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1.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(11): 913.e1-913.e12, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329753

RESUMO

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m2 busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% µmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 102, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193217

RESUMO

T-cell receptor (TCR)-based adoptive therapy employs genetically modified lymphocytes that are directed against specific tumor markers. This therapeutic modality requires a structured and integrated process that involves patient screening (e.g., for HLA-A*02:01 and specific tumor targets), leukapheresis, generation of transduced TCR product, lymphodepletion, and infusion of the TCR-based adoptive therapy. In this review, we summarize the current technology and early clinical development of TCR-based therapy in patients with solid tumors. The challenges of TCR-based therapy include those associated with TCR product manufacturing, patient selection, and preparation with lymphodepletion. Overcoming these challenges, and those posed by the immunosuppressive microenvironment, as well as developing next-generation strategies is essential to improving the efficacy and safety of TCR-based therapies. Optimization of technology to generate TCR product, treatment administration, and patient monitoring for adverse events is needed. The implementation of novel TCR strategies will require expansion of the TCR approach to patients with HLA haplotypes beyond HLA-A*02:01 and the discovery of novel tumor markers that are expressed in more patients and tumor types. Ongoing clinical trials will determine the ultimate role of TCR-based therapy in patients with solid tumors.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 404.e1-404.e5, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965178

RESUMO

The cell of origin (COO) classification into germinal center B cell (GCB) and non-GCB types has been shown to predict survival outcomes in newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting, there is building evidence that COO does not predict prognosis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The present analysis aimed to compare survival outcomes based on COO classification in R/R DLBCL patients who underwent auto-SCT. This retrospective study included adult patients with R/R DLBCL who underwent auto-SCT at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2007 and December 2016. The Hans algorithm using CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 markers was used to classify patients by COO. A total of 122 patients with DLBCL (71 GCB, 51 non-GCB) were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the 2 groups, except for older median age in the GCB cohort (64 years versus 58 years; P < .004). The median overall survival (OS) time was 68.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to not reached) months for the total population, 68.5 (95% CI, 44.8 to not reached) for GCB, and not reached for non-GCB. The 3-year OS rate was 0.659 (95% CI, 0.575 to 0.755) for the total population, 0.653 (95% CI, 0.547 to 0.779) for GCB, and 0.666 (95% CI, 0.537 to 0.824) for non-GCB. When adjusted for age and other factors of interest, no statistically significant associations for OS or progression-free survival were observed between the 2 cohorts. Our results confirm that COO loses its prognostic potential in patients with R/R DLBCL who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT and both GCB and non-GCB types of DLBCL derive similar benefit from auto-SCT. Younger age, female sex, and pretransplantation disease status were associated with better OS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Adulto , Feminino , Centro Germinativo , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 430.e1-430.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965187

RESUMO

Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Trombocitopenia , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Haematologica ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951890

RESUMO

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplant (HDC/ASCT) is standard treatment of chemosensitive relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), although outcomes of high-risk relapse (HRR) patients remain suboptimal. We retrospectively analyzed all HRR cHL patients treated with HDC/ASCT at our institution between 01/01/2005-12/31/2019. HRR criteria included primary refractory disease/relapse within 1 year, extranodal extension, B symptoms, requiring > 1 salvage line, or PET+ disease at ASCT. All patients met the same ASCT eligibility criteria. We treated 501 patients with BEAM (N=146), BuMel (N=38), GemBuMel (N=189) and vorinostat/GemBuMel (N=128). The GemBuMel and vorinostat/GemBuMel cohorts had more HRR criteria and more patients with PET+ disease at ASCT. Pre-ASCT BV, anti-PD1, PET-negative disease at ASCT, and maintenance BV increased over time. BEAM and BuMel predominated in earlier years (2005-2007), GemBuMel and BEAM in middle years (2008-2015), and vorinostat/GemBuMel and BEAM in later years (2016-2019). Median follow-up is 50 months (6-186). Outcomes improved over time, with 2-year PFS/OS rates of 58%/82% (2005-2007), 59%/83% (2008-2011), 71%/94% (2012-2015) and 86%/99% (2016-2019) (P.

