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1.
Semin Perinatol ; : 151480, 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656363

RESUMO

Extremely preterm birth is associated with increased risk for a spectrum of neurodevelopmental problems. This review describes the nature of cognitive and academic outcomes of extremely preterm survivors across childhood and adolescence. Evidence across meta-analyses and large prospective birth cohorts indicate that early developmental difficulties in children born extremely preterm do not resolve with age and are not improving over time despite advancements in neonatal care. While extremely preterm birth confers increased risk of widespread cognitive difficulties, considerable heterogeneity in outcomes is evident across individuals. There is a continued need for high-quality longitudinal studies to understand the developmental progression of cognitive and academic skills following extremely preterm birth, and greater focus on understanding contributing factors that may help to explain the individual variability in cognitive and academic outcomes of extremely preterm survivors.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639647

RESUMO

Zero and low alcohol products, particularly beer, are gaining consideration as a method to reduce consumption of ethanol. We do not know if this approach is likely to increase or decrease health inequalities. The aim of the study was to determine if the purchase and consumption of zero and low alcohol beers differs by demographic and socio-economic characteristics of consumers. Based on British household purchase data from 79,411 households and on British survey data of more than 104,635 adult (18+) respondents, we estimated the likelihood of buying and drinking zero (ABV = 0.0%) and low alcohol (ABV > 0.0% and ≤ 3.5%) beer by a range of socio-demographic characteristics. We found that buying and consuming zero alcohol beer is much more likely to occur in younger age groups, in more affluent households, and in those with higher social grades, with gaps in buying zero alcohol beer between households in higher and lower social grades widening between 2015 and 2020. Buying and drinking low alcohol beer had less consistent relationships with socio-demographic characteristics, but was strongly driven by households that normally buy and drink the most alcohol. Common to many health-related behaviours, it seems that it is the more affluent that lead the way in choosing zero or low alcohol products. Whilst the increased availability of zero and low alcohol products might be a useful tool to reduce overall ethanol consumption in the more socially advantageous part of society, it may be less beneficial for the rest of the population. Other evidence-based alcohol policy measures that lessen health inequalities, need to go hand-in-hand with those promoting the uptake of zero and low alcohol beer.

3.
AIDS ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) preferentially loads peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), resulting in higher PBMC tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). No studies have yet compared TFV-DP in PBMC from lower than daily dosing between prodrugs, which has potential implications for event-driven pre-exposure prophylaxis and pharmacologic forgiveness. DESIGN: Two separate randomized, directly observed therapy (DOT) crossover studies (DOT-DBS and TAF-DBS) were conducted to mimic low, medium, and high adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative adults were randomized to two 12-week DOT regimens of 33%, 67%, or 100% of daily dosing with emtricitabine (F)/TAF 200 mg/25 mg (TAF-DBS) or F/TDF 200 mg/300 mg (DOT-DBS), separated by a 12-week washout. PBMC steady-state concentrations (Css) of TFV-DP and FTC-TP were estimated using nonlinear mixed models and compared between F/TAF and F/TDF. RESULTS: Thirty-five participants contributed to 33% (n = 23), 67% (n = 23), and 100% (n = 23) of daily F/TAF regimens. Forty-four contributed to 33% (n = 15), 67% (n = 16), and 100% (n = 32) of daily F/TDF regimens. PBMC TFV-DP Css were 7.3- (95% CI: 6.4-8.2), 7.1- (5.9-8.2), and 6.7- (4.4-8.9) fold higher (p < 0.0001) following F/TAF vs. F/TDF; 593 vs. 81.7, 407 vs. 57.4, and 215 vs. 32.3 fmol/106 cells, respectively. TFV-DP was 2.6- (2.1-3.1) fold higher with 33% F/TAF vs. 100% F/TDF. Estimated half-lives (95% CI) of TFV-DP in PBMC were 2.9 (1.5- 5.5) days for F/TAF and 2.1 (1.5-2.9) days for F/TDF. FTC-TP was similar in both studies (p = 0.119). CONCLUSIONS: F/TAF produced 6.7- to 7.3-fold higher TFV-DP in PBMC vs. F/TDF across adherence levels, supporting increased potency and pharmacologic forgiveness with F/TAF in the PBMC compartment.

