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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 587, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression is a common mental health problem and there is an urgent need for effective and accessible treatments. Internet-based interventions solve many obstacles for seeking and receiving treatment, thus increasing access to effective treatments. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) for adolescent depression has demonstrated efficacy in previous trials. In order to broaden the range of evidence-based treatments for young people, we evaluated a newly developed affect-focused Internet-based psychodynamic treatment (IPDT) in a previous study with promising results. The purpose of the planned study is to evaluate the efficacy of IPDT for adolescent depression in a non-inferiority trial, comparing it to ICBT. METHODS: The study will employ a parallel randomized non-inferiority design (ratio 1:1; n = 270). Eligible participants are adolescents 15-19 years suffering from depression. The primary hypothesis is that IPDT will be non-inferior to ICBT in reducing depressive symptoms from pre-treatment to end of treatment. Secondary research questions include comparing outcomes of IPDT and ICBT regarding anxiety symptoms, emotion regulation and self-compassion. Additional data will be collected to evaluate cost-effectiveness as well as investigating predictors, moderators and mediators of outcome. In addition, we will examine long-term outcome up to 1 year after end of treatment. Diagnostic interviews with MINI 7.0 will be used to establish primary diagnosis of depression as well as ruling out any exclusion criteria. Both treatments consist of eight modules over 10 weeks, complemented with therapist support through text messages and weekly chat sessions. Primary outcome measure is the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology in Adolescents Self-Rated (QIDS-A17-SR). Primary outcome will be analysed using data from all participants entering the study using a multilevel growth curve strategy based on the weekly measurements of QIDS-A17-SR. The non-inferiority margin is defined as d = 0.30. DISCUSSION: This trial will demonstrate whether IPDT is non-inferior to ICBT in the treatment of adolescent depression. The study might therefore broaden the range of evidence-based treatment alternatives for young people struggling with depression. Further analyses of data from this trial may increase our knowledge about "what works for whom" and the pathways of change for two distinct types of interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN12552584 , Registered on 13 August 2019.

2.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-20, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603632

RESUMO

Arabic-speaking immigrants and refugees constitute one of the largest immigrant groups in Sweden. Previous research on Arabic-speaking immigrants indicates elevated levels of psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the efficacy of an internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment (ICBT) in an Arabic-speaking immigrant population. The intervention was individually tailored based on self-described problems and consisted of nine modules targeting areas such as depression, anxiety and insomnia. In total, 59 individuals were included and randomized to either an 8-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-reported symptoms of depression on the PHQ-9 were used as primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures of anxiety, stress, insomnia, quality of life and post-traumatic stress were also used. In the intention-to-treat analysis, depressive symptoms were significantly reduced compared to the wait-list control group with a between-group effect at post-treatment of Cohen's d = 0.85 [0.29, 1.41]. We also found significant between-group effects for symptoms of insomnia and stress, but not for anxiety, post-traumatic stress or quality of life measures. The results indicate that ICBT is a promising treatment approach for treating symptoms of depression, insomnia and stress, in an Arabic-speaking immigrant population. Further studies with larger samples are warranted.

3.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(7): 643-656, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of Body Project groups delivered virtually (vBP) by peer educators for prevention of eating disorders. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial vBP groups (N = 149) were compared with a placebo (expressive writing, EW: N = 148) over 24-month follow-up and to a waitlist control condition (N = 146) over 6-month follow-up among females (15-20 years old) with body image concerns. The primary outcome was incidence of eating disorder onset over 2-year follow-up measured by blinded diagnostic interviews. Waitlist participants were offered the vBP after 6 months. RESULTS: The incidence of eating disorders onset over 24 months follow up were 3 in vBP (2.0%) and 13 in EW (8.8%), a significant difference; Hazard Ratio (Experiment B) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.075, 0.92], p = .037. Incidence of eating disorder onset in vBP participants was 77% less than in EW participants. The vBP participants generally showed significantly greater reduction in eating disorder symptoms, clinical impairment, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of thin ideal compared with the waitlist participants at postintervention and 6-month follow-up, and in eating disorder symptoms, restraint, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of thin ideal compared with the EW participants at postintervention, and 6-, 12-, 18-, or 24-months follow-up. EW participants reported significantly greater reduction in clinical impairment and body dissatisfaction at postintervention compared with the waitlist participants. CONCLUSIONS: The present reduction in the incidence of eating disorders is notable given that the intervention was implemented virtually, rather than in-person. The vBP might be a viable option for future evaluation of scalable prevention of eating disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584117

