Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 566
Filtrar
1.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-13, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254892

RESUMO

The current study investigated the impact of an 8-module internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for perfectionism (ICBT-P) across a variety of perfectionism subscales. Undergraduate students who identified as having a problem with perfectionism were randomized to receive the intervention (n = 41), and were free to choose the number of treatment modules they completed over a 4-week period, while the control group (N = 48) received access to treatment 8 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary measures included depression, anxiety, stress, body image and self-compassion. Assessments occurred at baseline, 2-, 4- and 8-week time points. A mean of 3.12 (SD = 2.67) modules were completed; 7 participants (17%) completed none and 6 (15%) completed all. Linear mixed modelling (with baseline observation included as a covariate) showed significant Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc between-group differences for 5 of the 6 perfectionism measures, favouring the intervention group; the most robust between group effect sizes were for the Concern over Mistakes (d = -0.82), High Standards (d = -0.69), and Perfectionistic Standards (d = -0.47) subscales. There were no between-group differences for our secondary measures. ICBT-P was found to be an effective intervention for reducing different components of perfectionism compared to a control group. The relatively low use of modules may have contributed to a lack of effect on secondary measures.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) Trial Number: ACTRN12620000562976.

2.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14684, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Meaningfully grouping individuals with tinnitus who share the common characteristics (i.e., subgrouping, phenotyping) may help tailor interventions to certain tinnitus subgroups and hence reduce outcome variability. The purpose of this study was to test if the presence of tinnitus subgroups are discernible based on hearing-related comorbidities, and to identify predictors of tinnitus severity for each subgroup identified. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was used. The study was nested within an online survey distributed worldwide to investigate tinnitus experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main outcome measure was the tinnitus Handicap Inventory- Screening Version RESULTS: From the 3400 respondents, 2,980 were eligible adults with tinnitus with an average age of 58 years (SD= 14.7) with 50% (n= 1,457) being female. A three-cluster solution identified distinct subgroups, namely, those with tinnitus but no hearing loss (n = 1,306; 44%), those presenting with tinnitus and hyperacusis and/or misophonia (n = 795; 27%), and those with tinnitus and hearing loss (n = 879; 29%). Those with tinnitus and hyperacusis reported the highest tinnitus severity (M= 20.3; SD= 10.5) and those with tinnitus and no hearing loss had the lowest tinnitus severity (M= 15.7; SD= 10.4). Younger age and the presence of mental health problems predicted greater tinnitus severity for all groups (ß≤ -.1, p≤ .016). CONCLUSION: Further exploration of these potential subtypes are needed in both further research and clinical practice by initially triaging tinnitus patients prior to their clinical appointments based on the presence of hearing-related comorbidities. Unique management pathways and interventions could be tailored for each tinnitus subgroup.

3.
Psychother Psychosom ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic loneliness has been linked to many adverse outcomes, including mental health problems. Psychological treatment of loneliness can be effective, but the evidence base is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of 2 internet-based interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IIPT) relative to a wait-list control group and each other. METHODS: A total of 170 participants were recruited and randomized to either 9 weeks of ICBT (n = 68), IIPT (n = 68), or a wait-list condition (n = 34). The primary outcome was loneliness, measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale before, during, and after treatment. Secondary measures of psychiatric disorders and quality of life were administered before and after treatment. Follow-up was conducted 4 months after the treatment had ended. Primary outcome data were analyzed using growth curve modeling. Secondary outcomes were analyzed using robust regression models. The trial was preregistered (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03807154). RESULTS: The ICBT condition had a significantly greater impact on loneliness compared to the wait-list and IIPT conditions. Effect sizes were moderate to large (Cohen d = 0.71) compared to the wait-list and moderate (d = 0.53) compared to IIPT. The IIPT condition did not differ significantly from the wait-list. Both active treatments led to significant increases in quality of life. Only the ICBT group had significantly lower symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety compared to the wait-list group. Treatment gains were maintained but not improved at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: ICBT can be an efficacious option for alleviating loneliness. The IIPT intervention was not as effective.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 288, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is a promising treatment for refugee and immigrant populations suffering from common mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate experiences of participating in a guided ICBT program among resettled Arabic-speaking individuals suffering from symptoms of anxiety and depression. METHODS: Ten individuals who had previously received ICBT consented to participate and were interviewed using semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were conducted 10 months after treatment termination. Data were transcribed and analysed using a Thematic Analysis framework. RESULTS: The Thematic Analysis resulted in five overarching themes 1) The importance of being seen, 2) New ways of knowing and doing, 3) Treatment format not for everyone, 4) Changing attitudes towards mental health and help-seeking and 5) The healthcare system as a complex puzzle. Participants described varying levels of success in applying the new information learned from the treatment in their everyday lives. The results also indicate that participation in the ICBT program to some extent mitigated mental health stigma and acted as a precursor to other forms of treatment seeking. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in the present study are largely in line with previous qualitative research studies on ICBT participants. Future research should investigate whether a more explicit focus on refugee-specific stressors and barriers to treatment engagement and implementation can increase adherence to ICBT programs in this population.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão , Ansiedade , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Internet , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Audiol ; 30(2): 404-415, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029120