6.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(8): 2005-2012, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846563

RESUMO

Despite low nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at day 100 after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), NRM at 1 year remains substantial. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 199 patients who were treated on a phase II clinical trial assessing safety and efficacy of myeloablative fractionated busulfan and fludarabine conditioning regimen for hematologic malignancies. The goal of the study was to identify factors associated with NRM occurring between days 101 and 365 post-HCT and generate a hypothesis for future studies to reduce the risk of NRM at 1 year. We found that a vast majority (83%) of patients who experienced NRM between days 101 and 365 had prior grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which was the leading cause of death either by itself (33.3%) or complicated by infections (37.5%). In multivariate analysis, grade II-IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-6.6, p = 0.01) was the only significant predictor of NRM between days 101 and 365. Measures to reduce the risk of acute GVHD could lower the risk of NRM at 1 year and improve overall survival.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Bussulfano , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo
7.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2710-2719, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed. RESULTS: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement. CONCLUSION: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.


Assuntos
Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Hemorrágicos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(7): 1674-1682, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637882

RESUMO

Relapse is the major cause of mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Effective preventive intervention in high-risk AML may be crucial. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of low dose decitabine (DAC) as part of a modified Busulfan-Cyclophosphamide (Bu-Cy) regimen for high-risk AML patients undergoing allo-HSCT to reduce relapse rate. Fifty-nine patients received DAC (20 mg/m2/d, i.v.) for 5 days, followed by modified Bu-Cy (DAC group). A matched-pair control (CON) group of 177 patients (matched 1:3) received modified Bu-Cy only. The differences were more substantial among patients with active disease: 2-year OS, 80.7% (DAC) versus 43.5% (CON), P = 0.011 and 2-year LFS, 64.9% (DAC) versus 39.2% (CON), P = 0.024. Median time to relapse was 8 months (DAC) versus 5 months (CON) for the entire groups and 6.5 months (DAC) versus 3.5 months (CON) for patients with active disease. In summary, our data indicated that the conditioning regimen containing low dose DAC may confer a survival advantage in high-risk AML patients with active disease undergoing allo-HSCT, and a prospective randomized trial is warranted to confirm these observations.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Bussulfano , Ciclofosfamida , Decitabina , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
9.
Cancer ; 127(10): 1598-1605, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A myeloablative conditioning regimen can be safely given to older patients and those with comorbidities without increasing nonrelapse mortality (NRM) by fractionating the dose of intravenous busulfan. How this approach compares in efficacy with traditional, nonfractionated, lower dose regimens is unknown. METHODS: Outcomes were compared in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome who received either myeloablative, fractionated busulfan (f-Bu) dosed to achieve an area under the curve of 20,000 µmol per minute (f-Bu20K) over 2 weeks (n = 84) or a standard, nonfractionated, lower busulfan dose regimen of 16,000 µmol per minute (Bu16K) over 4 days (n = 78). Both groups also received fludarabine 40 mg/m2 intravenously for 4 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was tacrolimus and methotrexate. Patients in the Bu16K group who had unrelated donors also received antithymocyte globulin. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: Roughly one-half of the patients were aged >65 years, approximately 40% had poor-risk cytogenetics, approximately 40% of those with AML were not in complete remission, and approximately 40% had a comorbidity index >3. At 2 years, progression-free survival was significantly improved in the f-Bu20K group compared with the Bu16K group (45% vs 24%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8; P = .004). This was because of a significant reduction in progression (34% vs 59%, respectively; HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; P = .003) without any increase in NRM (21% vs 15%, respectively; HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-3; P = .3), which resulted in improved overall survival (51% vs 31%, respectively; HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: A myeloablative, fractionated busulfan regimen reduces relapse and improves survival without increasing NRM in older patients with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome.

10.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 74-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604096

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients not in remission and beyond first or second complete remission are considered allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) candidates. We present 361 patients who underwent SCT from matched related or unrelated donors between 2005 and 2013. The purpose was to identify a subgroup of patients with active disease at the time of transplant that benefit. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to predict overall survival (OS). Variables considered were age, sex, SWOG cytogenetic risk group, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) blast percentage, regimen intensity, and type of AML. At a median of 26 months after transplantation, OS, progression-free survival (PFS), non-relapse mortality, and relapse rates were 26, 24, 23, and 48%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, risk cytogenetics (p < 0.001) and BM blasts >4% (p = 0.006) or any blasts in PB (p < 0.001) indicated worse OS. In a multivariate analysis, patients with <5% BM blasts or absence of circulating blasts and good or intermediate risk cytogenetics had significantly superior OS (46%), PFS (44%), and disease progression at 3 years. Based on these findings, patients not in remission with good or intermediate risk cytogenetics and low blast counts should be considered for SCT.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970928

