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1.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005767

RESUMO

Peptide receptor radiotherapy using 177Lu-labeled somatostatin ligand analogs is a well-established treatment for neuroendocrine tumors (NET), with 177Lu-DOTATATE having acquired marketing authorization in Europe and the USA. The investigation of the pharmacokinetics of those radiopharmaceuticals in vivo in humans is crucial for personalized treatment management and understanding of treatment effects. It requires input data on the in vivo stability of the radiopharmaceuticals in blood and plasma. The work presented here is devoted to the investigation of in vivo stability of 177Lu-DOTATATE in humans affected by NET. Unexpectedly, fast metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical was observed, with fraction of intact 177Lu-DOTATATE in plasma decreasing rapidly to 23±5% (mean ± SD) at 24 h and 1.7±0.9% at 96 h after injection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897770

RESUMO

Effort to control dengue transmission requires community participation to ensure its sustainability. We carried out a knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) survey of dengue prevention to inform the design of a vector control intervention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June⁻August 2014 among 521 households in two villages of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Demographic characteristics and KAP questions were asked using a self-managed questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice scores were summarized for the population according to sex, age, occupation and education. The average knowledge score was rather poor-3.7 out of 8-although both attitude and practice scores were good: 25.5 out of 32 and 9.2 out of 11 respectively. The best knowledge within the different groups were found among women, the age group 30⁻44 years, people with a university degree and government employees. Best practice scores were found among retired people and housewives. There were several significant gaps in knowledge with respect to basic dengue symptoms, preventive practices and biting and breeding habits of the Aedes mosquito. In contrast, people's practices were considered good, although many respondents failed to recognize outdoor containers as mosquito breeding sites. Accordingly, we developed a vector control card to support people's container cleaning practices. The card was assessed for eight consecutive weeks in 2015, with pre-post larvae positive houses and containers as primary outcome measures. The use of control cards reached a low engagement of the community. Despite ongoing campaigns aiming to engage the community in dengue prevention, knowledge levels were meagre and adherence to taught routines poor in many societal groups. To increase motivation levels, bottom-up strategies are needed to involve all community members in dengue control, not only those that already comply with best practices.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Psicológico , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 47(1): 39-46, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076254

RESUMO

Our aim was to compare the effect that having access, versus not having access, to web-based patient information on 18F-FDG PET/CT has on image quality and on patient satisfaction with their care during and knowledge about the examination, as well as to explore whether patients utilized and were satisfied with the web-based information. Methods: We recruited 148 patients between October 2015 and December 2016 and randomly assigned them to a standard-care group or an intervention group. Both groups received standard information about the 18F-FDG PET/CT examination, but the intervention group also received access to web-based information. A questionnaire was used to evaluate patient satisfaction with, knowledge about, and discomfort during the examination, and a masked assessment of image quality was conducted. Results: Overall satisfaction was high in both groups. The lowest satisfaction was with information about how the patients would receive the results of the examination. More patients in the intervention group than in the standard-care group knew how the 18F-FDG PET/CT examination would be conducted. Descriptive data suggest that image quality was slightly better in the intervention group than in the standard-care group, but none of the outcomes significantly differed between the groups. However, several obstacles were encountered during recruitment that led to insufficient power to detect differences. Also, only 54 of 75 patients (72%) in the intervention group utilized the web-based information. However, those who did utilize the information were satisfied with it and found it helpful. Conclusion: The effects of web-based information need to be investigated in a larger sample of patients. Having access to improved information before undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT may help patients prepare for and undergo the examination. It may also improve image quality. However, this possibility needs to be investigated using image quality as the primary outcome. The results may be used to improve patient information and care and thereby optimize the 18F-FDG PET/CT procedure.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Internet , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(14): 10199-10218, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450115