RESUMO

Purpose Tinnitus, or the perception of sounds that occur without an external sound source, is a prevalent condition worldwide. For a subset of adults, tinnitus causes significant distress and impairment. Several patient-reported outcome measures have been developed to assess severity of tinnitus distress. However, at present, the field lacks a brief measure that is sensitive to treatment change. The purpose of the current study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief questionnaire for tinnitus severity from two existing measures of tinnitus-related distress, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Method Using data from nine study samples in the United States and United Kingdom, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify a short measure with good psychometric properties. We also assessed sensitivity to treatment-related change by examining associations with change in the TFI and THI. Finally, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the final short questionnaire in a new sample of adults seeking treatment for tinnitus-related distress. Results We identified 10 items from the THI and TFI that exhibited limited loadings on secondary factors. The resulting Tinnitus Severity Short Form achieved good to excellent fit, including in a unique sample of individuals seeking online treatment for tinnitus, and appeared sensitive to treatment-related change. Conclusions The Tinnitus Severity Short Form developed in the current study may be a useful tool for the assessment of subjective severity and distress associated with tinnitus, especially when patient burden is a concern. Further research is necessary to fully validate the questionnaire for the assessment of treatment-related change.

6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(6): 500-511, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom. METHODS: We did a systematic review and individual participant data component network meta-analysis (cNMA) of iCBT trials for depression. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from database inception to Jan 1, 2019, that compared any form of iCBT against another or a control condition in the acute treatment of adults (aged ≥18 years) with depression. Studies with inpatients or patients with bipolar depression were excluded. We sought individual participant data from the original authors. When these data were unavailable, we used aggregate data. Two independent researchers identified the included components. The primary outcome was depression severity, expressed as incremental mean difference (iMD) in the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores when a component is added to a treatment. We developed a web app that estimates relative efficacies between any two combinations of components, given baseline patient characteristics. This study is registered in PROSPERO, CRD42018104683. FINDINGS: We identified 76 RCTs, including 48 trials contributing individual participant data (11 704 participants) and 28 trials with aggregate data (6474 participants). The participants' weighted mean age was 42·0 years and 12 406 (71%) of 17 521 reported were women. There was suggestive evidence that behavioural activation might be beneficial (iMD -1·83 [95% credible interval (CrI) -2·90 to -0·80]) and that relaxation might be harmful (1·20 [95% CrI 0·17 to 2·27]). Baseline severity emerged as the strongest prognostic factor for endpoint depression. Combining human and automated encouragement reduced dropouts from treatment (incremental odds ratio, 0·32 [95% CrI 0·13 to 0·93]). The risk of bias was low for the randomisation process, missing outcome data, or selection of reported results in most of the included studies, uncertain for deviation from intended interventions, and high for measurement of outcomes. There was moderate to high heterogeneity among the studies and their components. INTERPRETATION: The individual patient data cNMA revealed potentially helpful, less helpful, or harmful components and delivery formats for iCBT packages. iCBT packages aiming to be effective and efficient might choose to include beneficial components and exclude ones that are potentially detrimental. Our web app can facilitate shared decision making by therapist and patient in choosing their preferred iCBT package. FUNDING: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Internet , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sistemas
7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14196, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinnitus severity has been exacerbated because of the COVID-19 pandemic and those with tinnitus require additional support. Such support should be informed by patient preferences and needs. The objective of this study was to gather information from individuals with tinnitus living in Europe to inform stakeholders of the (a) support they needed in relation to changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and (b) suggestions regarding tinnitus care for the future. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed method study design was used using closed and open-ended questions via an online survey. Data were gathered from 710 adults experiencing tinnitus in Western Europe, with the majority living in The Netherlands, Belgium and Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Those with tinnitus indicated the following support needs during the pandemic (a) support for tinnitus, (b) support for hearing-related difficulties, (c) social support and (d) pandemic-related support. Five directions for future tinnitus care were provided, namely, (a) need for understanding professional support and access to multidisciplinary experts, (b) greater range of therapies and resources, (c) access to more information about tinnitus, (d) prioritising tinnitus research and (e) more support for hearing protection and hearing loss prevention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings point to the need for accessible (remote), patient-centred, suitable and evidence-based tinnitus care. Insights from the current study can be used by various stakeholders including clinical practitioners and tinnitus support services to ensure those with tinnitus have access to the help and support required in order to reduce service provision insufficiencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Zumbido , Adulto , Bélgica , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Suécia , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Zumbido/terapia
