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1.
Early Hum Dev ; : 104838, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471000

RESUMO

The premature birth of a child and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a distressing experience for parents, and has been associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. Supporting parents in the NICU after preterm birth is critical not only for their own mental health, but also due to potential implications for their relationship with their infant and subsequent child development. This review draws from current published clinical guidelines developed to support parents in the NICU, guidelines on family centered care in intensive care units, and reviews on the effectiveness of interventions for infants and children born preterm. A multilayered approach to supporting parents of infants born preterm in the NICU is recommended, with evidence specifically for including layers of individual psychological and psychosocial support, peer-to-peer support, and family centered care. Consideration of fathers in the NICU, and areas for future research are also discussed.

2.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered basal ganglia and thalamic connectivity may be critical for cognitive, motor and behavioural impairments common to very preterm (<32 weeks' gestational age) children. This study aims to (1) compare corticostriatal and thalamocortical tract connectivity between very preterm and term-born children at 7 years of age; (2) explore tract connectivity associations with 7-year neurodevelopmental outcomes, and whether these relationships differed between groups. METHODS: Eighty-three very preterm and 19 term-born (≥37 weeks' gestational age) children underwent structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and had a neuropsychological assessment at 7 years. Corticostriatal and thalamocortical tracts were reconstructed and white matter connectivity was estimated with apparent fibre density. RESULTS: Compared with term-born controls, very preterm children had decreased connectivity in tracts linking the caudate to right motor areas (-10%, p = 0.03) and the thalamus with left motor areas (-5.7%, p = 0.03). Reduced connectivity in corticostriatal and thalamocortical tracts was associated with adverse motor functioning in both groups (p = 0.06). Decreased connectivity of the left caudate and putamen with the lateral prefrontal cortex was associated with lower reading performance for controls (p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Corticostriatal and thalamocortical tracts are vulnerable to very preterm birth. Poorer connectivity in these tracts may underlie the motor impairments observed in very preterm children.

3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6313-6324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496688

RESUMO

Background: Craniosynostosis is a developmental disorder characterized by the premature fusion of skull sutures, necessitating repetitive, high-risk neurosurgical interventions throughout infancy. This study used protein-releasing Titania nanotubular implant (TNT/Ti) loaded with glypican 3 (GPC3) in the cranial critical-sized defects (CSDs) in Crouzon murine model (Fgfr2c342y/+ knock-in mutation) to address a key challenge of delaying post-operative bone regeneration in craniosynostosis. Materials and methods: A 3 mm wide circular CSD was created in two murine models of Crouzon syndrome: (i) surgical control (CSDs without TNT/Ti or any protein, n=6) and (ii) experimental groups with TNT/Ti loaded with GPC3, further subdivided into the presence or absence of chitosan coating (on nanotubes) (n=12 in each group). The bone volume percentage in CSDs was assessed 90 days post-implantation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Results: Nano-implants retrieved after 90 days post-operatively depicted well-adhered, hexagonally arranged, and densely packed nanotubes with average diameter of 120±10 nm. The nanotubular architecture was generally well-preserved. Compared with the control bone volume percentage data (without GPC3), GPC3-loaded TNT/Ti without chitosan coating displayed a significantly lower volume percent in cranial CSDs (P<0.001). Histological assessment showed relatively less bone regeneration (healing) in GPC3-loaded CSDs than control CSDs. Conclusion: The finding of inhibition of cranial bone regeneration by GPC3-loaded TNT/Ti in vivo is an important advance in the novel field of minimally-invasive craniosynostosis therapy and holds the prospect of altering the whole paradigm of treatment for affected children. Future animal studies on a larger sample are indicated to refine the dosage and duration of drug delivery across different ages and both sexes with the view to undertake human clinical trials.