RESUMO

Objective: Sudden gains during psychotherapy have been found to be predictive of positive treatment outcomes. Previous attempts at predicting occurrence of sudden gains have yielded equivocal findings. Recently, intraindividual variability in symptoms during treatment was suggested as a trans-therapeutic and trans-diagnostic predictor of sudden gains. The goal of the present study was to examine this predictor in Internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to examine whether this predictor predicts sudden gains when measured before treatment begins. Method: We examined data from a preregistered randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD (n = 101). We measured variability in symptoms both within-treatment and before treatment (i.e. during waitlist). Results: Intraindividual variability in symptoms significantly predicted sudden gains both when measured before treatment or within-treatment and correctly classified 84% and 83% of individuals to sudden gains versus non-sudden gains status, respectively. Conclusions: Intraindividual variability in symptoms can predict sudden gains in Internet-delivered treatment for SAD, thus supporting its trans-diagnostic and trans-therapeutic nature. Predicting sudden gains before treatment begins has implications for treatment planning and clinical decision making as well as for personalized tailoring of interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 382, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a particularly common condition and can have debilitating psychological consequences for certain people. Although several interventions have been helpful in teaching individuals to better cope with tinnitus, no cure exists at present. Neurofeedback is an emerging treatment modality in tinnitus. Previous studies, utilising an alpha/delta training protocol, have shown promise. However, they were characterised by small sample sizes and a lack of neurofeedback control conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether an alpha/delta neurofeedback training protocol, compared to beta/theta neurofeedback or a diary control group, is effective in reducing not only the tinnitus sound perception but also the psychological symptoms associated with the condition. METHODS: The study is designed as a three-armed randomised controlled trial. Participants are randomly assigned to a) an established neurofeedback protocol for tinnitus (alpha/delta training), b) an active control group (beta/theta training) or c) a diary control group. In the 4-week intervention period, participants in both neurofeedback groups undergo 10 sessions, whereas participants in the diary control group complete a bi-weekly diary. The primary outcomes are between group differences in tinnitus sound perception change, as measured with the Tinnitus Magnitude Index (TMI), and changes in tinnitus distress, measured with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), 4 weeks after the start of the intervention. Secondary outcome measures include changes in tinnitus distress, sleep quality, depressive symptoms and whether neurofeedback leads to specific power changes in the trained frequency bands. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of an alpha/delta neurofeedback training protocol in reducing tinnitus sound perception and the distress associated with the condition. Compared to former studies, the present study is designed to assess both the specificity of an alpha/delta neurofeedback training protocol by including an active comparator and beta/theta neurofeedback training, in addition to controlling for placebo effects by the inclusion of a diary control group. This study aims to contribute to an understanding of the influences of both specific and non-specific effects in neurofeedback treatment for tinnitus. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03550430. Registered on 27 May 2018.