8.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(4): e21444, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinnitus Talk is a nonprofit online self-help forum. Asking inactive users about their reasons for discontinued usage of health-related online platforms such as Tinnitus Talk is important for quality assurance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore reasons for discontinued use of Tinnitus Talk, and their associations to the perceptions of Tinnitus Talk and the age of users who ceased logging on to the platform. METHODS: Initially, 13,745 users that did not use Tinnitus Talk within the previous 2 months were contacted and the response rate was 20.47% (n=2814). After dataset filtering, a total of 2172 past members of Tinnitus Talk were included in the analyses. Nine predefined reasons for discontinued usage of Tinnitus Talk were included in the survey as well as one open question. Moreover, there were 14 predefined questions focusing on perception of Tinnitus Talk (usefulness, content, community, and quality of members' posts). Mixed methods analyses were performed. Frequencies and correlation coefficients were calculated for quantitative data, and grounded theory methodology was utilized for exploration of the qualitative data. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis revealed reasons for discontinued use of Tinnitus Talk as well as associations of these reasons with perceptions of Tinnitus Talk and age. Among the eight predefined reasons for discontinued use of Tinnitus Talk, the most frequently reported was not finding the information they were looking for (451/2695, 16.7%). Overall, the highest rated perception of Tinnitus Talk was content-related ease of understanding (mean 3.9, SD 0.64). A high number (nearly 40%) of participants provided additional free text explaining why they discontinued use. Qualitative analyses identified a total of 1654 specific reasons, more than 93% of which (n=1544) could be inductively coded. The coding system consisted of 33 thematically labeled codes clustered into 10 categories. The most frequent additional reason for discontinuing use was thinking that there is no cure or help for tinnitus symptoms (375/1544, 24.3%). Significant correlations (P<.001) were observed between reasons for discontinued usage and perception of Tinnitus Talk. Several reasons for discontinued usage were associated with the examined dimensions of perception of Tinnitus Talk (usefulness, content, community, as well as quality of members' posts). Moreover, significant correlations (P<.001) between age and reasons for discontinued use were found. Older age was associated with no longer using Tinnitus Talk because of not finding what they were looking for. In addition, older participants had a generally less positive perception of Tinnitus Talk than younger participants (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to understanding the reasons for discontinued usage of online self-help platforms, which are typically only reported according to the dropout rates. Furthermore, specific groups of users who did not benefit from Tinnitus Talk were identified, and several practical implications for improvement of the structure, content, and goals of Tinnitus Talk were suggested.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e21466, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregiving for a family member can result in reduced well-being for the caregiver. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) may be one way to support this population. This is especially the case for caregivers in countries with limited resources, but high demand for psychological services. OBJECTIVE: In this study we evaluated the effects of a therapist-guided 8-week-long ICBT intervention for informal caregivers. METHODS: In total, 63 participants were recruited online and randomized either to the intervention or to the wait-list control group. The main study outcome was the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI). Secondary outcomes included measures of caregiver depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. RESULTS: Moderate between-group effect sizes were observed for the CBI measure, in favor of the intervention group, with a Cohen d=-0.70 for the intention-to-treat analysis. Analyses of the subscales of the CBI showed significant reductions on the subscales of Development and Physical Health. Moderate reductions were found for depression and anxiety scores as indicated by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scores. Large between-group effects were observed for reduction in stress and increase in quality of life as indicated by the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14), The Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Scale (BBQ), and The World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5). In addition, participants experienced little to no difficulty in using the program and were mostly satisfied with the intervention's platform and the choice of content. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first internet intervention study for informal caregivers in Lithuania. The results suggest that therapist-guided ICBT can be effective in reducing caregiver burden, anxiety, depression, stress, and improving quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04052724; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04052724.