RESUMO

The evaluation and intercomparison of air quality models is key to reducing model errors and uncertainty. The projects AQMEII3 and EURODELTA-Trends, in the framework of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants and the Task Force on Measurements and Modelling, respectively (both task forces under the UNECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution, LTRAP), have brought together various regional air quality models to analyze their performance in terms of air concentrations and wet deposition, as well as to address other specific objectives. This paper jointly examines the results from both project communities by intercomparing and evaluating the deposition estimates of reduced and oxidized nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in Europe simulated by 14 air quality model systems for the year 2010. An accurate estimate of deposition is key to an accurate simulation of atmospheric concentrations. In addition, deposition fluxes are increasingly being used to estimate ecological impacts. It is therefore important to know by how much model results differ and how well they agree with observed values, at least when comparison with observations is possible, such as in the case of wet deposition. This study reveals a large variability between the wet deposition estimates of the models, with some performing acceptably (according to previously defined criteria) and others underestimating wet deposition rates. For dry deposition, there are also considerable differences between the model estimates. An ensemble of the models with the best performance for N wet deposition was made and used to explore the implications of N deposition in the conservation of protected European habitats. Exceedances of empirical critical loads were calculated for the most common habitats at a resolution of 100 × 100 m2 within the Natura 2000 network, and the habitats with the largest areas showing exceedances are determined. Moreover, simulations with reduced emissions in selected source areas indicated a fairly linear relationship between reductions in emissions and changes in the deposition rates of N and S. An approximate 20 % reduction in N and S deposition in Europe is found when emissions at a global scale are reduced by the same amount. European emissions are by far the main contributor to deposition in Europe, whereas the reduction in deposition due to a decrease in emissions in North America is very small and confined to the western part of the domain. Reductions in European emissions led to substantial decreases in the protected habitat areas with critical load exceedances (halving the exceeded area for certain habitats), whereas no change was found, on average, when reducing North American emissions in terms of average values per habitat.

5.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 12(5): 453-459, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903679

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigates the prevalence of smell and taste impairment in adults with diabetes and potential risk factors for sense deterioration and its influence of daily food intake. METHODS: Data from the NHANES 2013-2014 were analyzed. Smell impairment was defined as failing to identify ≥3 of 8 odors in NHANES Pocket Smell Test. Taste impairment was defined as being unable to identify quinine or NaCl in NHANES Tongue Tip and Whole-mouth Test. RESULTS: A total of 3204 people (428 patients with diabetes, 2776 controls) were suitable to be included. The prevalence of smell impairment in patients with diabetes was higher compared to the controls: 22% versus 15% (p<0.001). The difference prevailed after adjustment for age, BMI, alcohol misuse and smoking status. Taste was not impaired in patients with diabetes (p=0.29). Patients with diabetes and smell impairment had a lower daily calorie intake compared to patients with diabetes and normal smell function. The duration of diabetes, diabetic complications and other potential risk factors were not associated with smell dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Smell dysfunction appears with a higher prevalence in patients with diabetes, and this seems to negatively affect daily food intake.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Olfato , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Paladar , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Waste Manag ; 76: 19-27, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605305

RESUMO

Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden's increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments - weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste - affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Incineração , Eliminação de Resíduos , Suécia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 71, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. METHODS: HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. DISCUSSION: This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to implement these measures. The comparison of the empirical data with current climate policies will provide knowledge for tailoring effective climate change mitigation and health policies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Países Desenvolvidos , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Noruega , Paris , Suécia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686197

RESUMO

The health burden from heatwaves is expected to increase with rising global mean temperatures and more extreme heat events over the coming decades. Health-related effects from extreme heat are more common in elderly populations. The population of Europe is rapidly aging, which will increase the health effects of future temperatures. In this study, we estimate the magnitude of adaptation needed to lower vulnerability to heat in order to prevent an increase in heat-related deaths in the 2050s; this is the Adaptive Risk Reduction (ARR) needed. Temperature projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 18 climate models were coupled with gridded population data and exposure-response relationships from a European multi-city study on heat-related mortality. In the 2050s, the ARR for the general population is 53.5%, based on temperature projections under RCP 4.5. For the population above 65 years in Southern Europe, the ARR is projected to be 45.9% in a future with an unchanged climate and 74.7% with climate change under RCP 4.5. The ARRs were higher under RCP 8.5. Whichever emission scenario is followed or population projection assumed, Europe will need to adapt to a great degree to maintain heat-related mortality at present levels, which are themselves unacceptably high, posing an even greater challenge.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/mortalidade , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Cidades , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
11.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 29: 85-90, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore how patients with head and neck cancer experienced undergoing an 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positrons emissions tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) examination in a fixation mask. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with nine patients with known or suspected head and neck cancer who were scheduled for the examination for the first time. The phenomenological method according to van Manen and his four lifeworld existentials; lived space, lived body, lived time, and lived relation was used to analyse the interviews. RESULTS: The thoughts and feelings of the patients during the PET/CT examination varied, some found it very difficult, while others did not. However, for all the patients, it was an experience that required some form of coping to maintain composure for example distraction. CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT examnation in a fixation mask may be strenuous for some patients. Patients need more detailed information, including suggestions for coping behaviours, prior to the examination, as well as higher level of support during and after the examination. The results of this study may be used to improve patient care and optimize the procedure of PET/CT examination in a fixation mask.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 576: 22-35, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27780097

