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1.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397715

RESUMO

Biomechanical cadaver testing indicates adjacent segment motion increases after one-level anterior cervical spine arthrodesis, and two-level arthrodesis exacerbates these effects. There is little in vivo evidence to support those biomechanical studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of one- and two-level cervical arthrodesis on adjacent segment motion. Fifty patients received either one-level C56 arthrodesis or two-level C456 or C567 arthrodesis and were tested preoperatively (PRE) and 1 year postoperatively (1YR-POST) along with 23 asymptomatic controls. A validated CT model-based tracking technique was used to measure 3D vertebral motion from biplane radiographs collected during dynamic flexion-extension and axial rotation of the cervical spine. Head and adjacent segment intervertebral end-range range of motion (ROM) and mid-range ROM were compared between one-level and two-level arthrodesis patients and controls. Small (2.3° or less) but non-significant increases in adjacent segment end-range ROM were observed from PRE to 1YR-POST. Mid-range flexion-extension ROM in the C67 motion segment inferior to the arthrodesis and mid-range axial rotation ROM in the C45 motion segment superior to the arthrodesis increased from PRE to 1YR-POST (all p < 0.022). This study provides in vivo evidence that contradicts long-held beliefs that adjacent segment end-range ROM increases appreciably after anterior cervical arthrodesis and that two-level arthrodesis exacerbates these effects. Mid-range ROM appears to be more useful than end-range ROM for detecting early changes in adjacent segment motion after cervical spine arthrodesis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical failure associated with non-operative treatment of rotator cuff tears may be due to inadequate characterization of the individual's functional impairments. Clinically, restricted passive range of motion (ROM, restrictions imply capsular tightness), limitations in muscle strength, and larger rotator cuff tears are hypothesized to be related to altered glenohumeral kinematics. Understanding these relationships, as well as the relationship between glenohumeral kinematics and patient reported outcomes (PROs) prior to exercise therapy, may help characterize functional impairments in individuals with rotator cuff tears. The objectives of the study were to describe the baseline presentation of individuals with an isolated supraspinatus tear, including passive ROM, rotator cuff muscle strength, tear size, PROs, and glenohumeral kinematics, and to determine associations among these variables. METHODS: One-hundred one individuals with symptomatic isolated supraspinatus tears were recruited for the study and underwent assessments of passive glenohumeral ROM, isometric muscle strength, and ultrasonography to assess anterior-posterior tear size. Glenohumeral kinematics during scapular plane abduction were measured using biplane radiography. Furthermore, PROs including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (ASES) and the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) were also collected. RESULTS: Individuals presented with decreased ROM, external rotation weakness compared to the non-involved side, and pain/ disability as measured by the ASES and WORC. These findings were not associated with glenohumeral kinematics, with the exception of a weak positive association between glenohumeral contact path lengths and WORC scores (ρ = 0.25, P = 0.03). Tear size was 11.7 ± 5.7mm and maximum anterior and superior translations and contact path lengths were 3.0 ± 3.8% glenoid width, 3.5 ± 3.8% glenoid height, and 38.2 ± 20.7% glenoid size, respectively. CONCLUSION: Individuals with a symptomatic isolated supraspinatus tear presented with decreased ROM, external rotation weakness, and pain/disability as measured by the ASES and WORC. However, no abnormal kinematics associated with these limitations were observed. Thus, given the tear is isolated to the supraspinatus tendon and no capsular restrictions are present, normal function of the glenohumeral joint may be possible during scapular plane abduction.