11.
Prog Brain Res ; 260: 1-25, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637213

RESUMO

As for hypertension, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders with particular symptoms, a commonly accepted and unambiguous definition provides a common ground for researchers and clinicians to study and treat the problem. The WHO's ICD11 definition only mentions tinnitus as a nonspecific symptom of a hearing disorder, but not as a clinical entity in its own right, and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-V doesn't mention tinnitus at all. Here we propose that the tinnitus without and with associated suffering should be differentiated by distinct terms: "Tinnitus" for the former and "Tinnitus Disorder" for the latter. The proposed definition then becomes "Tinnitus is the conscious awareness of a tonal or composite noise for which there is no identifiable corresponding external acoustic source, which becomes Tinnitus Disorder "when associated with emotional distress, cognitive dysfunction, and/or autonomic arousal, leading to behavioural changes and functional disability.". In other words "Tinnitus" describes the auditory or sensory component, whereas "Tinnitus Disorder" reflects the auditory component and the associated suffering. Whereas acute tinnitus may be a symptom secondary to a trauma or disease, chronic tinnitus may be considered a primary disorder in its own right. If adopted, this will advance the recognition of tinnitus disorder as a primary health condition in its own right. The capacity to measure the incidence, prevalence, and impact will help in identification of human, financial, and educational needs required to address acute tinnitus as a symptom but chronic tinnitus as a disorder.

12.
Prog Brain Res ; 260: 79-99, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus experiences differ widely. A greater understanding of the core processes underlying these variations is needed. Moreover, meaningful definitions for different subgroups are required to better manage this heterogeneous population. The objective of the present research was to contribute toward the understanding of tinnitus heterogeneity by identifying factors that can predict tinnitus severity and to ascertain if distinct subgroups of tinnitus presentation can be identified. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of 326 adults subdivided into subgroups of those with mild tinnitus (n=32; 10%), significant tinnitus (n=99; 30%) and severe tinnitus (n=195; 60%) according to their scores from the Tinnitus Functional Index. Multiple regression was used to identify factors associated with tinnitus severity. These factors included personal traits, tinnitus-related traits, treatment modalities and clinical comorbidities. RESULTS: Insomnia, hearing distress, and anxiety were the best predictors of tinnitus severity (explaining 53% of the variability). These comorbidities were stronger predictors than any demographical factors (that explained 11% of the variability). Distinct subgroups based on tinnitus severity (mild, significant, and severe) and anxiety levels were evident. Those with severe tinnitus had significantly more severe comorbidities compared with the mild and significant groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that people with tinnitus could initially be grouped according to tinnitus severity to direct further management. Those with higher tinnitus severity should receive more immediate and intensive care. Due to the strong associations between tinnitus severity and tinnitus-related comorbidities (e.g., insomnia, hearing disability, and anxiety), tinnitus assessment and interventions should focus on these comorbidities.

13.
Psychother Res ; : 1-14, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines relationships among different aspects of therapeutic alliance with treatment outcome, adherence and attrition in internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for panic disorder. Methods: We examined alliance-outcome relationships in ICBT (N = 74) using a newly developed self-report alliance measure that disentangles alliance with program content (Internet Patient's Experience of Attunement and Responsiveness with the program; I-PEARp) and with the therapist (I-PEARt). We compared ICBT outcomes of patient rated and therapist-rated alliance with conventional alliance scales (WAI-6 and WAI-T). Results: Consistent with our hypothesis, I-PEARp and I-PEARt distinguished between different aspects of the alliance and predicted outcomes better than standard alliance scales. Furthermore, higher ratings of I-PEARp were associated with subsequent lower symptoms and lower symptoms were associated with higher subsequent alliance. In contrast, I-PEARt predicted adherence, but not symptoms. Although therapists' ratings of alliance (thI-PEAR) improved significantly during treatment, they did not predict subsequent symptoms, adherence, or dropout. Conclusion: Results indicate that the patient experience of the alliance in ICBT includes two aspects, each of which uniquely contributes to outcomes; patient connection to the program is related to symptom outcomes whereas the dyadic relationship with the therapist serves as the glue to allow the treatment to hold.