RESUMO

This review summarizes new information on the current status of ground-level ozone in Europe north of the Alps. There has been a re-distribution in the hourly ozone concentrations in northern Europe during 1990-2015. The highest concentrations during summer daytime hours have decreased while the summer night-time and winter day- and night-time concentrations have increased. The yearly maximum 8-h mean concentrations ([O3]8h,max), a metric used to assess ozone impacts on human health, have decreased significantly during 1990-2015 at four out of eight studied sites in Fennoscandia and northern UK. Also the annual number of days when the yearly [O3]8h,max exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) target value of 60ppb has decreased. In contrast, the number of days per year when the yearly [O3]8h,max exceeded 35ppb has increased significantly at two sites, while it decreased at one far northern site. [O3]8h,max is predicted not to exceed 60ppb in northern UK and Fennoscandia after 2020. However, the WHO EQS target value of 50ppb will still be exceeded. The AOT40 May-July and AOT40 April-September metrics, used for the protection of vegetation, have decreased significantly at three and four sites, respectively. The EQS for the protection of forests, AOT40 April-September 5000ppbh, is projected to no longer be exceeded for most of northern Europe sometime before the time period 2040-2059. However, if the EQS is based on Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (POD), POD1, it may still be exceeded by 2050. The increasing trend for low and medium range ozone concentrations in combination with a decrease in high concentrations indicate that a new control strategy, with a larger geographical scale than Europe and including methane, is needed for ozone abatement in northern Europe.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
13.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 44(1): 21-5, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769600

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to investigate patients' previous knowledge, satisfaction, and experience regarding an (18)F-fluoride PET/CT examination and to explore whether any discomfort or pain during the examination was associated with reduced image quality. A further aim was to explore whether patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was associated with their satisfaction and experience regarding the examination. METHODS: Between November 2011 and April 2013, 50 consecutive patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer who were scheduled for (18)F-fluoride PET/CT were asked to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the patients' previous knowledge and experience regarding the examination. Image quality was assessed according to an arbitrary scale. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer-specific module (QLQ-PR25) were used to assess HRQoL. RESULTS: Forty-six patients (96%) completed the questionnaire. Twenty-six percent did not at all know what a (18)F-fluoride PET/CT examination was. Most (52%-70%) were satisfied to a very high degree with the care provided by the nursing staff but were less satisfied with the information given before the examination. Image quality was similar between patients who were exhausted or claustrophobic during the examination and those who were not. No correlations between HRQoL and the patients' experience regarding (18)F-fluoride PET/CT were found. CONCLUSION: Most patients were satisfied with the care provided by the nursing staff, but there is still room for improvement, especially regarding the information provided before the examination. A long examination time may be strenuous for the patient, but there was no difference in image quality between patients who felt discomfort or pain during the examination and those who did not.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/psicologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Controle de Qualidade , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(3): 2837-69, 2015 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25749320

RESUMO

Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000-2009, 2050-2059 and 2080-2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Mudança Climática , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Prematura , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Clima , Europa (Continente) , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
15.
Eur Respir J ; 41(2): 285-94, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22743679

RESUMO

Ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant formed from precursors in the presence of sunlight, associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. All else being equal, concentrations of ground-level ozone are expected to increase due to climate change. Ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate are projected using emission scenarios, models and epidemiological data. European ozone concentrations are modelled with the model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH)-RCA3 (50×50 km). Projections from two climate models, ECHAM4 and HadCM3, are applied under greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. We applied a European-wide exposure-response function to gridded population data and country-specific baseline mortality and morbidity. Comparing the current situation (1990-2009) with the baseline period (1961-1990), the largest increase in ozone-associated mortality and morbidity due to climate change (4-5%) have occurred in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Comparing the baseline period and the future periods (2021-2050 and 2041-2060), much larger increases in ozone-related mortality and morbidity are projected for Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, with the impact being stronger using the climate projection from ECHAM4 (A2). However, in Nordic and Baltic countries the same magnitude of decrease is projected. The current study suggests that projected effects of climate change on ozone concentrations could differentially influence mortality and morbidity across Europe.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Clima , Europa (Continente) , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
16.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 25(3): 350-8, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19619354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lifestyle changes to prevent type 2 diabetes among high-risk persons have been shown to be cost-effective. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of a community-based program promoting general population lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes. METHODS: The 10-year program was implemented in three municipalities in Sweden. Effectiveness was measured with a quasiexperimental cohort design, that is, risk factor levels in a population group aged 36-56 years at baseline and 8-10 years later (2,149 men; 3,092 women) in the program municipalities and a control area were compared. The incremental cost-utility analysis included future diabetes and cardiovascular disease-related health effects and societal costs (discounted 3 percent), estimated by a Markov model. RESULTS: In all areas, risk factor levels increased during follow-up, leading to increased societal costs of between SEK40,000 and 90,000 (1 Euro 2004 = SEK9.13; 1 US$ = SEK 7.35) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) losses between 0.12 and 0.48 per individual. Compared with the control area, the cost increases and QALY losses for women were more favorable in two program areas but less favorable in one, and less favorable for men in both areas (data unavailable for one municipality). The findings indicate that the program was cost-effective in only two female study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Conflicting results on the cost-effectiveness of the program were obtained. As several potentially valuable aspects of the program are not included in the cost-effectiveness analysis, the societal value of the program might not be adequately reflected.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/economia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Suécia
17.
Ambio ; 38(8): 452-8, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20175446