3.
J Biomech ; 133: 110960, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074698

RESUMO

The etiology of adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) remains controversial. Range of motion (ROM) is typically used to infer the effects of arthrodesis on adjacent segment motion following ACDF, however, ROM only measures the total amount of motion. In contrast, the helical axis of motion (HAM) quantifies how the motion occurs and may provide additional insight into the etiology of adjacent segment pathology. Synchronized biplane radiographs of the cervical spine were acquired at 30 images per second while 62 ACDF patients and 38 control participants performed dynamic neck flexion/extension. A validated tracking process matched digitally reconstructed radiographs created from subject-specific bone models to the radiographs with sub-millimeter accuracy. The intervertebral HAM was then calculated and compared between pre and 1 year post surgery in patients, and between patients and controls at corresponding motion segments using linear mixed-effects analysis. Small differences in the anterior/posterior location of the HAM were found between the symptomatic motion segments before surgery and corresponding motion segments in controls. No changes in the HAM of motion segments adjacent to the arthrodesis were observed from pre to 1-year post-surgery. No differences in adjacent segment HAM were found between patients with one- versus two-level arthrodesis. Neither symptomatic pathology nor arthrodesis appear to change the way motion occurs in the cervical spine during flexion/extension one year after one or two-level arthrodesis. These results suggest ACDF does not alter short-term adjacent segment kinematics in a way that would contribute to the development of adjacent segment disease.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Fusão Vertebral , Artrodese/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/métodos , Humanos , Radiografia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fusão Vertebral/métodos
4.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 30(1): 131-138, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) with lateral extraarticular tenodesis (LET) is beneficial for restoring knee kinematics with concomitant meniscal pathology causing rotatory knee instability. METHODS: Twenty patients with an ACL tear were randomized to either isolated ACLR or ACLR with LET. Patients were divided into four groups based on the surgery performed and the presence of meniscal tear (MT): ACLR without MT, ACLR with MT, ACLR with LET without MT, and ACLR with LET with MT. Kinematic data normalized to the contralateral, healthy knee were collected using dynamic biplanar radiography superimposed with high-resolution computed tomography scans of patients' knees during downhill running. Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and tibial rotation (TR) as well as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were analyzed at 6- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: At 6 months, ACLR with LET resulted in significantly decreased ATT at heel strike compared to ACLR (ACLR without MT: 0.3 ± 0.8 mm and ACLR with MT: 1.4 ± 3.1 mm vs. ACLR with LET without MT: - 2.5 ± 3.4 mm and ACLR with LET with MT: - 1.5 ± 1.2 mm ATT, p = 0.02). At 6 months, at toe off ACLR with LET better restored ATT to that of the contralateral, healthy knee in patients with meniscal pathology, while in patients without meniscal pathology, ACLR with LET resulted in significantly decreased ATT (1.0 ± 2.6 mm ATT vs. - 2.6 ± 1.7 mm ATT, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in kinematics or PROMs between groups at 12 months. CONCLUSION: For combined ACL and meniscus injury, ACLR with LET restores native knee kinematics at toe off but excessively decreases ATT at heel strike in the early post-operative period (6 months) without altering knee kinematics in the long term. Future large-scale clinical studies are needed to better understand the function of LET and ultimately improve patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Instabilidade Articular , Menisco , Tenodese , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/complicações , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia
5.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(15): E817-E825, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228692

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of graft type on residual motion and the relationship among residual motion, smoking, and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although most patients develop solid fusion based on static imaging following ACDF, dynamic imaging has revealed that many patients continue to have residual motion at the arthrodesis. METHODS: Forty-eight participants performed dynamic neck flexion/extension and axial rotation within a biplane radiography system 1 year following ACDF (21 one-level, 27 two-level). PRO scores included the Short Form-36, Neck Disability Index, and Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire. An automated model-based tracking process matched subject-specific bone models to the biplane radiographs with sub-millimeter accuracy. Residual motion was measured across the entire arthrodesis site for both one- and two-level fusions in patients who received either allograft or autograft. Patients were divided into "pseudarthrosis" (>3° of flexion/extension residual motion) and "solid fusion" groups. Residual motion and PROs were compared between groups using Student t tests. RESULTS: Patients who received allograft showed more total flexion/extension residual motion (4.1° vs. 2.8°, P = 0.12), although this failed to reach significance. No differences were noted in PROs based on graft type (all P > 0.08) or the presence of pseudarthrosis (all P > 0.13). No differences were noted in residual motion between smokers and nonsmokers (all P > 0.15); however, smokers who received allograft reported worse outcomes than nonsmokers who received allograft and smokers who received autograft. CONCLUSION: Allograft may result in slightly more residual motion at the arthrodesis site 1 year after ACDF. However, there is minimal evidence that PROs are adversely affected by slightly increased residual motion, suggesting that the current definition of pseudarthrosis correlates poorly with clinically significant findings. Additionally, autograft appears to result in superior outcomes in patients who smoke.Level of Evidence: 2.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fusão Vertebral , Discotomia/efeitos adversos , Discotomia/instrumentação , Discotomia/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Transplantes/transplante
6.
J Appl Biomech ; 37(4): 343-350, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051696