7.
JMIR Ment Health ; 7(4): e16817, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant body of evidence on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of internet interventions, the implementation of such programs in Portugal is virtually non-existent. In addition, Portuguese psychologists' use and their attitudes towards such interventions is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore Portuguese psychologists' knowledge, training, use and attitudes towards internet interventions; to investigate perceived advantages and limitations of such interventions; identify potential drivers and barriers impacting implementation; and study potential factors associated to previous use and attitudes towards internet interventions. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was developed by the authors and disseminated by the Portuguese Psychologists Association to its members. RESULTS: A total of 1077 members of the Portuguese Psychologists Association responded to the questionnaire between November 2018 and February 2019. Of these, 37.2% (N=363) were familiar with internet interventions and 19.2% (N=188) considered having the necessary training to work within the field. 29.6% (N=319) of participants reported to have used some form of digital technology to deliver care in the past. Telephone (23.8%; N=256), e-mail (16.2%; N=175) and SMS (16.1%; N=173) services were among the most adopted forms of digital technology, while guided (1.3%; N=14) and unguided (1.5%; N=16) internet interventions were rarely used. Accessibility (79.9%; N=860), convenience (45.7%; N=492) and cost-effectiveness (45.5%; N=490) were considered the most important advantages of internet interventions. Conversely, ethical concerns (40.7%; N=438), client's ICT illiteracy (43.2%; N=465) and negative attitudes towards internet interventions (37%; N=398) were identified as the main limitations. An assessment of participants attitudes towards internet interventions revealed a slightly negative/neutral stance (Median=46.21; SD=15.06) and revealed greater acceptability towards blended treatment interventions (62.9%; N=615) when compared to standalone internet interventions (18.6%; N=181). Significant associations were found between knowledge (χ24=90.4; P<.001), training (χ24=94.6; P<.001), attitudes (χ23=38.4; P<.001) and previous use of internet interventions and between knowledge (χ212=109.7; P<.001), training (χ212=64.7; P<.001) and attitudes towards such interventions, with psychologists reporting to be ignorant and not having adequate training in the field, being more likely to present more negative attitudes towards these interventions and not having prior experience in its implementation. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that most Portuguese psychologists are not familiar with and have no training or prior experience using internet interventions and had a slightly negative/neutral attitude towards such interventions. There was greater acceptability towards blended treatment interventions compared to standalone internet interventions. Lack of knowledge and training were identified as the main barriers to overcome, underlining the need of promoting awareness and training initiatives to ensure internet interventions successful implementation.

8.
Trials ; 21(1): 355, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last few decades, effective psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been developed, but many patients are currently unable to access these treatments. There is initial evidence that therapist-assisted internet-based psychological treatments are effective for PTSD and may help increase access, but it remains unclear which of these treatments work best and are most acceptable to patients. This randomised controlled trial will compare a trauma-focussed and a nontrauma-focussed therapist-assisted cognitive behavioural Internet treatment for PTSD: Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD (iCT-PTSD) and internet-delivered stress management therapy (iStress-PTSD). METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial comparing iCT-PTSD, iStress-PTSD and a 13-week wait-list condition, with an embedded process study. Assessors of treatment outcome will be blinded to trial arm. Two hundred and seventeen participants who meet DSM-5 criteria for PTSD will be randomly allocated by a computer programme to iCT-PTSD, iStress-PTSD or wait-list at a 3:3:1 ratio. The primary assessment point is at 13 weeks, and further assessments are taken at 6, 26, 39 and 65 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the severity of PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Secondary measures of PTSD symptoms are the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Other symptoms and well-being will be assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), WHO (Five) Well-Being Index, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Endicott Quality of Life Scale (QoL), and Insomnia Sleep Index (ISI). Health economics analyses will consider quality of life, productivity, health resource utilisation, employment status and state benefits, and treatment delivery costs. Process analyses will investigate candidate mediators and moderators of outcome. Patient experience will be assessed by interview and questionnaire. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first to compare the efficacy of a trauma-focussed and nontrauma-focussed therapist-assisted online cognitive behavioural treatment for people with posttraumatic stress disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16806208. Registered prospectively on 5 January 2018.