RESUMO

We used an off-line, regional, model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to investigate current and future levels of near-surface ozone and accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb(v) (AOT40) in Europe. To describe the current situation and enable an evaluation of the model's performance we simulated a number of years around 2000. To assess changes in ozone concentrations due to possible emission changes in Europe, the model was run with the meteorology of the early 2000s and precursor emissions from a set of Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) emissions scenarios. By extrapolation of the observed increase in near-surface O3 at coastal locations in northwest Europe we constructed model boundaries that were used to simulate the impact of increasing hemispheric background in 2020. To assess changes in ozone concentrations due to climate change, the model was run with recent (2000) emissions but using meteorology from a regional climate model simulating a control (1961-1990) and a future (2021-2050) climate. The results indicate that climate change will have a small impact on ozone concentrations and AOT40 in the Nordic countries. Changes in hemispheric background concentrations and changes in precursor emissions in Europe will have a larger effect on ozone in Northern Europe. The situation is quite different in southern Europe, where climate change is expected to result in a very large increase in near-surface ozone concentrations.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Modelos Teóricos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos , Ozônio , Europa (Continente)
18.
J Health Commun ; 12(3): 269-83, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17497380

RESUMO

We present a rationale and approach for longitudinal analyses of media coverage and content, and illustrate how media monitoring can be used in process evaluations. Within a community-based diabetes prevention project, the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program, we analyzed the frequency, prominence, and framing of physical activity in local newspapers of three intervention and two control municipalities. In total, 2,128 stories and advertisements related to physical activity were identified between the years 1997 and 2002. Although stories about physical activity were relatively few (n = 224), they were prominently located in all five local newspapers. Physical activity was framed rather similarly in the municipalities. Health aspects, however, were expressed to a greater extent in stories in two of the intervention municipalities. A limited portion (14%) of the articles could be linked directly to the program. It is not possible to assess to what extent the program has had a disseminating effect on the newspapers' health-related content in general, due to weaknesses of the process tracking system and limitations of the study design. Implications for the design is that an evaluative framework should be preplanned and include data collection about media relationships, media's interest in public health, media coverage prior to the program and coverage in other media for comparisons of general trends in the reporting. The material and the current database, however, provide a good basis for quantitative content analysis and qualitative discourse analysis to yield information on the type, frequency, and content of health reporting in local newspapers.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Atividade Motora , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Marketing Social , Participação da Comunidade , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Saúde da População Urbana
20.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 290(4): E739-45, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16291571

RESUMO

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. We investigated the role the MTP -493G/T gene polymorphism in determining the apoB-100 secretion pattern and LDL heterogeneity in healthy human subjects. Groups of carriers of the T and the G variants (n = 6 each) were recruited from a cohort of healthy 50-yr-old men. Kinetic studies were performed by endogenous [(2)H(3)]leucine labeling of apoB and subsequent quantification of the stable isotope incorporation. apoB production rates, metabolic conversions, and eliminations were calculated by multicompartmental modeling (SAAM-II). LDL subfraction distribution was analyzed in the entire cohort (n = 377). Carriers of the MTP -493T allele had lower plasma LDL apoB and lower concentration of large LDL particles [LDL-I: 136 +/- 57 (TT) vs. 175 +/- 55 (GG) mg/l, P < 0.01]. Kinetic modeling suggested that MTP -493T homozygotes had a 60% lower direct production rate of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) plus LDL compared with homozygotes for the G allele (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in production rates of large and small VLDL, nor were there any differences in metabolic conversion or elimination rates of apoB between the genotype groups. This study shows that a polymorphism in the MTP gene affects the spectrum of endogenous apoB-containing lipoprotein particles produced in humans. Reduced direct production of LDL plus IDL appears to be related to lower plasma concentrations of large LDL particles.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético/fisiologia , Adulto , Apolipoproteína B-100 , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucina/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas IDL , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Suécia
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