4.
J Pediatr ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between nutrition in the first 28 days after birth with somatic growth from birth to term-equivalent age, brain volumes at term-equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 149 infants born from 2011 to 2014 at <30 weeks of gestation in a tertiary neonatal nursery in Australia. The following data were collected: average daily energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes from birth until 28 days, and the difference in weight and head circumference z scores between birth and term-equivalent. Total brain tissue volumes were calculated from brain magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age. Children were assessed at 2 years of corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition. Relationships of nutritional variables with growth, brain volumes, and cognitive, language, and motor development were explored using linear regression. RESULTS: Complete nutritional data were available for 116 (78%) of the cohort. A 1 g/kg/day higher mean protein intake was associated with a mean increase in weight z score per week of 0.05 (95% CI 0.05, 0.10; P = .04). There was a lack of evidence for associations of any nutritional variables with head circumference growth, with brain volumes at term-equivalent age, or with 2-year neurodevelopment. CONCLUSIONS: Only higher protein intakes in the first 28 days after birth were associated with better weight growth between birth and term-equivalent age in very preterm infants. Nutrition in the first 28 days was otherwise not substantially related to brain size or to neurodevelopmental outcomes.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101944, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426019

RESUMO

Individuals born very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks' gestational age) are at increased risk of impaired mathematics and word reading performance, as well as widespread white matter microstructural alterations compared with individuals born full term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age). To date, the link between academic performance and white matter microstructure is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the associations between mathematics and reading performance with white matter microstructure in 114 VPT and 36 FT 13-year-old children. Additionally, we aimed to investigate whether the association of mathematics and reading performance with white matter microstructure in VPT children varied as a function of impairment. To do this, we used diffusion tensor imaging and advanced diffusion modelling techniques (Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging and the Spherical Mean Technique), combined with a whole-brain analysis approach (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). Mathematics performance across VPT and FT groups was positively associated with white matter microstructural measurements of fractional anisotropy and neurite density, and negatively associated with radial and mean diffusivities in widespread, bilateral regions. Furthermore, VPT children with a mathematics impairment (>1 standard deviation below FT mean) had significantly reduced neurite density compared with VPT children without an impairment. Reading performance was not significantly associated with any of the white matter microstructure parameters. Additionally, the associations between white matter microstructure and mathematics and reading performance did not differ significantly between VPT and FT groups. Our findings suggest that alterations in white matter microstructure, and more specifically lower neurite density, are associated with poorer mathematics performance in 13-year-old VPT and FT children. More research is required to understand the association between reading performance and white matter microstructure in 13-year-old children.

6.
J Pediatr ; 212: 93-101.e2, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of neonatal noncardiac surgery with newborn brain structure and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Infants requiring neonatal noncardiac surgery for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia, or anterior abdominal wall defect were compared with infants who did not require surgery, matched for sex, gestation at birth, and postmenstrual age at magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed at a mean (SD) postmenstrual age of 41.6 (1.7) weeks. Images were assessed qualitatively for brain maturation and injury and quantitatively for measures of brain size, cerebrospinal fluid spaces, and global abnormality. Neurodevelopment was then assessed at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. RESULTS: Infants requiring surgery (n = 39) were 5.9 times (95% CI, 1.9-19.5; P < .01) more likely to have delayed gyral maturation and 9.8 times (95% CI, 1.2-446; P = .01) more likely to have white matter signal abnormalities compared with controls (n = 39). Cases were more likely to have higher global abnormality scores, smaller biparietal diameters, and larger ventricular sizes than controls. Infants who had surgery had lower mean composite scores in the language (mean difference, -12.5; 95% CI, -22.4 to -2.7) and motor domains (mean difference, -13.4; 95% CI, -21.1 to -5.6) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Infants requiring neonatal noncardiac surgery have smaller brains with more abnormalities compared with matched controls and have associated neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age. Prospective studies with preoperative and postoperative imaging would assist in determining the timing of brain injury.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028243, 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious pregnancy complication, associated with increased rates of perinatal death and morbidity among survivors. Most commonly FGR results from placental insufficiency, where the placenta fails to deliver the oxygen and nutrients required for normal fetal growth. This leads to fetal oxidative stress, resulting in organ damage through lipid peroxidation. The early developing brain is particularly susceptible, such that FGR is associated with poorer neurodevelopment, witnessed as cognitive and behavioural dysfunction, and cerebral palsy. Promisingly, melatonin, a lipid soluble antioxidant is neuroprotective in animal models of FGR. We present a protocol outlining a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to explore whether antenatal maternal melatonin supplementation in pregnancies with severe, early-onset FGR can improve neurodevelopment among survivors at 2 years of age. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will recruit 336 women with a singleton pregnancy complicated by FGR between 23+0 and 31+6 weeks gestation. Participants will be randomised, stratified by gestational age, to either 30 mg melatonin per day or a visually identical placebo, continued until birth. Measures of maternal and fetal health will be collected until birth. Timing of birth will be determined by the treating clinical team in discussion with the woman. Neonatal and infant neurodevelopmental assessments will be undertaken, consisting of brain MRI at term corrected age, general movements assessment at term and 3 months' corrected age, and Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development-III and Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment at 2.5 years corrected age. Analyses will be on intention to treat. The primary outcome is a difference of 5 points in the cognitive domain of the Bayley-III. Secondary outcomes address maternal and fetal safety. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial has Monash Health Human Research and Ethics committee approval (17-0000-583A). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12617001515381; Pre-results.