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to design and manufacture CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells for clinical use in Thailand, as a model for how this technology can be directly applied at individual institutions treating high-risk leukemia patients. METHODS: We constructed second-generation CAR T cells expressing CD19 scFV-CD28-CD3ζ with different lengths of the spacer region: full, intermediate, and short length, by using a lentiviral vector. We wanted to determine whether the difference in length of the spacer would affect the cytotoxic potential of the CD19 CAR T cells against the leukemic cells. RESULTS: We found that all constructs of CD19 CAR T cells exhibited a similar level of cytotoxicity against several human lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. For the clinical application, we chose the intermediate length spacer construct CD19 CAR T cells, hypothesizing that the highest transduction efficiency coupled with a slower initial proliferation in vitro might lead to effective leukemic cell kill, yet a lower probability for serious clinical side effects. We then tested the clinical efficacy of our CD19 CAR T cells in one patient with refractory/relapsed acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. This patient indeed had minimal clinical side effects after the CAR T-cell infusion, and he remains in an unmaintained, ongoing complete remission 10+ months after his T-cell treatment. CONCLUSION: Our CD19 CAR T cells demonstrated efficacies in acute lymphoblastic B-cell leukemia, and will be used to establish an immunotherapeutic program for high-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Thailand. We propose that this approach can be used as a model for how this new exciting technology can be applied directly at individual institutions that treat (a large number of) patients with high-risk leukemia.

12.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(5): 773-781, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779746

RESUMO

Busulfan is given in the conditioning regimens preceding hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and plasma levels can be monitored. A targeted, individualized systemic exposure (SE) dose can be achieved by calculating the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC). The objective of this study was to determine a cutoff value for safety for the AUC for busulfan plasma levels in patients undergoing HSCT. A total of 149 consecutive HSCT patients were studied. After an oral test dose of busulfan, we set target doses of 4000, 5000, or 6000 µMol⸱min/day, and analyzed the AUC of oral or intravenous Bu. These patients were compared with 53 historical control subjects who had received myeloablative conditioning regimen without busulfan pharmacokinetic monitoring. Using a test dose and the administration route had no impact on the sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) incidence, transplant-related mortality or 1-year overall survival. However, patients receiving busulfan at doses set up at AUC > 5000 had an increased risk to develop SOS after HSCT (hazard ratio 3.39, p = 0.034, 95% CI 1.09-10.52). Adjusting the busulfan dose according to SE levels target dose during conditioning is associated with lower rates of oral severe mucositis and SOS. A cutoff of 5000 µMol⸱min is safe and does not impair survival.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(5): e13395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BK polymavirus (BKPyV), a member of the family Polyomaviridae, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. METHODS: In our previous retrospective study of 2477 stem cell transplant patients, BKPyV replication independently predicted chronic kidney disease and poor survival. In this study, using the same cohort, we derived and validated a risk grading system to identify patients at risk of BKPyV replication after transplantation in a user-friendly modality. We used 3 baseline variables (conditioning regimen, HLA match status, and underlying cancer diagnosis) that significantly predicted BKPyV replication in our initial study in a subdistribution hazard model with death as a competing risk. We also developed a nomogram of the hazard model as a visual aid. The AUC of the ROC of the risk-score-only model was 0.65. We further stratified the patients on the basis of risk score into low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups. RESULTS: The total risk score was significantly associated with BKPyV replication (P < .0001). At 30 days after transplantation, the low-risk (score ≤ 0) patients had a 9% chance of developing symptomatic BKPyV replication, while the high-risk (score ≥ 8) of the population had 56% of developing BKPyV replication. We validated the risk score using a separate cohort of 1478 patients. The AUC of the ROC of the risk-score-only model was 0.59. Both the total risk score and 3-level risk variable were significantly associated with BKPyV replication in this cohort (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: This grading system for the risk of symptomatic BKPyV replication may help in early monitoring and intervention to prevent BKPyV-associated morbidity, mortality, and kidney function decline.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Rim , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Transplantados
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(8): 1439-1445, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438043

