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1.
Small ; 18(28): e2106762, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689307

RESUMO

Dense systems of magnetic nanoparticles may exhibit dipolar collective behavior. However, two fundamental questions remain unsolved: i) whether the transition temperature may be affected by the particle anisotropy or it is essentially determined by the intensity of the interparticle dipolar interactions, and ii) what is the minimum ratio of dipole-dipole interaction (Edd ) to nanoparticle anisotropy (Kef V, anisotropy⋅volume) energies necessary to crossover from individual to collective behavior. A series of particle assemblies with similarly intense dipolar interactions but widely varying anisotropy is studied. The Kef  is tuned through different degrees of cobalt-doping in maghemite nanoparticles, resulting in a variation of nearly an order of magnitude. All the bare particle compacts display collective behavior, except the one made with the highest anisotropy particles, which presents "marginal" features. Thus, a threshold of Kef V/Edd  ≈ 130 to suppress collective behavior is derived, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. This translates into a crossover value of ≈1.7 for the easily accessible parameter TMAX (interacting)/TMAX (non-interacting) (ratio of the peak temperatures of the zero-field-cooled magnetization curves of interacting and dilute particle systems), which is successfully tested against the literature to predict the individual-like/collective behavior of any given interacting particle assembly comprising relatively uniform particles.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Nanopartículas , Anisotropia , Cobalto , Transição de Fase
2.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 125(30): 16689-16699, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476037

RESUMO

Superionic phases of bulk anhydrous salts based on large cluster-like polyhedral (carba)borate anions are generally stable only well above room temperature, rendering them unsuitable as solid-state electrolytes in energy-storage devices that typically operate at close to room temperature. To unlock their technological potential, strategies are needed to stabilize these superionic properties down to subambient temperatures. One such strategy involves altering the bulk properties by confinement within nanoporous insulators. In the current study, the unique structural and ion dynamical properties of an exemplary salt, NaCB11H12, nanodispersed within porous, high-surface-area silica via salt-solution infiltration were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, neutron vibrational spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, quasielastic neutron scattering, and impedance spectroscopy. Combined results hint at the formation of a nanoconfined phase that is reminiscent of the high-temperature superionic phase of bulk NaCB11H12, with dynamically disordered CB11H12 - anions exhibiting liquid-like reorientational mobilities. However, in contrast to this high-temperature bulk phase, the nanoconfined NaCB11H12 phase with rotationally fluid anions persists down to cryogenic temperatures. Moreover, the high anion mobilities promoted fast-cation diffusion, yielding Na+ superionic conductivities of ∼0.3 mS/cm at room temperature, with higher values likely attainable via future optimization. It is expected that this successful strategy for conductivity enhancement could be applied as well to other related polyhedral (carba)borate-based salts. Thus, these results present a new route to effectively utilize these types of superionic salts as solid-state electrolytes in future battery applications.

3.
Chem Mater ; 33(8): 2967-2975, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054217

RESUMO

Perovskite-type oxyhydrides are hydride-ion-conducting materials of promise for several types of technological applications; however, the conductivity is often too low for practical use and, on a fundamental level, the mechanism of hydride-ion diffusion remains unclear. Here, we, with the use of neutron scattering techniques, investigate the diffusional dynamics of hydride ions in the layered perovskite-type oxyhydride SrVO2H. By monitoring the intensity of the elastically scattered neutrons upon heating the sample from 100 to 430 K, we establish an onset temperature for diffusional hydride-ion dynamics at about 250 K. Above this temperature, the hydride ions are shown to exhibit two-dimensional diffusion restricted to the hydride-ion sublattice of SrVO2H and that occurs as a series of jumps of a hydride ion to a neighboring hydride-ion vacancy, with an enhanced rate for backward jumps due to correlation effects. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the neutron scattering data shows that the localized jumps of hydride ions are featured by a mean residence time of the order of 10 ps with an activation energy of 0.1 eV. The long-range diffusion of hydride ions occurs on the timescale of 1 ns and with an activation energy of 0.2 eV. The hydride-ion diffusion coefficient is found to be of the order of 1 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 in the temperature range of 300-430 K, which is similar to other oxyhydrides but higher than for proton-conducting perovskite analogues. Tuning of the hydride-ion vacancy concentration in SrVO2H thus represents a promising gateway to improve the ionic conductivity of this already highly hydride-ion-conducting material.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 46(30): 9995-10002, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726886