8.
Ann Anat ; 225: 33-41, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (SCS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome that occurs due to a mutation or deletion of the Twist1 gene at chromosome 7p21. Our aim was to conduct a morphometric analysis of the craniofacial features in the mouse associated with a Twist1+/- mutation. METHODS: Micro-computed imaging was conducted for the skulls of forty skeletally mature mice, equally distributed by sex (male and female) and two genotypes (Twist1+/- or murine model of SCS; and Twist1+/+ or wild-type). A morphometric analysis was carried out for eight parameters for the maxillary-zygomatico-temporal region, 10 parameters for the mandible and three parameters for teeth from three-dimensional reconstructions. RESULTS: Compared with wild-type, the murine model of SCS showed these trends: (1) maxillary-zygomatico-temporal region, significantly shorter length and width posteriorly (p<0.05), (2) mandible, significantly reduced height and width (p<0.05), and (3) teeth, significantly shorter height, shorter mesio-distal width but longer bucco-lingual width (p<0.05). In the murine model of SCS, the key morphological variations included incomplete ossification of the temporal bone and zygomatic arch, twisting and/or incomplete ossification of the palatal process of the maxilla, premaxilla and the ventral nasal concha, as well as bifid coronoid processes. CONCLUSIONS: The skeletal and dental alterations in the height, length and width provide a foundation for large-scale phenomics studies, which will improve existing knowledge of the Twist1 signalling cascade. This is relevant given the predicted shift towards minimally invasive molecular medical treatment for craniosynostosis.

9.
Pediatr Res ; 86(1): 92-99, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The landmark findings of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program (MITP) showing improved neurodevelopment of preterm infants following parent-sensitivity training delivered in the neonatal intensive care unit have not been consistently replicated. This study evaluated an MITP-type intervention in terms of neurobehavioural development to preschool age. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial involved 123 very preterm and extremely preterm infants allocated to either a parent-sensitivity intervention (PremieStart, n = 60) or to standard care (n = 63). When children were 2 and 4.5 years corrected age, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). General development was assessed at 2 years with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley-III). At 4.5 years, cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III) and executive functioning with the NEPSY-II. RESULTS: There were no significant between-group differences in behaviour problems at 2 or 4.5 years, general development at 2 years, or cognitive and executive functioning at 4.5 years. CONCLUSION: Advances in the quality of neonatal intensive care may mean that MITP-type interventions now have limited additional impact on preterm infants' long-term neurobehavioural outcomes. The gestational age of infants and the exact timing of intervention may also affect its efficacy.