RESUMO

The objective was to examine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on lower-extremity joint angles and intralimb coordination in recruit-aged women. Twelve women walked, ran, and forced marched at body weight and with loads of +25%, and +45% of body weight on an instrumented treadmill with infrared cameras. Joint angles were assessed in the sagittal plane. Intralimb coordination of the thigh-shank and shank-foot couple was assessed with continuous relative phase. Mean absolute relative phase (entire stride) and deviation phase (stance phase) were calculated from continuous relative phase. At heel strike, forced marching exhibited greater (P < .001) hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion compared with running. At mid-stance, knee flexion (P = .007) and ankle dorsiflexion (P = .04) increased with increased load magnitude for all locomotion patterns. Forced marching (P = .009) demonstrated a "stiff-legged" locomotion pattern compared with running, evidenced by the more in-phase mean absolute relative phase values. Running (P = .03) and walking (P = .003) had greater deviation phase than forced marching. Deviation phase increased for running (P = .03) and walking (P < .001) with increased load magnitude but not for forced marching. With loads of >25% of body weight, forced marching may increase risk of injury due to inhibited energy attenuation up the kinetic chain and lack of variability to disperse force across different supportive structures.


Assuntos
Marcha , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
7.
Gait Posture ; 88: 22-27, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military personnel in combat roles often perform gait tasks with additional load, which can affect the contributions of joint mechanical work (positive and negative). Furthermore, different locomotion patterns can also affect joint specific work contributions. While mean behavior of joint work is important to understanding gait, changes in joint kinetic modulation, or the regulation/control of stride-to-stride joint work variability is necessary to elucidate locomotor system function. Suboptimal modulation exhibited as a stochastic time-series (large fluctuation followed by an opposite smaller fluctuation) could potentially affect locomotion efficiency and portend injury risk. It remains unclear how the locomotor system responds to a combination of load perturbations and varying locomotion patterns. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on joint positive/negative work and joint work modulation in healthy, active, recruit-aged women? METHODS: Eleven healthy, active, recruit-aged (18-33 years) women ran and forced-marched (walking at a velocity an individual would typically jog) in bodyweight (BW), an additional 25 % of BW (+25 %BW) and an additional 45 % of BW (+45 %BW) conditions at a velocity above their gait transition velocity. Joint work was calculated as the time integral of joint power. Joint work modulation was assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on consecutive joint work time-series. RESULTS: Joint work contributions shifted proximally for forced-marching demonstrated by lesser (p < .001) positive/negative ankle work but greater (p = .001) positive hip work contributions compared to running. Running exhibited optimal positive ankle work modulation compared to forced-marching (p = .040). Knee and ankle negative joint work modulation was adversely impacted compared to the hip during forced-marching (p < .001). SIGNIFICANCE: Employing forced-marching gait while under loads of 25 and 45 % of BW reduces the ability of the plantar-flexors and knee extensors to optimally contribute to energy absorption and propulsion in recruit-aged women, potentially reducing metabolic efficiency and increasing injury risk.


Assuntos
Marcha , Caminhada , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
8.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(23): 1630-1636, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907081