14.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 20(2): 124-131, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge about internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease, and its effects on depressive symptoms and physical activity. AIM: To examine trajectories of depressive symptoms and physical activity, and to explore if these trajectories are linked with the delivery of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. METHODS: A secondary-analysis of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a 9-week internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy programme compared to an online discussion forum on depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease patients. Data were collected at baseline, once weekly during the 9-week intervention period and at the 9-week follow-up. The Montgomery Åsberg depression rating scale - self-rating (MADRS-S) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Two modified items from the physical activity questionnaire measuring frequency and length of physical activity were merged to form a physical activity factor. RESULTS: After 2 weeks the internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy group had a temporary worsening in depressive symptoms. At 9-week follow-up, depressive symptoms (P<0.001) and physical activity (P=0.02) had improved more in the internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy group. Only in the internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy group, was a significant correlation (r=-0.39, P=0.002) between changes in depressive symptoms and changes in physical activity found. Structural equation analyses revealed that internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy decreased depressive symptoms, and that a decrease in depression, in turn, resulted in an increase in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy was more effective than an online discussion forum to decrease depressive symptoms and increase physical activity. Importantly, a decrease in depressive symptoms needs to precede an increase in physical activity.

15.
Nurs Open ; 8(4): 1755-1768, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609425

RESUMO

AIM: To test the effect of nurse-led Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (I-CBTI), tailored for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a 6-month follow-up. DESIGN: A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NTC03938805) and reported according to the CONSORT checklist. METHODS: Forty-eight patients (mean age 72 years, 65% men) diagnosed with CVD and insomnia were randomized to either 9-week nurse-led I-CBTI with support, or an Internet-based self-study programme without support (control group). Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) were used as primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: ISI showed a significant treatment effect of I-CBTI compared to the control group at 9-week follow-up. The mean ISI score in the I-CBTI group at 9 weeks post-treatment was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Patients' adherence to I-CBTI was associated with a better effect on both the ISI and SF-12.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e21445, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical professionals are exposed to multiple and often excessive demands in their work environment. Low-intensity internet interventions allow them to benefit from psychological support even when institutional help is not available. Focusing on enhancing psychological resources-self-efficacy and perceived social support-makes an intervention relevant for various occupations within the medical profession. Previously, these resources were found to operate both individually or sequentially with self-efficacy either preceding social support (cultivation process) or following it (enabling process). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to compare the efficacy of 4 variants of Med-Stress, a self-guided internet intervention that aims to improve the multifaceted well-being of medical professionals. METHODS: This study was conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N=1240) were recruited mainly via media campaigns and social media targeted ads. They were assigned to 1 of the following 4 groups: experimental condition reflecting the cultivation process, experimental condition reflecting the enabling process, active comparator enhancing only self-efficacy, and active comparator enhancing only perceived social support. Outcomes included 5 facets of well-being: job stress, job burnout, work engagement, depression, and job-related traumatic stress. Measurements were taken on the web at baseline (time 1), immediately after intervention (time 2), and at a 6-month follow-up (time 3). To analyze the data, linear mixed effects models were used on the intention-to-treat sample. The trial was partially blinded as the information about the duration of the trial, which was different for experimental and control conditions, was public. RESULTS: At time 2, job stress was lower in the condition reflecting the cultivation process than in the one enhancing social support only (d=-0.21), and at time 3, participants in that experimental condition reported the lowest job stress when compared with all 3 remaining study groups (ds between -0.24 and -0.41). For job-related traumatic stress, we found a significant difference between study groups only at time 3: stress was lower in the experimental condition in which self-efficacy was enhanced first than in the active comparator enhancing solely social support (d=-0.24). The same result was found for work engagement (d=-0.20), which means that it was lower in exactly the same condition that was found beneficial for stress relief. There were no differences between study conditions for burnout and depression neither at time 2 nor at time 3. There was a high dropout in the study (1023/1240, 82.50% at posttest), reflecting the pragmatic nature of this trial. CONCLUSIONS: The Med-Stress internet intervention improves some components of well-being-most notably job stress-when activities are completed in a specific sequence. The decrease in work engagement could support the notion of dark side of this phenomenon, but further research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03475290; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03475290. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-019-3401-9.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Estresse Ocupacional/terapia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , COVID-19 , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho
17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 44: 105-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483252

RESUMO

There is a recurring debate on the role of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the moderation of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in anxiety disorders. Results, however, are still inconclusive. We here aim to perform a meta-analysis on the role of 5-HTTLPR in the moderation of CBT outcome in anxiety disorders. We investigated both categorical (symptom reduction of at least 50%) and dimensional outcomes from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Original data were obtained from ten independent samples (including three unpublished samples) with a total of 2,195 patients with primary anxiety disorder. No significant effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype on categorical or dimensional outcomes at post and follow-up were detected. We conclude that current evidence does not support the hypothesis of 5-HTTLPR as a moderator of treatment outcome for CBT in anxiety disorders. Future research should address whether other factors such as long-term changes or epigenetic processes may explain further variance in these complex gene-environment interactions and molecular-genetic pathways that may confer behavioral change following psychotherapy.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(4): 361-371, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471111