10.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 44(6): 736-747, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine trajectories of psychological distress in mothers of children born very preterm (VPT, <30 weeks gestation) and full term from 2 to 13 years after the birth, and examine predictors of maternal psychological distress over time within the VPT group. METHODS: Mothers of children born VPT (n = 159) and full term (n = 71) completed questionnaires assessing their psychological distress when their child was 2, 7, and 13 years of age. Mixed models were used to examine differences between groups in maternal psychological distress over time. Family social risk, child neonatal medial risk, child sex, multiple pregnancy, and child's neurodevelopmental impairment in early childhood were examined as potential predictors of maternal psychological distress within the VPT group. RESULTS: Mothers of children born VPT displayed elevated psychological distress compared with mothers of full-term children, and this difference was consistent over time. Higher family social risk was associated with elevated maternal psychological distress throughout childhood across all time-points. There was evidence that mothers of children at higher neonatal medical risk displayed increasing psychological distress over time. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers of children born VPT show prolonged psychological distress. Mothers from socially disadvantaged background and those whose child has neonatal medical complications may require extensive support to prevent prolonged psychological distress and promote optimal outcomes for children and families.

12.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(9): 1649-1660, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891804

RESUMO

AIM: Brain alterations in very preterm children at risk for developmental coordination disorder were investigated. METHODS: Infants born very preterm with gestation age <30 weeks or birthweight <1250 g were recruited from Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne from 2001 to 2003. Volumetric imaging was performed at term equivalent age; at seven years, volumetric imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were performed. At seven years, 53 of 162 children without cerebral palsy had scores ≤16th percentile on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and were considered at risk for developmental coordination disorder. RESULTS: At term equivalent age, smaller brain volumes were found for total brain tissue, cortical grey matter, cerebellum, caudate accumbens, pallidum and thalamus in children at risk for developmental coordination disorder (p < 0.05); similar patterns were present at seven years. There was no evidence for catch-up brain growth in at-risk children. At seven years, at-risk children displayed altered microstructural organisation in many white matter tracts (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Infants born very preterm at risk for developmental coordination disorder displayed smaller brain volumes at term equivalent age and seven years, and altered white matter microstructure at seven years, particularly in motor areas. There was no catch-up growth from infancy to seven years.

13.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868404

RESUMO

The impact of very preterm (VP) birth on the development of individual basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus during childhood remains unclear. We first aimed to compare (1a) the volumes of individual basal ganglia nuclei (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen) and the thalamus at age 7 years, and (1b) their volumetric change from infancy to 7 years, in VP children with term-born children. Secondly, we aimed to (2a) determine whether basal ganglia and thalamic volumes at 7 years, or (2b) basal ganglia and thalamic growth rates from infancy to 7 years were associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years, and whether these associations differed between the VP and term-born children. One hundred and fifty-four VP (<30 weeks' gestational age or birth weight < 1250 g) and 35 term-born children had useable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that could be analyzed at 7 years. Of these, 149 VP and 30 term-born infants also had useable MRI scans at term-equivalent age. Volumes of the individual basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus were automatically generated from the MRI scans. Compared with the term-born group, the VP group had smaller basal ganglia and thalamic volumes at 7 years and slower growth rates from birth to 7 years. After controlling for overall brain size, VP children still had smaller thalamic volumes but the deep grey matter volume growth rates from birth to 7 years were similar between groups. Reduced basal ganglia and thalamic volumes and slower growth rates in the VP group were associated with poorer cognition, academic achievement and motor function at 7 years. After controlling for overall brain size, the nucleus accumbens and pallidum were the deep grey matter structures most strongly associated with 7-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. In conclusion, basal ganglia and thalamic growth is delayed during early childhood in VP children, with delayed development contributing to poorer functional outcomes.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(2): e187636, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707225