9.
JMIR Serious Games ; 8(2): e17807, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality exposure therapy is an efficacious treatment of anxiety disorders, and recent research suggests that such treatments can be automated, relying on gamification elements instead of a real-life therapist directing treatment. Such automated, gamified treatments could be disseminated without restrictions, helping to close the treatment gap for anxiety disorders. Despite initial findings suggesting high efficacy, very is little is known about how users experience this type of intervention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine user experiences of automated, gamified virtual reality exposure therapy using in-depth qualitative methods. METHODS: Seven participants were recruited from a parallel clinical trial comparing automated, gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia against an in vivo exposure equivalent. Participants received the same virtual reality treatment as in the trial and completed a semistructured interview afterward. The transcribed material was analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Many of the uncovered themes pertained directly or indirectly to a sense of presence in the virtual environment, both positive and negative. The automated format was perceived as natural and the gamification elements appear to have been successful in framing the experience not as psychotherapy devoid of a therapist but rather as a serious game with a psychotherapeutic goal. CONCLUSIONS: Automated, gamified virtual reality exposure therapy appears to be an appealing treatment modality and to work by the intended mechanisms. Findings from the current study may guide the next generation of interventions and inform dissemination efforts and future qualitative research into user experiences.

10.
Internet Interv ; : 100322, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328440

RESUMO

Background: Migration is a challenging life transition that may be a source of various problems related to well-being and mental health. However, the psychological adaptation of migrants may be potentially facilitated by social self-efficacy-the beliefs in one's ability to initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships. Previous research suggests that social self-efficacy is positively related to adjustment and negatively related to loneliness, depression, and psychological distress. Research also confirms that self-efficacy beliefs can be effectively enhanced using Internet-based interventions. These results served as a background for creating the New in Town, a self-help Internet-based intervention for internal migrants in Poland that aims at increasing social self-efficacy. Exercises in the intervention are based on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and relate to sources of self-efficacy beliefs: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and emotional and physiological states. Users complete increasingly challenging tasks that encourage them to interact with their environment. The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of the New in Town intervention. Methods: The efficacy of the New in Town intervention will be tested in a two-arm randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control group. Social self-efficacy will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will include loneliness, perceived social support, and satisfaction with life. Additionally, we will measure user experience among participants allocated to the experimental group. We aim to recruit a total of N = 280 participants aged at least 18 years who have changed their place of residence in the last 6 months and have an Internet connection. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3-week post-test, and 8-week follow-up. Discussion: The trial will provide insights into the efficacy of Internet-based self-help interventions in increasing social self-efficacy. Given that the intervention works, New in Town could provide an easily accessible support option for internal migrants in Poland. Trial registration: The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04088487) on 11th September 2019.

11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 212, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a globally widespread condition with complex clusters of symptoms within a heterogeneous patient group. Internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (IACT) has shown promising results in the treatment of chronic pain. How IACT is experienced by patients is less well known. Qualitative studies of patients' experiences are needed to further understand factors behind both engagement and negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore how IACT was experienced by chronic pain patients who had participated in a controlled trial. METHODS: Through an open and exploratory approach this study aimed to investigate how IACT was experienced when delivered as a guided self-help program to persons with chronic pain. Eleven participants were interviewed over telephone after completing IACT. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis based on grounded theory resulted in 2 core categories and 8 subcategories. In treatment: Physical and cognitive restraints, Time and deadline, Therapist contact, and Self-confrontation. After treatment: Attitude to pain, Image of pain, Control or Command, and Acting with pain. Individual differences as well as specific conditions of the treatment may explain variations in how the treatment was approached, experienced and what consequences it led to. Therapist guidance and deadlines for homework play complex roles in relation to autonomy and change. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting treatment content and format based on participants' characteristics, such as expectations, motivation and restraints, might positively affect engagement, autonomy and change. Further research on attrition and negative effects of treatment might clarify what enables chronic pain patients to benefit from IACT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01603797). Registered 22 May 2012. Retrospectively registered.