RESUMO

Importance: Personalized treatment choices would increase the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for depression to the extent that patients differ in interventions that better suit them. Objective: To provide personalized estimates of short-term and long-term relative efficacy of guided and unguided iCBT for depression using patient-level information. Data Sources: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Library to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up to January 1, 2019. Study Selection: Eligible RCTs were those comparing guided or unguided iCBT against each other or against any control intervention in individuals with depression. Available individual patient data (IPD) was collected from all eligible studies. Depression symptom severity was assessed after treatment, 6 months, and 12 months after randomization. Data Extraction and Synthesis: We conducted a systematic review and IPD network meta-analysis and estimated relative treatment effect sizes across different patient characteristics through IPD network meta-regression. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores. Results: Of 42 eligible RCTs, 39 studies comprising 9751 participants with depression contributed IPD to the IPD network meta-analysis, of which 8107 IPD were synthesized. Overall, both guided and unguided iCBT were associated with more effectiveness as measured by PHQ-9 scores than control treatments over the short term and the long term. Guided iCBT was associated with more effectiveness than unguided iCBT (mean difference [MD] in posttreatment PHQ-9 scores, -0.8; 95% CI, -1.4 to -0.2), but we found no evidence of a difference at 6 or 12 months following randomization. Baseline depression was found to be the most important modifier of the relative association for efficacy of guided vs unguided iCBT. Differences between unguided and guided iCBT in people with baseline symptoms of subthreshold depression (PHQ-9 scores 5-9) were small, while guided iCBT was associated with overall better outcomes in patients with baseline PHQ-9 greater than 9. Conclusions and Relevance: In this network meta-analysis with IPD, guided iCBT was associated with more effectiveness than unguided iCBT for individuals with depression, benefits were more substantial in individuals with moderate to severe depression. Unguided iCBT was associated with similar effectiveness among individuals with symptoms of mild/subthreshold depression. Personalized treatment selection is entirely possible and necessary to ensure the best allocation of treatment resources for depression.

19.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(1): 67-87, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870126

RESUMO

Virtual Reality (VR) can be used as a therapeutic tool to conduct efficacious in-session exposure therapy by presenting virtual equivalents of phobic stimuli, yet past hardware restrictions hindered implementation in routine care and effectiveness studies. The current study examines the effectiveness of a VR-assisted treatment protocol for public speaking anxiety with demonstrated efficacy, this time in routine care, using affordable VR hardware. Participants (n = 23) were recruited via a private clinic and treated by one of four psychologists with only minimal VR-training. Using a single-subject design and dual-slope modeling (adjusting the treatment-onset slope for treatment effects), we found a significant, large decrease in self-rated public speaking anxiety following the primary three-hour session, similar in magnitude to the previous efficacy trial. Multilevel modeling of in-session process measures suggests that the protocol works as intended, by decreasing catastrophic belief expectancy and distress, and increasing perceived performance quality. Adherence to the online transition program that followed-encouraging in-vivo exposure-was relatively poor, yet symptoms decrease continued. No change was observed over the three-month follow-up period. We conclude that VR exposure therapy can be effective under routine care conditions and is an attractive approach for future, large-scale implementation and effectiveness trials.

20.
Psychother Res ; 31(4): 455-467, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799772

RESUMO

Objective: Sudden gains (SGs) have often been found associated with better treatment outcome across different psychiatric disorders. However, no studies have evaluated SGs in internet-based treatment targeting adolescent depression. Method: The sample consisted of 66 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder, attending psychodynamic internet-based treatment. Effects of SGs were evaluated at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. We also evaluated effects of large intersession improvements (LIIs; sudden and relatively large gains, between sessions, without the stability criterion). Effects of SGs and LIIs early in treatment were also investigated. Results: A total of 17 patients (25.75%) experienced an SG. The effect of having an SG or early SG was non-significant after treatment (d = 0.48) and at follow-up (d = 0.66). However, having an LII was related to better outcome after treatment (d = 0.97) and at follow-up (d = 0.76). Early LIIs were associated with significantly better results at end of treatment (d = 0.72). Conclusions: The original criteria of SGs might be overly conservative and thus miss important improvements in depression. Relatively large intersession gains, regardless of stability, seem to be predictive of outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Humanos , Internet , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...