RESUMO

Importance: Repeated doses of antenatal betamethasone are recommended for women at less than 32 weeks' gestation with ongoing risk of preterm birth. However, concern that this therapy may be associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in children with fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains. Objective: To determine the influence of FGR on the effects of repeated doses of antenatal betamethasone on neurocognitive function in midchildhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This preplanned secondary analysis of data from the multicenter Australasian Collaborative Trial of Repeat Doses of Corticosteroids (ACTORDS) included women at less than 32 weeks' gestation with ongoing risk of preterm birth (<32 weeks) at least 7 days after an initial course of antenatal corticosteroids who were treated at 23 hospitals across Australia and New Zealand from April 1, 1998, through July 20, 2004. Participants were randomized to intramuscular betamethasone or saline placebo; treatment could be repeated weekly if the woman was judged to be at continued risk of preterm birth. All surviving children were invited to a midchildhood outcome study. Data for this study were collected from October 27, 2006, through March 18, 2011, and analyzed from June 1 through 30, 2018. Interventions: At 6 to 8 years of corrected age, children were assessed by a pediatrician and psychologist for neurosensory and cognitive function, and parents completed standardized questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prespecified primary outcomes were survival free of any disability and death or survival with moderate to severe disability. Results: Of 1059 eligible children, 988 (55.0% male; mean [SD] age at follow-up, 7.5 [1.1] years) were assessed at midchildhood. The FGR rate was 139 of 493 children (28.2%) in the repeated betamethasone treatment group and 122 of 495 (24.6%) in the placebo group (P = .20). Primary outcome rates were similar between treatment groups for the FGR and non-FGR subgroups, with no evidence of an interaction effect for survival free of any disability (FGR group, 108 of 144 [75.0%] for repeated betamethasone treatment vs 91 of 126 [72.2%] for placebo groups [odds ratio [OR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.9]; non-FGR group, 267 of 335 [79.7%] for repeated betamethasone vs 283 of 358 [79.0%] for placebo groups [OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.5]; P = .77) and death or moderate to severe disability (FGR group, 21 of 144 [14.6%] for repeated betamethasone treatment vs 20 of 126 [15.9%] for placebo groups [OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-1.9]; non-FGR group, 29 of 335 [8.6%] for repeated betamethasone vs 36 of 358 [10.0%] for placebo [OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.3]; P = .84). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, repeated antenatal betamethasone treatment compared with placebo was not associated with adverse effects on neurocognitive function at 6 to 8 years of age, even in the presence of FGR. Physicians should use repeated doses of antenatal corticosteroids when indicated before preterm birth, regardless of FGR, in view of the associated neonatal benefits and absence of later adverse effects. Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12606000318583.

15.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 40(3): 200-207, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether difficulties in emotional, attention, and peer or social functioning (a proposed "preterm behavioral phenotype") co-occur within individual children born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks of gestation) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) and whether different behavioral profiles are related to cognitive and academic outcomes. METHODS: Population-based cohort of all EP/ELBW survivors born in the state of Victoria, Australia, in 2005, and contemporaneous matched controls were recruited at birth. At age 7 to 8 years, parents of 181 EP/ELBW and 185 control children rated their children's behavior on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire problem scales (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer problems). Latent profile analysis was used to explore patterns of behavior within individual children. RESULTS: Four behavioral profiles were identified: (1) minimal difficulties in all domains; (2) a profile consistent with the preterm behavioral phenotype; (3) elevations in all domains except peer problems; and (4) marked global elevations in all domains. Most preterm children (55%) had a profile of minimal difficulties. Relative to their risk of being in the minimal difficulties group, EP/ELBW children were overrepresented in the preterm behavioral phenotype (20% vs. 12% controls) and the globally elevated symptom groups (8% vs. 3%). Accounting for birth group and demographic variables, profiles with higher levels of behavior symptoms were associated with poorer cognitive and academic performance. CONCLUSION: Although more EP/ELBW children exhibited the proposed preterm behavioral phenotype than controls, it occurred in only 20% of EP/ELBW children. Greater behavior symptoms were associated with poorer cognitive and academic outcomes.

16.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684152

RESUMO

Executive dysfunction including impaired goal setting (i.e., planning, organization skills, strategic reasoning) is documented in children born very preterm (VP; <30 weeks/<1250 g), however the neurological basis for this impairment is unknown. This study sought to examine the relationship between brain abnormalities and brain volumes on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and goal setting abilities of VP 13-year-olds. Participants were 159 children born VP in a prospective longitudinal study. Qualitative brain abnormality scores and quantitative brain volumes were derived from neonatal MRI brain scans (40 weeks' gestational age ± 2 weeks). Goal setting at 13 years was assessed using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems Tower Test, the Rey Complex Figure, and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive System for Children Zoo Map and Six Part Test. A composite score was generated denoting overall performance on these goal setting measures. Separate regression models examined the association of neonatal brain abnormality scores and brain volumes with goal setting performance. There was evidence that higher neonatal white matter, deep grey matter and cerebellum abnormality scores were associated with poorer goal setting scores at 13 years. There was also evidence of positive associations between total brain volume, cerebellum, thalamic and cortical grey matter volumes and goal setting performance. Evidence for the associations largely persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Neonatal brain abnormality and brain volumes are associated with goal setting outcome in VP 13-year-olds. Used in conjunction with other clinical indicators, neonatal MRI may help to identify VP children at risk for later executive dysfunction.