4.
Semin Perinatol ; : 151483, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482961

RESUMO

As survival of infants born extremely preterm increases, more are now reaching adulthood. It is well documented that survivors born extremely preterm experience more developmental delay and disability in multiple domains compared with term-born controls in early childhood and school age. However, with increasing age, health problems involving physical and mental health become more evident. Despite these challenges, it is reassuring that self-reported quality of life remains good. Future directions of research include development of age-appropriate interventions to optimise health and development of individuals born extremely preterm beyond school age.

5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mandible is one of the most common facial bones to be injured with great clinical variability across countries caused by assaults, road traffic accidents, and falls. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted for adult mandibular fractures from January 2012 to January 2017 at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide. Our aim was to describe epidemiological trends of mandibular fractures, differences for sex and age, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty five adult patients presented with a mandibular fracture with a male predominance (4.5:1). The mean age was 34.2 years with men 11.9 years younger than females (32.0 versus 44.1 years, P < 0.001). Assaults represented 58.2% of cases. A quarter of the cohort reported alcohol use. Assaults commonly resulted in angle and symphyseal fractures, whereas almost all falls and road traffic accident resulted in condylar or coronoid fractures. Young men were 1.9 times more likely to have mandibular fractures compared to women, whereas elderly men were 11.8% less likely (P < 0.001). The most common fracture was the angle (33.6%) and the angle/symphyseal (14.2%). Men were 2.5 times more likely to have surgery. The complication rate was 10.8% and the re-operative rate was 5.0%. Women had a significantly longer admission of 1.6 days compared to men (4.4 versus 2.8 days, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Young men are more likely to have mandibular fractures from assaults and have surgery. Young women and elderly females are more likely to have animal and fall-related injuries resulting including in condylar fractures with associated injuries and extended length of stay.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578873

RESUMO

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the fetal brain during pregnancy and is thought to have a role in supporting neurodevelopment. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in women with a singleton pregnancy who were <21 weeks' gestation at trial entry. Women were provided with 800 mg DHA/day or a placebo supplement from trial entry until birth. When children reached seven years of age, we invited parents to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Conners 3rd Edition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Index to assess child behavior and behavioral manifestations of executive dysfunction. There were 543 parent-child pairs (85% of those eligible) that participated in the follow-up. Scores were worse in the DHA group than the placebo group for the BRIEF Global Executive, Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition Indexes, and the Shift, Inhibit, Monitor, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials scales, as well as for the Conners 3 ADHD index, and the SDQ Total Difficulties score, Hyperactivity/Inattention score, and Peer Relationship Problems score. In this healthy, largely term-born sample of children, prenatal DHA supplementation conferred no advantage to childhood behavior, and instead appeared to have an adverse effect on behavioral functioning, as assessed by standardized parental report scales.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578942

RESUMO

Alcohol is toxic to human health. In addition to providing nutritional information, labels on alcohol products can be used to communicate warnings on alcohol-related harms to consumers. This scoping review examined novel or enhanced health warning labels to assess the current state of the research and the key studied characteristics of labels, along with their impact on the studied outcomes. Four databases (Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL) were searched between January 2010 and April 2021, and 27 papers were included in the review. The results found that most studies were undertaken in English-speaking populations, with the majority conducted online or in the laboratory setting as opposed to the real world. Seventy percent of the papers included at least one cancer-related message, in most instances referring either to cancer in general or to bowel cancer. Evidence from the only real-world long-term labelling intervention demonstrated that alcohol health warning labels designed to be visible and contain novel and specific information have the potential to be part of an effective labelling strategy. Alcohol health warning labels should be seen as tools to raise awareness on alcohol-related risks, being part of wider alcohol policy approaches.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579030