12.
Int J Med Inform ; 138: 104133, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent condition in children and adolescents. Although there are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for this disorder, barriers in accessing evidence-based treatments are still a major problem. Digital health interventions are promising for multiple mental health problems. Recent years have brought an increase in the number of existing mobile apps designed for the management of ADHD. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing mobile apps designed for ADHD in terms of general characteristics, empirical support for their development and efficacy/ effectiveness, and to describe the content and design of the four most downloaded ADHD apps. METHOD: We conducted systematic searches on iTunes/iOS (Apple App Store), Google Play and the National Health Service Health Apps Library up to May 2017 and checked for changes in March and September 2019. We included those apps that were designed for ADHD, target assessment, treatment, or both, were in English and were functional. We identified 355 apps in the virtual stores, out of which we included 109 apps in the present systematic review. For each app we extracted the following information: target population, developer, price, number of downloads, ratings, privacy, available language other than English, category, purpose and empirical support. A second search was conducted in literature databases up to September 2019: PsycINFO, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane database. RESULTS: We found 109 ADHD apps in the virtual stores available to both young and adult populations, developed for children, adolescents, parents, teachers, and professionals. Most of the apps included are designed for treatment, or ADHD symptoms assessment, however, we found several apps designed for both assessment and treatment purposes. Very few apps contained information regarding their development and none contained information regarding evidence for its efficacy/ effectiveness. Four apps were the most downloaded, with 10,000 (three apps) to 100,000-500,000 (one app) downloads. Out of 51 papers identified through systematic searches in the literature, we identified only one study that met our inclusion criteria, however, this study was published in 2018, outside of the 2017 app store search, therefore, there is no overlap between evidence in the literature and apps on the market. CONCLUSIONS: Given the large proliferation of mental health apps and their potential benefits in terms of dissemination and costs, future research needs to be conducted in order to establish the safety and efficacy of ADHD apps available on the commercial market.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(3): e18047, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression is one of the largest health issues in the world and there is a pressing need for effective and accessible treatments. OBJECTIVE: This trial examines whether affect-focused internet-based psychodynamic therapy (IPDT) with therapist support is more effective than an internet-based supportive control condition on reducing depression in adolescents. METHODS: The trial included 76 adolescents (61/76, 80% female; mean age 16.6 years), self-referred via an open access website and fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder. Adolescents were randomized to 8 weeks of IPDT (38/76, 50%) or supportive control (38/76, 50%). The primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms, measured with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology for Adolescents (QIDS-A17-SR). Secondary outcomes were anxiety severity, emotion regulation, self-compassion, and an additional depression measure. Assessments were made at baseline, postassessment, and at 6 months follow-up, in addition to weekly assessments of the primary outcome measure as well as emotion regulation during treatment. RESULTS: IPDT was significantly more effective than the control condition in reducing depression (d=0.82, P=.01), the result of which was corroborated by the second depression measure (d=0.80, P<.001). IPDT was also significantly more effective in reducing anxiety (d=0.78, P<.001) and increasing emotion regulation (d=0.97, P<.001) and self-compassion (d=0.65, P=.003). Significantly more patients in the IPDT group compared to the control group met criteria for response (56% vs 21%, respectively) and remission (35% vs 8%, respectively). Results on depression and anxiety symptoms were stable at 6 months follow-up. On average, participants completed 5.8 (SD 2.4) of the 8 modules. CONCLUSIONS: IPDT may be an effective intervention to reduce adolescent depression. Further research is needed, including comparisons with other treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 16206254; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN16206254.

14.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-14, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213046

RESUMO

Clinical supervision is a cornerstone in psychotherapists' training but there are few empirical evaluations on the effects of supervision on therapists' competencies. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of standardized supervision on rater-assessed competency in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Six therapists with basic training in CBT were provided with protocol-based clinical supervision in CBT in a single-case experimental multiple baseline design. The supervision focused on specific CBT competencies and used experiential learning methods such as role-play. Each therapist recorded weekly treatment sessions during phases without and with supervision. The therapists' CBT competence was assessed by third-party raters using the Revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R). Statistical analyses showed that the therapists' CTS-R scores increased significantly during the phase with supervision with a mean item increase of M = 0.71 (range = 0.50-1.0) on the supervision focus areas. This is one of the first empirical studies that can confirm that supervision affect CBT competencies. The results also suggest that supervision can be manualized and that supervisees have a positive perception of more active training methods. Further studies are needed to replicate the results and to find ways to improve the impact of supervision.

