement in HU surpassed the 9% improvement determined with DEXA. These results support some surgeons' subjective sense that intraoperative bone quality following teriparatide treatment is better than indicated by DEXA results. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an increase in HU with teriparatide treatment.

20.
Chemistry ; 25(61): 13865-13868, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486553

RESUMO

(NH4 )2 [Zn2 (O3 PCH2 CH2 COO)2 ]⋅5 H2 O (BIRM-1) is a new metal phosphonate material, synthesized through a simple hydrothermal reaction between zinc nitrate and 3-phosphonopropionic acid, using urea and tetraethylammonium bromide as the reaction medium. In common with other metal-organic framework materials, BIRM-1 has a large three-dimensional porous structure providing potential access to a high internal surface area. Unlike most others, it has the advantage of containing ammonium cations within the pores and has the ability to undergo cation exchange. Additionally, BIRM-1 also exhibits a reversible dehydration behavior involving an amorphization-recrystallization cycle. The ability to undergo ion exchange and dynamic structural behavior are of interest in their own right, but also increase the range of potential applications for this material. Here the crystal structure of this new metal phosphonate and its ion exchange behavior with K+ as an exemplar are studied in detail, and its unusual structure-reviving property reported.

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