RESUMO

Switching from higher strength to low- and no-alcohol products could result in consumers buying and drinking fewer grams of ethanol. We undertook a scoping review with systematic searches of English language publications between 1 January 2010 and 17 January 2021 using PubMed and Web of Science, covering production, consumption, and policy drivers related to low- and no-alcohol products. Seventy publications were included in our review. We found no publications comparing a life cycle assessment of health and environmental impacts between alcohol-free and regular-strength products. Three publications of low- and no-alcohol beers found only limited penetration of sales compared with higher strength beers. Two publications from only one jurisdiction (Great Britain) suggested that sales of no- and low-alcohol beers replaced rather than added to sales of higher strength beers. Eight publications indicated that taste, prior experiences, brand, health and wellbeing issues, price differentials, and overall decreases in the social stigma associated with drinking alcohol-free beverages were drivers of the purchase and consumption of low- and no-alcohol beers and wines. Three papers indicated confusion amongst consumers with respect to the labelling of low- and no-alcohol products. One paper indicated that the introduction of a minimum unit price in both Scotland and Wales favoured shifts in purchases from higher- to lower-strength beers. The evidence base for the potential beneficial health impact of low- and no-alcohol products is very limited and needs considerable expansion. At present, the evidence base could be considered inadequate to inform policy.

9.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494301

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the causal effect of being born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g), compared with being born at term, on neurodevelopment and social-emotional development at 2 years' corrected age. METHODS: Prospective geographical cohort study of children born EP/ELBW over 12 months in 2016 from Victoria, Australia, and term-born controls. Children were assessed at 2 years' corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd edition and the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. Delay was defined as <-1 standard deviation relative to the mean of controls. The estimand of interest was the mean difference/odds ratio (OR) between the EP/ELBW and control groups estimated using linear/logistic regression, adjusted for multiple pregnancy and social risk. RESULTS: A total of 205 EP/ELBW and 201 controls were assessed at 2 years. Delay/concerns were more common in the EP/ELBW group compared with controls, for cognitive (OR 3.7 [95% confidence interval 2.3, 6.0]), language (5.3 [3.1, 9.0]) and motor (3.9 [2.3, 6.3]) development, and social-emotional competence (4.1 [1.6, 10.2]). CONCLUSION: Being born EP/ELBW has an adverse effect on cognitive, language and motor development, and social-emotional competence at 2 years' corrected age. Close developmental surveillance, including social-emotional development, is recommended.

10.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351437

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of persistent, open metopic sutures in contemporary Australians aged 24 months and older. METHODS: Metopic suture evaluation was conducted on retrospective cranial/cervical computed tomography scans of patients aged 24 to 252 months who presented to the Women's and Children's Hospital in Adelaide, Australia, between 2010 and 2020. Suture ossification was graded according to Lottering scoring system based on 4 stages, on three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstructions (stage 1: fibrous tissue interface, stage 2: commenced fusion, stage 3: complete fusion and stage 4: obliterated suture). The complete persistent sutures were classified as stage 1. Partially closed sutures were classified into stages 2 and 3, while completely closed sutures were defined as stage 4. RESULTS: One thousand thirty-four patients (61.2% male and 38.8% female) were included, with a mean age at scan of 66 months. More than half of patients were subject to scanning due to closed-head injuries. The incidence of persistent (completely open) metopic suture was 4.8% (2.3% in males and 2.5% in females). In comparison, a partially closed metopic suture was found in 6.3% of the study cohort, with the remaining sutures located along the metopic suture line, at the glabella, mid-part of the suture, bregma and glabella-bregma areas. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of persistent metopic sutures in our study of the Australian population is 4.8%, and it is equally distributed between the genders. The pattern of suture closure can commence from any location along the suture line, which is in contrast to the existing literature.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a programme to reduce alcohol consumption for drinkers with high alcohol consumption levels. Only 2.9% of patients in primary health care (PHC) are screened for their alcohol use in Germany, despite high levels of alcohol consumption and attributable harm. We developed an open-access simulation model to estimate the impact of higher SBIRT delivery rates in German PHC settings on population-level alcohol consumption. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hypothetical population of drinkers and non-drinkers was simulated by sex, age, and educational status for the year 2009 based on survey and sales data. Risky drinking persons receiving BI or RT were sampled from this population based on screening coverage and other parameters. Running the simulation model for a ten-year period, drinking levels and heavy episodic drinking (HED) status were changed based on effect sizes from meta-analyses. In the baseline scenario of 2.9% screening coverage, 2.4% of the adult German population received a subsequent intervention between 2009 and 2018. If every second PHC patient would have been screened for alcohol use, 21% of adult residents in Germany would have received BI or RT by the end of the ten-year simulation period. In this scenario, population-level alcohol consumption would be 11% lower than it was in 2018, without any impact on HED prevalence. Screening coverage rates below 10% were not found to have a measurable effect on drinking levels. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale implementation of SBIRT in PHC settings can yield substantial reductions of alcohol consumption in Germany. As high screening coverage rates may only be achievable in the long run, other effective alcohol policies are required to achieve short-term reduction of alcohol use and attributable harm in Germany. There is large potential to apply this open-access simulation model to other settings and for other alcohol interventions.