15.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(2): 653-664, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with psychological distress and lowered daily functioning. The availability of psychological interventions tailored for people with Parkinson is very limited. OBJECTIVE: To study if guided individually-tailored internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) provide additional value to standard medical treatment for PD. METHODS: Seventy-seven individuals with PD and self-reported problems with general function measured with the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS > 15) were randomized to 10 weeks of either ICBT combined with standard medical treatment, or standard medical treatment plus being on waitlist to ICBT (CONTROL). Change in the main outcome WSAS, as well as secondary measures such as quality of life, depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms were investigated post treatment. RESULTS: Participants receiving ICBT reported significantly higher functioning after treatment (WSAS group difference -4.56, controlled effect size g = 0.69, significant group by time interaction, Wχ2= 26.23, p = 0.001). However, only around one third of participants in the treatment group were classified as treatment responders, defined as having a 30% reduction on the WSAS post treatment. Patient involvement and ratings of ICBT credibility were high. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms were significantly lower after treatment compared to CONTROL. There were also positive effects on Parkinson-specific function and quality of life in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: ICBT as an addition to standard medical treatment was credible and improved functioning for some individuals with PD. Still, the treatment needs further development in order to help a larger proportion of individuals with PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02627885.

16.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 48(4): 432-441, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is a promising format for treating different psychiatric disorders. In addition, several clinical trials have found positive results when using it to target transdiagnostic processes, such as perfectionism. However, few qualitative investigations have been conducted on the experiences of clients undergoing such treatments. METHOD: In the current study, clients completing 12-week guided ICBT for perfectionism responded to open-ended questions at post-treatment. In total, 30 out of 62 (48.4%) described their impressions of its content and the support provided by their guide. RESULTS: The results were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Five themes were found in the responses: Learning how to do things differently, Noticing the positives, Feeling safe to be honest, A comfortable treatment format and Barriers to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that many clients were able to achieve a change in perspective in relation to their perfectionism and started facing their fears. They were also able to report the benefits of doing things differently as part of treatment, such as an improvement in their interpersonal relationships. Most clients were also positive about the treatment format, enjoying its flexibility and the encouragement offered by their therapist. However, obstacles such as conflicting commitments, personal difficulties, time-consuming and comprehensive treatment modules, and a desire for more support were brought up by some, suggesting that there are aspects that could be considered in the future.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e032312, 2020 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a digital intervention to support antidepressant discontinuation in UK primary care that is scalable, accessible, safe and feasible. In this paper, we describe the development using a theory, evidence and person-based approach. DESIGN: Intervention development using a theory, evidence and person-based approach. SETTING: Primary Care in the South of England. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen participants with a range of antidepressant experience took part in 'think aloud' interviews for intervention optimisation. INTERVENTION: Our digital intervention prototype (called 'ADvisor') was developed on the basis of a planning phase consisting of qualitative and quantitative reviews, an in-depth qualitative study, the development of guiding principles and a theory-based behavioural analysis. Our optimisation phase consisted of 'think aloud' interviews where the intervention was iteratively refined. RESULTS: The qualitative systematic review and in-depth qualitative study highlighted the centrality of fear of depression relapse as a key barrier to discontinuation. The quantitative systematic review showed that psychologically informed approaches such as cognitive-behavioural therapy were associated with greater rates of discontinuation than simple advice to reduce. Following a behavioural diagnosis based on the behaviour change wheel, social cognitive theory provided a theoretical basis for the intervention. The intervention was optimised on the basis of think aloud interviews, where participants suggested they like the flexibility of the system and found it reassuring. Changes were made to the tone of the material and the structure was adjusted based on this qualitative feedback. CONCLUSIONS: 'ADvisor' is a theory, evidence and person-based digital intervention designed to support antidepressant discontinuation. The intervention was perceived as helpful and reassuring in optimisation interviews. Trials are now needed to determine the feasibility, clinical and cost-effectiveness of this approach.