RESUMO

Optimal conditioning regimens for older patients with myelofibrosis undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant are not known. Likewise, the role of dose intensity is not clear. We conducted a nonrandomized, prospective, phase II trial using low-dose, later escalated to high-dose (myeloablative conditioning), busulfan with fludarabine (Bu-Flu) in myelofibrosis patients up to age 74 years. The first 15 patients received i.v. busulfan 130 mg/m2/day on days -3 and -2 ("low dose"); 31 patients received high-dose conditioning, either 100 mg/m2/day (days -5 to -2; n = 4) or pharmacokinetic-guided area under the curve of 4000 µmol/min (days -5 to -2; n = 27). The primary endpoint was day 100 nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Median age was 58 years (interquartile range [IQR], 53-63). Dynamic international prognostic scoring system-plus was intermediate (n = 28) or high (n = 18). Donors were related (n = 19) or unrelated (n = 27). Cumulative incidence of NRM was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-20.3) at day 100 and at 3 years in the high-dose group and 0% in the low-dose group at day 100, which increased to 20% (95% CI, 0-41.9) at 3 years. With a median follow-up of 5.1 years (IQR, 3.8-6), 3-year relapse was 32.3% (95% CI, 15.4-49.1) in high dose versus 53.3% (95% CI, 26.6-80.1) in low dose. Event-free survival was 58% (95% CI, 43-78) versus 27% (95% CI, 12-62), and overall survival was 74% (95% CI, 60-91) versus 60% (95% CI, 40-91). In multivariate analysis, high-dose busulfan had a trend toward lower relapse (hazard ratio, .44; 95% CI, .18-1.07; P = .07), with no impact on NRM. Intensifying the Bu-Flu regimen using pharmacokinetic-monitoring appears to be promising in reducing relapse without increasing NRM.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mielofibrose Primária , Idoso , Bussulfano , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
16.
Blood Adv ; 4(7): 1296-1306, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236526

RESUMO

At our center, we observed a series of patients who developed transudative refractory ascites secondary to noncirrhotic, non-veno-occlusive disease (VOD)-related portal hypertension after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Patients were considered to have idiopathic portal hypertension-related refractory ascites (IRA) if they developed ascites secondary to intrahepatic portal hypertension (serum ascites albumin gradient ≥1.1 g/dL or hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] >5 mm Hg), but did not meet the clinical criteria for classical VOD/sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) and did not have any alternate etiology of portal hypertension. From our institutional database, we identified 40 patients who developed IRA after allo-HSCT between 2004 and 2018. The patients' median age at the time of allo-HSCT was 54 years (range, 21-73 years). The median time to development of IRA after allo-HSCT was 80 days (range, 16-576 days). The median number of paracentesis was 3 (range, 1-11), and 15 (38%) patients had an intraperitoneal catheter placed for continued drainage of the rapidly accumulating ascites. Portal pressures were measured in 19 patients; 6 (15%) had moderate portal hypertension (HVPG 6-9 mm Hg), and 13 (33%) had severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 10 mm Hg). Liver biopsy was performed in 24 patients. None of the patients met the criteria for classical VOD/SOS (clinical/histological) or cirrhosis (histological). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 63%, and the median survival duration after the development of the IRA was 7 months (range, 0.8-125.6 months). IRA is a poorly understood and often fatal complication of allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/terapia , Humanos , Incidência
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(6): 1106-1112, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931116

RESUMO

Patients with severe thalassemia commonly have a survival that is significantly shorter than that of the general population. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is the only established treatment that is potentially curative, but it is limited by the availability of donors and the medical condition of the patient. To expand the donor pool to include haploidentical related donors, we introduced a program consisting of a pharmacologic pretransplant immune suppression phase (PTIS) and 2 courses of dexamethasone and fludarabine, followed by pretransplant conditioning with fludarabine-i.v. busulfan and post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. We transplanted 83 consecutive transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia (median age, 12 years; range, 1 to 28 years) with a minimum follow-up of 6 months (median, 15 months; range, 7 to 53 months); the 3-year projected overall and event-free survival is over 96%, and there have been no secondary graft failures. Of the first 31 patients, we had 2 graft failures, both of them occurring in patients with extremely high titers of anti-donor-specific HLA antibodies (anti-DSAs), but after adjusting the PTIS to include bortezomib and rituximab for patients with high titers of anti-DSAs and using pharmacologic dose guidance for busulfan, we had no graft failures in the last 52 patients. Six (7%) of 83 patients developed severe GVHD. We conclude that this is a safe and efficacious approach to allogeneic SCT in thalassemia, yielding results comparable to those available for patients with fully matched donors.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Talassemia , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Criança , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Talassemia/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
18.
Exp Hematol ; 81: 32-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954171