17.
Neuroimage ; 185: 813-824, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that preterm infants have altered brain development compared with full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) infants, however the perinatal factors associated with brain development in preterm infants have not been fully elucidated. In particular, perinatal predictors of brain development may differ between very preterm infants (VP; <32 weeks' GA) and infants born moderate (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA) and late (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA) preterm, but this has not been studied. This study aimed to investigate the effects of early life predictors on brain volume and microstructure at term-equivalent age (TEA; 38-44 weeks), and whether these effects differ for GA groups (VP, MP, LP or FT). METHODS: Structural images from 328 infants (91 VP, 63 MP, 104 LP and 70 FT) were segmented into white matter, cortical grey matter, cerebrospinal fluid, subcortical grey matter, brainstem and cerebellum. Cortical grey matter and white matter images were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) images from 361 infants (92 VP, 69 MP, 120 LP and 80 FT) were analysed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Relationships between early life predictors (birthweight standard deviation score [BWSDS], multiple birth, sex, postnatal growth and social risk) and global brain volumes were analysed using linear regressions. Relationships between early life predictors and regional brain volumes and diffusion measures were analysed using voxelwise non-parametric permutation testing. RESULTS: Male sex was associated with higher global volumes of all tissues and higher regional volumes throughout much of the cortical grey matter and white matter, particularly in the FT group. Male sex was also associated with lower FA and higher AD, RD and MD in the optic radiation, external and internal capsules and corona radiata, and these associations were generally similar between GA groups. Higher BWSDS was associated with higher global volumes of all tissues and higher regional volumes in much of the cortical grey matter and white matter in all GA groups, as well as higher FA and lower RD and MD in many major tracts (corpus callosum, optic radiation, internal and external capsules and corona radiata), particularly in the MP and LP groups. Multiple birth and social risk also showed associations with global and regional volumes and regional diffusion values which varied by GA group, but these associations were not independent of the other early life predictors. Postnatal growth was not associated with brain volumes or diffusion values. CONCLUSION: Early life predictors of brain volumes and microstructure at TEA include sex, BWSDS, multiple birth and social risk, which have different effects based on GA group at birth. This study improves knowledge of the perinatal factors associated with brain abnormalities in infants born across the prematurity spectrum.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Fatores de Risco
18.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(7): 820-831, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536389

RESUMO

AIM: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm. METHOD: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE]). Two hundred and sixty-three infants (90 very preterm, 173 moderate-late preterm; 131 males, 132 females) had diffusion MRI and assessments. Associations were investigated between assessment scores and global brain volumes using linear regressions, regional brain volumes using Voxel-Based Morphometry, and white matter microstructure using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. RESULTS: Suboptimal scores on some assessments were associated with lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher axial, radial, and mean diffusivities in some tracts: NNNS attention and reflexes, and HNNE total score and tone, were associated with the corpus callosum and optic radiation; NNNS quality of movement with the corona radiata; HNNE abnormal signs with several major tracts. Brain structure-function associations generally did not differ between the very and moderate-late preterm groups. INTERPRETATION: White matter microstructural alterations may be associated with suboptimal neurological and behavioural performance in some domains at TEA in infants born preterm. Brain structure-function relationships are similar for infants born very preterm and moderate-late preterm. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Brain volume is not related to neurological/behavioural function in infants born preterm at term. White matter microstructure is related to some neurological/behavioural domains at term. Brain-behaviour relationships are generally similar for infants born very preterm and moderate-late preterm.