14.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (<32 weeks' gestation) have more neurodevelopmental problems compared with term-born peers. Aberrant fidgety movements (FMs) are associated with adverse motor outcomes in children born very preterm. However, associations of aberrant FMs combined with additional movements and postures to give a motor optimality score-revised (MOS-R) with school-aged cognitive and motor outcomes are unclear. Our aim with this study was to determine those associations. METHODS: Of 118 infants born <30 weeks' gestation recruited into a randomized controlled trial of early intervention, 97 had a general movements assessment at 3 months' corrected age and were eligible for this study. Early motor repertoire including FMs and MOS-R were scored from videos of infant's spontaneous movement at 3 months' corrected age. At 8 years' corrected age, cognitive and motor performances were evaluated. Associations of early FMs and MOS-R with outcomes at 8 years were determined using linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy-eight (80%) infants with early motor repertoire data had neurodevelopmental assessments at 8 years. A higher MOS-R, and favorable components of the individual subscales of the MOS-R, including the presence of normal FMs, were associated with better performance for general cognition, attention, working memory, executive function and motor function at 8 years; eg, presence of normal FMs was associated with a 21.6 points higher general conceptual ability score (95% confidence interval: 12.8-30.5; P < .001) compared with absent FMs. CONCLUSIONS: Favorable early motor repertoire of infants born <30 weeks is strongly associated with improved cognitive and motor performance at 8 years.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 595-608, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective long-acting injectable agents for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are needed to increase the options for preventing HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial to compare long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor [INSTI]) at a dose of 600 mg, given intramuscularly every 8 weeks, with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection in at-risk cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and in at-risk transgender women who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive one of the two regimens and were followed for 153 weeks. HIV testing and safety evaluations were performed. The primary end point was incident HIV infection. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 4566 participants who underwent randomization; 570 (12.5%) identified as transgender women, and the median age was 26 years (interquartile range, 22 to 32). The trial was stopped early for efficacy on review of the results of the first preplanned interim end-point analysis. Among 1698 participants from the United States, 845 (49.8%) identified as Black. Incident HIV infection occurred in 52 participants: 13 in the cabotegravir group (incidence, 0.41 per 100 person-years) and 39 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 1.22 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.62). The effect was consistent across prespecified subgroups. Injection-site reactions were reported in 81.4% of the participants in the cabotegravir group and in 31.3% of those in the TDF-FTC group. In the participants in whom HIV infection was diagnosed after exposure to CAB-LA, INSTI resistance and delays in the detection of HIV infection were noted. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: CAB-LA was superior to daily oral TDF-FTC in preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender women. Strategies are needed to prevent INSTI resistance in cases of CAB-LA PrEP failure. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 083 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02720094.).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) experience burdensome symptoms and impaired quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of topical AD therapies on disease control, physician and patient treatment satisfaction, and QoL in a real-world setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective, point-in-time study of physician-completed medical records and patient surveys drawn from two Adelphi AD Disease Specific Programmes™ (1. adults ≥ 18 years old; 2. pediatrics ≤ 17 years old) in the USA. Eligible physicians completed patient record forms and provided disease control assessments. Physicians and matched patients were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with current treatment. Patient-reported outcomes included the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Children's DLQI (CDLQI), Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 394 adult (topicals only, n = 284; topical plus systemic, n = 110) and 144 adolescent (aged 12-17 years; topicals only, n = 114; topical plus systemic, n = 30) patients who had received their current treatment for at least 1 month were included. Overall, 24.5% of patients had physician-reported uncontrolled disease (adults, 22.8%; adolescents, 29.2%). Rates of physician- and patient-reported dissatisfaction with current treatment were 32.0% (adults, 28.2%; adolescents, 42.4%) and 24.8% (adults, 24.0%; adolescents, 26.8%), respectively, and were higher for patients with uncontrolled versus controlled disease. Poorer disease control and higher rates of treatment dissatisfaction were generally reported among patients receiving topical plus systemic therapy versus topicals alone. Patients with uncontrolled versus controlled disease reported more impairment in the DLQI, CDLQI, POEM, and WPAI (P < 0.05 for all), with generally greater impairments observed among patients on topical plus systemic therapy versus topicals alone. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving topical AD therapies experienced uncontrolled disease and reported decreased overall functioning and lower QoL. An unmet need for topical AD treatments that improve disease control and patient outcomes exists.