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify surgical factors that affect adjacent segment kinematics after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) as measured by biplane radiography. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies investigated the effect of surgical factors on spine kinematics as a potential etiology for adjacent segment disease (ASD). Those studies used static flexion-extension radiographs to evaluate range of motion. However, measurements from static radiographs are known to be unreliable. Furthermore, those studies were unable to evaluate the effect of ACDF on adjacent segment axial rotation. METHODS: Patients had continuous cervical spine flexion/exten- sion and axial rotation movements captured at 30 images per second in a dynamic biplane radiography system preoperatively and 1 year after ACDF. Digitally reconstructed radiographs generated from subject-specific CT scans were matched to biplane radiographs using a previously validated tracking process. Dynamic kinematics, postoperative segmental kyphosis, and disc distraction were calculated from this tracking process. Plate-to-disc distance was measured on postoperative radiographs. Graft type was collected from the medical record. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify surgical factors associated with 1-year post-surgery changes in adjacent segment kinematics. A secondary analysis was also performed to compare adjacent segment kinematics between each of the surgical factors and previously defined thresholds believed to be associated with adjacent segment degeneration. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients completed preoperative and postoperative testing. No association was found between any of the surgical factors and change in adjacent segment flexion/exten- sion or axial rotation range of motion (all P > 0.09). The secondary analysis also did not identify differences between adjacent segment kinematics and surgical factors (all P > 0.07). CONCLUSION: Following ACDF for cervical spondylosis, factors related to surgical technique were not associated with short-term changes in adjacent segment kinematics that reflect the hypermobility hypothesized to lead to the development of ASD.Level of Evidence: 2.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos
9.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(7S): S48-S56, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A viable treatment option for young patients with massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears is arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (SCR). SCR theoretically improves shoulder stability and function and decreases pain. However, no prospective studies to date have correlated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) healing with in vivo kinematic data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between graft healing and in vivo kinematics, range of motion (ROM), strength, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women; mean age, 63 ± 7 years) with irreparable rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic SCR with dermal allograft. Strength was measured with isometric internal rotation and external rotation (ER) at 0° of abduction, ER at 90° of abduction, and scapular-plane abduction, whereas ROM was measured during shoulder flexion, abduction, and ER and internal rotation at 90° of abduction both before and 1 year after SCR. PROs included American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand surveys that were collected before and 1 year after SCR. Synchronized biplane radiographs were collected at 50 images/s before and 1 year after SCR while patients performed 3 trials of scapular-plane abduction. A validated volumetric tracking technique with submillimeter accuracy determined 6-df glenohumeral and scapular kinematics. The acromiohumeral distance (AHD), humeral head translation, and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) were calculated from the in vivo kinematics. Healing at 5 locations was evaluated on 1-year postoperative MRI scans: anterior and posterior glenoid, anterior and posterior humerus, and posteriorly along the infraspinatus. Each subject was given a score from 0 to 5 based on number of sites healed. RESULTS: Of the 10 patients, 9 (90%) had complete (n = 4) or partial (n = 5) healing of the graft whereas 1 (10%) had complete failure at the glenoid. No correlation existed between MRI healing and the AHD, SHR, strength, ROM, or PROs. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores all significantly improved from before to 1 year after SCR regardless of graft healing. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of complete or partial graft healing on MRI mimics findings of prior reports in the literature. MRI healing was correlated with humeral head anterior-posterior translation but not with the static and dynamic AHDs, SHR, humeral head superior-inferior translation, ROM, strength, or PROs 1 year after SCR. All PROs improved significantly from before to 1 year after SCR regardless of graft status on MRI. In vivo kinematic changes were small after SCR and not clinically significant, and the data suggest that improvements in clinical and functional outcomes may occur in the absence of full graft healing.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Articulação do Ombro , Artroscopia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ombro , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Orthop Res ; 39(6): 1217-1226, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333606

RESUMO

In vitro biomechanical studies of the osteoligamentous spine are widely used to characterize normal biomechanics, identify injury mechanisms, and assess the effects of degeneration and surgical instrumentation on spine mechanics. The objective of this study was to determine how well four standards in vitro loading paradigms replicate in vivo kinematics with regards to the instantaneous center of rotation and arthrokinematics in relation to disc deformation. In vivo data were previously collected from 20 asymptomatic participants (45.5 ± 5.8 years) who performed full range of motion neck flexion-extension (FE) within a biplane x-ray system. Intervertebral kinematics were determined with sub-millimeter precision using a validated model-based tracking process. Ten cadaveric spines (51.8 ± 7.3 years) were tested in FE within a robotic testing system. Each specimen was tested under four loading conditions: pure moment, axial loading, follower loading, and combined loading. The in vivo and in vitro bone motion data were directly compared. The average in vitro instant center of rotation was significantly more anterior in all four loading paradigms for all levels. In general, the anterior and posterior disc heights were larger in the in vitro models than in vivo. However, after adjusting for gender, the observed differences in disc height were not statistically significant. This data suggests that in vitro biomechanical testing alone may fail to replicate in vivo conditions, with significant implications for novel motion preservation devices such as cervical disc arthroplasty implants.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação
11.
J Biomech Eng ; 143(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030199