RESUMO

Gemcitabine (Gem), busulfan (Bu), and melphalan (Mel) are used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To further improve their efficacy, a preclinical study on their synergism with the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (Pano) and the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax/ABT199 was performed. Multiple myeloma cell lines MM.1R and MC/CAR were exposed to ∼IC20 levels of the drugs. Synergistic cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to the five-drug combination as indicated by combination indexes <1, supported by ∼86% inhibition of proliferation and ∼84% annexin V positivity in MM.1R and ∼58% inhibition of proliferation and ∼46% annexin V positivity in MC/CAR cells. Activation of the DNA damage response and apoptosis were suggested by a modest increase in the phosphorylation of ATM and its substrates; significant cleavage of PARP1, caspase 3, and heat shock protein 90; DNA fragmentation; mitochondrial membrane depolarization; and reactive oxygen species production. The five-drug combination significantly decreased the levels of PI3K, AKT, mTOR, RAPTOR, P-P70S6K, and eIF2α, with concomitant increases in P-AMPK and its substrate Tuberin/TSC2, suggesting that the mTOR signaling pathway was compromised. Endoplasmic reticulum stress through activation of the unfolded protein response was also observed as suggested by increases in the levels of calnexin, BiP/GRP78, ERO1-Lα, and protein disulfide isomerase, which may relate to venetoclax-mediated inhibition of BCL2 in the endoplasmic reticulum. This is the first report on the effects of a venetoclax-containing regimen on the unfolded protein response. These results provide a rationale to propose a clinical trial on use of Gem + Bu + Mel + Pano + Venetoclax as part of a conditioning regimen for multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Mieloma Múltiplo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Bussulfano/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Melfalan/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Panobinostat/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
19.
Transplant Proc ; 52(1): 353-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune reconstitution of T cells has been proven to be a protective factor against cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in patients post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Recently, more evidence has suggested that natural killer (NK) cells also play role in the protection against CMV reactivation in these patients. METHODS: CMV-specific T cells and CMV-reactive NK cells from pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant were examined by flow cytometry. These cells were defined as cells producing interferon gamma (IFNγ) upon stimulation with CMV antigens. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that NK cells reactive to CMV do exist in pediatric patients after stem cell transplant. These cells vigorously responded to stimulation with CMV peptides (pp65 and IE1) and to a lesser extent to CMV whole lysate by secretion of IFNγ. Patients with CMV reactivation tended to have less CMV-reactive NK cells than those without. CONCLUSION: Reconstitution of CMV-reactive NK cells, together with CMV-specific T cells, may play a role in the control of CMV infections in patients after stem cell transplant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat ; 68(3): 809-828, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467455

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is now part of standard of care for acute leukemia (AL). To reduce toxicity of the pre-transplant conditioning regimen, intravenous busulfan is usually used as a preparative regimen for AL patients undergoing allo-SCT. Systemic busulfan exposure, characterized by the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC), is strongly associated with clinical outcome. An AUC that is too high is associated with severe toxicities, while an AUC that is too low carries increased risks of disease recurrence and failure to engraft. Consequently, an optimal AUC interval needs to be determined for therapeutic use. To address the possibility that busulfan pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics vary significantly with patient characteristics, we propose a tailored approach to determine optimal covariate-specific AUC intervals. To estimate these personalized AUC intervals, we apply a flexible Bayesian nonparametric regression model based on a dependent Dirichlet process and Gaussian process, DDP-GP. Our analyses of a dataset of 151 patients identified optimal therapeutic intervals for AUC that varied substantively with age and whether the patient was in complete remission or had active disease at transplant. Extensive simulations to evaluate the DDP-GP model in similar settings showed that its performance compares favorably to alternative methods. We provide an R package, DDPGPSurv, that implements the DDP-GP model for a broad range of survival regression analyses.

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