18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(3): e16660, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated virtual reality exposure therapies (VRETs) are self-help treatments conducted by oneself and supported by a virtual therapist embodied visually and/or with audio feedback. This simulates many of the nonspecific relational elements and common factors present in face-to-face therapy and may be a means of improving adherence to and efficacy of self-guided treatments. However, little is known about alliance toward the virtual therapist, despite alliance being an important predictor of treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the first alliance instrument developed for use with embodied virtual therapists in an automated treatment format-the Virtual Therapist Alliance Scale (VTAS)-by (1) assessing its psychometric properties, (2) verifying the dimensionality of the scale, and (3) determining the predictive ability of the scale with treatment outcome. METHODS: A psychometric evaluation and exploratory factor analysis of the VTAS was conducted using data from two samples of spider-fearful patients treated with VRET and the help of an embodied, voice-based virtual therapist (n=70). Multiple regression models and bivariate correlations were used to assess the VTAS relationship with treatment outcome, according to self-reported fear and convergence with presence and user-friendliness process measures. RESULTS: The VTAS showed a sound two-factor solution composed of a primary factor covering task, goal, and copresence; adequate internal consistency; and good convergent validity, including moderate correlation (r=.310, P=.01) with outcomes over follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that alliance toward a virtual therapist is a significant predictor of treatment outcome, favors the importance of a task-goal over bond-factor, and should be explored in studies with larger sample sizes and in additional forms of embodiment.

19.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(3): 269-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a transdiagnostic clinical phenomenon that can significantly impact mental health and well-being across the lifespan. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to combine existing theory and evidence-based treatment approaches to propose a comprehensive transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral analysis of the maintenance of chronic loneliness relevant across disorders, age groups, and populations. METHOD: A distillation and matching model-framework approach was taken to identify interventions designed to reduce loneliness. Eligible studies were coded for the presence of practice elements. The findings were combined with an analysis of the broader literature on loneliness and psychopathology to derive a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral analysis of the maintenance of loneliness over time across populations. RESULTS: The search yielded 11 studies containing 14 practice elements with relative frequencies ranging from 7% to 64%. The identified practice elements target putative mechanisms such as negative interpersonal appraisals, anxiety, and social skills deficits. Counterproductive behavior and cognitive processes such as self-focused attention were identified as maintenance factors based on the broader literature. A modular transdiagnostic model with multiple pathways is proposed to be consistent with the existing theoretical and treatment literature. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the distillation and matching model framework with existing theory from the literature is a novel approach for developing a model of factors that maintain loneliness over time. The model has varying treatment implications for different populations including children with autism spectrum disorders and bereaved older adults. Targeting transdiagnostic processes has the potential to transform interventions for loneliness across a range of formats and settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

20.
Behav Ther ; 51(1): 54-68, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005340

RESUMO

Loneliness has been described as a common source of discomfort based on a subjective discrepancy between the actual and desired social situation. For some people this feeling may become a sustained state that is associated with a wide range of psychiatric and psychosocial problems. While there are few existing treatment protocols, interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have shown positive effects. The current study investigated the efficacy of an 8-week internet-based treatment containing CBT components aimed at reducing feelings of loneliness. Seventy-three participants were recruited from the general public and randomly allocated to treatment or a wait-list control condition. Participants were assessed with standardized self-report measures of loneliness, depression, social anxiety, worry, and quality of life at pretreatment and posttreatment. Robust linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant treatment effects on the primary outcome measure of loneliness (between group Cohen's d = 0.77), and on secondary outcomes measuring quality of life and social anxiety relative to control at postassessment. The results suggest the potential utility of internet-based CBT in alleviating loneliness but more research on the long-term effects and the mechanisms underlying the effects is needed.

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