17.
JAMA ; 326(2): 145-153, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255007

RESUMO

Importance: Timely delivery of infants suspected of having fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a balance between preventing stillbirth and minimizing prematurity, particularly because many infants with suspected FGR have normal growth. Objective: To explore the association between iatrogenic delivery for suspected FGR and childhood school outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective whole-population cohort study linking perinatal data from births 32 weeks' or more gestation between January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, to developmental and educational test scores at preparatory school, and at school grades 3, 5, and 7 in Victoria, Australia. Follow-up was concluded in 2019. Exposures: Suspicion or nonsuspicion of FGR, presence or absence of iatrogenic delivery (defined as early induction of labor or cesarean delivery prior to labor) for suspected FGR, and presence or absence of small for gestational age (SGA). Main Outcomes and Measures: The coprimary outcomes were being in the bottom 10th percentile on 2 or more of 5 developmental domains at school entry and being below the national minimum standard on 2 or more of 5 educational domains in grades 3, 5, or 7. Results: In the birth population of 705 937 infants, the mean gestation at birth was 39.1 (SD, 1.5) weeks and the mean birth weight was 3426 (SD, 517) grams. The birth population linked to 181 902 children with developmental results and 425 717 children with educational results. Compared with infants with severe SGA (birth weight <3rd percentile) not suspected of having FGR, infants with severe SGA delivered for suspected FGR were born earlier (mean gestation, 37.9 weeks vs 39.4 weeks). They also had a significantly increased risk of poor developmental outcome at school entry (16.2% vs 12.7%; absolute difference, 3.5% [95% CI, 0.5%-6.5%]); adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.07-1.74]) and poor educational outcomes in grades 3, 5, and 7 (for example, in grade 7: 13.4% vs 10.5%; absolute difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%]); aOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.04-1.70]). There was no significant difference between infants with normal growth (birth weight ≥10th percentile) delivered for suspected FGR and those not suspected of having FGR in developmental outcome (8.6% vs 8.1%; absolute difference, 0.5% [95% CI, -1.1% to 2.0%]); aOR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]) or educational outcome in grade 3, 5 or 7, despite being born earlier (mean gestation, 38.0 weeks vs 39.1 weeks). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory study conducted in Victoria, Australia, iatrogenic delivery of infants with severe SGA due to suspected FGR was associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with severe SGA not suspected of having FGR. Iatrogenic delivery of infants with normal growth due to suspected FGR was not associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with normal growth not suspected of having FGR.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Escolaridade , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Adulto , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048993, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210734