RESUMO

In vivo knee ligament forces are important to consider for informing rehabilitation or clinical interventions. However, they are difficult to directly measure during functional activities. Musculoskeletal models and simulations have become the primary methods by which to estimate in vivo ligament loading. Previous estimates of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) forces range widely, suggesting that individualized anatomy may have an impact on these predictions. Using ten subject-specific (SS) lower limb musculoskeletal models, which include individualized musculoskeletal geometry, muscle architecture, and six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics from dynamic biplane radiography (DBR), this study provides SS estimates of ACL force (anteromedial-aACL; and posterolateral-pACL bundles) during the full gait cycle of treadmill walking. These forces are compared to estimates from scaled-generic (SG) musculoskeletal models to assess the effect of musculoskeletal knee joint anatomy on predicted forces and the benefit of SS modeling in this context. On average, the SS models demonstrated a double force peak during stance (0.39-0.43 xBW per bundle), while only a single force peak during stance was observed in the SG aACL. No significant differences were observed between continuous SG and SS ACL forces; however, root mean-squared differences between SS and SG predictions ranged from 0.08 xBW to 0.27 xBW, suggesting SG models do not reliably reflect forces predicted by SS models. Force predictions were also found to be highly sensitive to ligament resting length, with ±10% variations resulting in force differences of up to 84%. Overall, this study demonstrates the sensitivity of ACL force predictions to SS anatomy, specifically musculoskeletal joint geometry and ligament resting lengths, as well as the feasibility for generating SS musculoskeletal models for a group of subjects to predict in vivo tissue loading during functional activities.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior
12.
J Orthop Res ; 39(3): 671-679, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167190

RESUMO

Cervical radiculopathy is a relatively common neurological disorder, often resulting from mechanical compression of the nerve root within the neural foramen. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common treatment for radicular symptoms that do not resolve after conservative treatment. One mechanism by which ACDF is believed to resolve symptoms is by replacing degenerated disc tissue with bone graft to increase the neural foramen area, however in vivo evidence demonstrating this is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of age, pathology, and fusion on bony neural foramen area. Participants included 30 young adult controls (<35 years old), 23 middle-aged controls (36 to 60 years old), and 36 cervical arthrodesis patients tested before and after ACDF surgery. Participants' cervical spines were imaged in the neutral, full flexion, and full extension positions while seated within a biplane radiography system. A validated model-based tracking technique determined three-dimensional vertebral position and orientation and automated software identified the neural foramen area in each head position. The neural foramen area decreased throughout the entire sub-axial cervical spine with age and pathology, however, no changes in neural foramen area were observed due solely to replacing degenerated disc tissue with bone graft. The neural foramen area was not associated with disc height in young adult controls, but moderate to strong associations were observed in middle-aged controls. The results provide evidence to inform the debate regarding localized versus systemic spinal degeneration and provide novel insight into the mechanism of pain relief after ACDF.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Canal Medular/patologia , Espondilose/patologia , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Canal Medular/diagnóstico por imagem , Canal Medular/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral , Espondilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilose/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 582219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During cyclical steady state ambulation, such as walking, variability in stride intervals can indicate the state of the system. In order to define locomotor system function, observed variability in motor patterns, stride regulation and gait complexity must be assessed in the presence of a perturbation. Common perturbations, especially for military populations, are load carriage and an imposed locomotion pattern known as forced marching (FM). We examined the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on motor variability, stride regulation and gait complexity during bipedal ambulation in recruit-aged females. METHODS: Eleven healthy physically active females (18-30 years) completed 1-min trials of running and FM at three load conditions: no additional weight/bodyweight (BW), an additional 25% of BW (BW + 25%), and an additional 45% of BW (BW + 45%). A goal equivalent manifold (GEM) approach was used to assess motor variability yielding relative variability (RV; ratio of "good" to "bad" variability) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine gait complexity on stride length (SL) and stride time (ST) parameters. DFA was also used on GEM outcomes to calculate stride regulation. RESULTS: There was a main effect of load (p = 0.01) on RV; as load increased, RV decreased. There was a main effect of locomotion (p = 0.01), with FM exhibiting greater RV than running. Strides were regulated more tightly and corrected quicker at BW + 45% compared (p < 0.05) to BW. Stride regulation was greater for FM compared to running. There was a main effect of load for gait complexity (p = 0.002); as load increased gait complexity decreased, likewise FM had less (p = 0.02) gait complexity than running. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to employ a GEM approach and a complexity analysis to gait tasks under load carriage. Reduction in "good" variability as load increases potentially exposes anatomical structures to repetitive site-specific loading. Furthermore, load carriage magnitudes of BW + 45% potentially destabilize the system making individuals less adaptable to additional perturbations. This is further evidenced by the decrease in gait complexity, which all participants demonstrated values similarly observed in neurologically impaired populations during the BW + 45% load condition.