19.
Neuroimage ; 185: 654-663, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with altered brain development, with younger gestational age (GA) at birth often associated with greater brain volume reduction. Such volume alterations at term equivalent age (TEA) have been found with differing magnitude across different brain regions, although this has mostly been investigated with regards to whole tissue volumes and large-scale subdivisions. In addition to degree of prematurity, many other perinatal factors have been found to influence brain structure and development in infants born preterm. We aimed to clarify the relationships between degree of prematurity and regional brain volumes at TEA, and between perinatal factors and regional brain volumes at TEA, in finer spatial detail. METHODS: 285 preterm and term-born infants (GA at birth 24.6-42.1 weeks; 145 female; 59 born at term) were scanned at TEA. Data on perinatal factors were obtained by chart review, including sex, multiple birth, birthweight standard deviation (SD) score, postnatal growth and social risk. The Melbourne Children's Regional Infant Brain (M-CRIB) atlas was registered to the current sample, then 100 brain regions were labelled for volumetric analyses. Linear regressions with generalised estimating equations and likelihood ratio tests were performed to investigate whether GA at birth or perinatal factors were associated with regional volumes at TEA. RESULTS: Younger GA at birth was associated with smaller volumes at TEA in some regions including bilateral cerebral white matter, middle temporal gyri, amygdalae, pallidum and brainstem. In other regions, younger GA at birth was associated with larger volumes, including in primary visual, motor and somatosensory cortices. Positive associations between perinatal factors and regional volumes at TEA were found in many brain regions for birthweight SD score, and male sex, independent of GA at birth. These associations were seen on both univariable analyses, and multivariable analyses controlling for other perinatal factors. Social risk and multiple birth were generally not associated with regional brain volumes, and postnatal growth was associated with volume in many regions only after adjusting for other perinatal factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results elucidate regional brain volume differences associated with preterm birth and perinatal factors at a more detailed parcellated level than previously reported, and contribute to understanding of the complex array of correlates of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 21: 101630, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of morbidity differs between very preterm (VP; <32 weeks' gestational age (GA)), moderate preterm (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA), late preterm (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA), and full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' GA) infants. However, brain structure at term-equivalent age (TEA; 38-44 weeks) remains to be characterised in all clinically important GA groups. We aimed to compare global and regional brain volumes, and regional white matter microstructure, between VP, MP, LP and FT groups at TEA, in order to establish the magnitude and anatomical locations of between-group differences. METHODS: Structural images from 328 infants (91 VP, 63 MP, 104 LP and 70 FT) were segmented into white matter, cortical grey matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), subcortical grey matter, brainstem and cerebellum. Global tissue volumes were analysed, and additionally, cortical grey matter and white matter volumes were analysed at the regional level using voxel-based morphometry. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) images from 361 infants (92 VP, 69 MP, 120 LP and 80 FT) were analysed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Statistical analyses involved examining the overall effect of GA group on global volumes (using linear regressions) and regional volumes and microstructure (using non-parametric permutation testing), as well performing post-hoc comparisons between the GA sub-groups. RESULTS: On global analysis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume was larger in all preterm sub-groups compared with the FT group. On regional analysis, volume was smaller in parts of the temporal cortical grey matter, and parts of the temporal white matter and corpus callosum, in all preterm sub-groups compared with the FT group. FA was lower, and RD and MD were higher in voxels located in much of the white matter in all preterm sub-groups compared with the FT group. The anatomical locations of group differences were similar for each preterm vs. FT comparison, but the magnitude and spatial extent of group differences was largest for the VP, followed by the MP, and then the LP comparison. Comparing within the preterm groups, the VP sub-group had smaller frontal and temporal grey and white matter volume, and lower FA and higher MD and RD within voxels in the approximate location of the corpus callosum compared with the MP sub-group. There were few volume and microstructural differences between the MP and LP sub-groups. CONCLUSION: All preterm sub-groups had atypical brain volume and microstructure at TEA when compared with a FT group, particularly for the CSF, temporal grey and white matter, and corpus callosum. In general, the groups followed a gradient, where the differences were most pronounced for the VP group, less pronounced for the MP group, and least pronounced for the LP group. The VP sub-group was particularly vulnerable compared with the MP and LP sub-groups.

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