RESUMO

A facile synthesis of 3d-metal based electro-catalysts directly incorporated into a carbon support was carried out by γ-radiation. Transition metals of period 4, i.e. Ni and Co, were precipitated and reduced from their respective salt solutions. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, SQUID and the BET methods. Thereafter, the electrodes for fuel cells were fabricated out of synthesized material and their electrochemical performance for the oxygen reduction reaction in 6 M KOH was measured. Although the concentrations of Co and Ni in the electrode material were low (3.4% Co and 0.4% Ni) after reduction by irradiation, both the Ni and Co-based gas diffusion electrodes showed high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction both at room temperature and at 60 °C.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 55(5): 2001-8, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914797

RESUMO

A novel synthesis method, "arc-melting-self-flux", has been developed and a series of five Tsai-type 1/1 approximant crystals in the Tb-Au-Si system have been synthesized. The synthesis method, by employing a temperature program which oscillates near the melting and nucleation points of the approximants, has provided high-quality and large single crystals in comparison to those obtained from the standard arc-melting-annealing and self-flux methods. The atomic structures of the approximants have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and described using concentric atomic clusters with icosahedral symmetry. The compounds are nearly isostructural with subtle variations; two types of atomic clusters which mainly vary at their cluster centers are observed. One type contains a Tb site at the center, and the other contains a disordered tetrahedron decorated with Au/Si mixed sites. Both cluster types can be found coexisting in the approximants. The compounds have different average weighted ratios of central Tb to disordered tetrahedron in the bulk material. Furthermore, a strategy for chemically tuning magnetic behavior is presented. Magnetic property measurements on the approximants revealed that the magnetic transition temperature (Tc) decreases as the occupancy of the central Tb site increases. Tc decreased from 11.5 K for 0% occupancy of the central Tb to 8 K for 100% occupancy. Enhanced magneto crystalline anisotropy is observed for the approximants with higher central Tb occupancy in comparison to their low central Tb occupancy counterparts. Hence, the previously reported "ferrimagnetic-like" magnetic structure model remains valid.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 55(1): 345-52, 2016 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669218

RESUMO

The hydride NdGaH1+x (x ≈ 0.66) and its deuterized analogue were obtained by sintering the Zintl phase NdGa with the CrB structure in a hydrogen atmosphere at pressures of 10-20 bar and temperatures near 300 °C. The system NdGa/NdGaH1+x exhibits reversible H storage capability. H uptake and release were investigated by kinetic absorption measurements and thermal desorption mass spectroscopy, which showed a maximum H concentration corresponding to "NdGaH2" (0.93 wt % H) and a two-step desorption process, respectively. The crystal structure of NdGaH1+x was characterized by neutron diffraction (P21/m, a = 4.1103(7), b = 4.1662(7), c = 6.464(1) Å, ß = 108.61(1)° Z = 2). H incorporates in NdGa by occupying two distinct positions, H1 and H2. H1 is coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by Nd atoms. The H2 position displays flexible occupancy, and H2 atoms attain a trigonal bipyramidal coordination by centering a triangle of Nd atoms and bridging two Ga atoms. The phase stability and electronic structure of NdGaH1+x were analyzed by first-principles DFT calculations. NdGaH1H2 (NdGaH2) may be expressed as Nd(3+)(H1(-))[GaH2](2-). The two-dimensional polyanion [GaH](2-) features linear -H-Ga-H-Ga- chains with alternating short (1.8 Å) and long (2.4 Å) Ga-H distances, which resembles a Peierls distortion. H2 deficiency (x < 1) results in the fragmentation of chains. For x = 0.66 arrangements with five-atom moieties, Ga-H-Ga-H-Ga are energetically most favorable. From magnetic measurements, the Curie-Weiss constant and effective magnetic moment of NdGaH1.66 were obtained. The former indicates antiferromagnetic interactions, and the latter attains a value of ∼3.6 µB, which is typical for compounds containing Nd(3+) ions.

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