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV transmission within serodifferent heterosexual couples plays a key role in sustaining the global HIV pandemic. In the USA, transmission within established mixed-status couples accounts for up to half of all new HIV infections among heterosexuals. Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective prevention method, although underutilised among serodifferent couples. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on US HIV-serodifferent couples' perspectives and use of PrEP, alone or in combination with other prevention methods. In this paper, we describe the study protocol for the Magnetic Couples Study, designed to fill critical knowledge gaps regarding HIV-serodifferent heterosexual couples' perspectives, experiences and utilisation of PrEP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Magnetic Couples Study is a mixed methods prospective cohort study designed to describe temporal patterns and identify determinants at multiple levels (individual, couple, HCF) of PrEP outcomes along the care continuum (PrEP awareness, linkage, uptake, retention and medication adherence) among HIV-serodifferent heterosexual couples residing in New York City. The study will also examine clinical management of PrEP, side effects and changes in sexual-related and substance use-related behaviour. A prospective cohort of 230 mixed-status couples already on oral PrEP was recruited, with quarterly assessments over 18 months; in addition, a cross-sectional sample of 150 mixed-status couples not currently on PrEP was recruited. In-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a subsample of 25 couples. Actor-partner interdependence modelling using multilevel analysis will be employed for the analysis of longitudinal dyadic data. Framework analysis will be used to analyse qualitative data. A parallel convergent design will be used for mixed methods integration. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the University of Rochester Institutional Review Board (RSRB00052766). Study findings will be disseminated to community members and providers and to researchers and policy makers.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estudos Prospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2675-2680, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentration in dried blood spots (DBSs) is a reliable pharmacokinetics biomarker of adherence to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We aimed to use DBSs to estimate pill intake among participants using on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to identify predictive factors associated with higher TFV-DP concentrations. METHODS: DBSs were collected at the last study visit of the open-label phase of the ANRS IPERGAY study, assessing on-demand oral TDF/emtricitabine for PrEP among MSM and transgender female participants. We quantified TFV-DP in DBSs centrally. We assessed correlation between pill count and TFV-DP concentration by Spearman correlation and explored associations between participant demographics, sexual behaviour and PrEP use during sexual intercourse (SI) with TFV-DP concentrations by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The median age of the 245 participants included in this study was 40 years, with a median body weight of 73 kg. Median (IQR) TFV-DP concentration reached 517 (128-868) fmol/punch, corresponding to an estimated intake of 8-12 tablets per month (2-3 doses per week). Only 39% of participants had a TFV-DP concentration above 700 fmol/punch. TFV-DP concentrations were moderately correlated with pill count (r: 0.59; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only systematic use of PrEP during SI and more frequent episodes of SI in the past 4 weeks were significantly associated with higher TFV-DP levels [OR (95% CI): 11.30 (3.62-35.33) and 1.46 (1.19-1.79), respectively; P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants using on-demand PrEP, estimated pill intake reached 8-12 tablets per month and was correlated with frequency and systematic use of PrEP for SI.

20.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 51: 100987, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273749

RESUMO

Children born very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks' gestation) have alterations in brain white matter and poorer math ability than full-term (FT) peers. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest a link between white matter microstructure and math in VPT and FT children, although longitudinal studies using advanced modelling are lacking. In a prospective longitudinal cohort of VPT and FT children we used Fixel-Based Analysis to investigate associations between maturation of white matter fibre density (FD), fibre-bundle cross-section (FC), and combined fibre density and cross-section (FDC) and math computation ability at 7 (n = 136 VPT; n = 32 FT) and 13 (n = 130 VPT; n = 44 FT) years, as well as between change in white matter and math computation ability from 7 to 13 years (n = 103 VPT; n = 21 FT). In both VPT and FT children, higher FD, FC and FDC in visual, sensorimotor and cortico-thalamic/thalamo-cortical white matter tracts were associated with better math computation ability at 7 and 13 years. Longitudinally, accelerated maturation of the posterior body of the corpus callosum (FDC) was associated with greater math computation development. White matter-math associations were similar for VPT and FT children. In conclusion, white matter maturation is associated with math computation ability across late childhood, irrespective of birth group.

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