14.
J Biomech ; 105: 109772, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279931

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent among female soldiers, resulting in limited duty and long term adverse ambulatory effects. A proposed mechanism to the development of knee OA is the assiduous execution of load carriage tasks. Soldiers are often required to maintain a walking gait with load at velocities beyond their gait transition velocity (GTV) known as forced marching. The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on relative knee total joint moment (KTJM) in healthy recruit-aged women. The secondary aims are to determine knee total joint moment limb differences and to determine the interactive effect of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on the percent contributions of each plane of motion moment. Individuals were tasked with running and forced marching at 10% above their GTV at body weight (BW) and with an additional 25% and 45% of their BW. KTJM was analyzed at two specific gait events of heel-strike and mid-stance. At heel-strike, forced marching exhibited greater KTJM compared to run for all load conditions but running had greater KTJM than forced marching at mid-stance. The forced marching pattern exhibited larger KTJM for the dominant limb at both gait events compared to running. Lastly, at mid-stance the knee adduction moment percent (KAM%) contribution was greater for forced marching compared to running. The forced marching pattern demonstrates joint kinetics that may be more deleterious with prolonged exposure. Likewise, forced marching induced KAM% similar to those already suffering from knee OA.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga
15.
J Biomech ; 102: 109515, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767283

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of lumbar adjacent segment disease is thought to be secondary to altered biomechanics resulting from fusion. Direct in vivo evidence for altered biomechanics following lumbar fusion is lacking. This study's aim was to describe in vivo kinematics of the superior adjacent segment relative to the fused segment before and after lumbar fusion. This study analyzed seven patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (5 M, 2F; age 65 ± 5.1 years) using a biplane radiographic imaging system. Each subject performed two to three trials of continuous flexion of their torso according to established protocols. Synchronized biplane radiographs were acquired at 20 images per second one month before and six months after single-level fusion at L4-L5 or L5-S1, or two-level fusion at L3-L5 or L4-S1. A previously validated volumetric model-based tracking process was used to track the position and orientation of vertebrae in the radiographic images. Intervertebral flexion/extension and AP translation (slip) at the superior adjacent segment were calculated over the entire dynamic flexion activity. Skin-mounted surface markers were tracked using conventional motion analysis and used to determine torso flexion. Change in adjacent segment kinematics after fusion was determined at corresponding angles of dynamic torso flexion. Changes in adjacent segment motion varied across patients, however, all patients maintained or increased the amount of adjacent segment slip or intervertebral flexion/extension. No patients demonstrated both decreased adjacent segment slip and decreased rotation. This study suggests that short-term changes in kinematics at the superior adjacent segment after lumbar fusion appear to be patient-specific.


Assuntos
Descompressão , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Espondilolistese/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilolistese/fisiopatologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613899

RESUMO

'Gold standard' reference sets of human muscle architecture are based on elderly cadaveric specimens, which are unlikely to be representative of a large proportion of the human population. This is important for musculoskeletal modeling, where the muscle force-generating properties of generic models are defined by these data but may not be valid when applied to models of young, healthy individuals. Obtaining individualized muscle architecture data in vivo is difficult, however diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) has recently emerged as a valid method of achieving this. DTI was used here to provide an architecture data set of 20 lower limb muscles from 10 healthy adults, including muscle fiber lengths, which are important inputs for Hill-type muscle models commonly used in musculoskeletal modeling. Maximum isometric force and muscle fiber lengths were found not to scale with subject anthropometry, suggesting that these factors may be difficult to predict using scaling or optimization algorithms. These data also highlight the high level of anatomical variation that exists between individuals in terms of lower limb muscle architecture, which supports the need of incorporating subject-specific force-generating properties into musculoskeletal models to optimize their accuracy for clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Extremidade Inferior/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
17.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 7(4): 2325967119836164, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058199

RESUMO

Background: Some studies have suggested that altered tibiofemoral cartilage contact behavior (arthrokinematics) may contribute to long-term cartilage degeneration, potentially leading to tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. However, few studies have assessed normal tibiofemoral arthrokinematics during dynamic activities. Purpose: To characterize tibiofemoral arthrokinematics during the impact phase of level walking and downhill running. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Arthrokinematic data were collected on uninjured knees of 44 participants (mean age, 20.7 ± 6.6 years). Using a dynamic stereoradiographic imaging system with superimposed 3-dimensional bone models from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of participant-specific tibiofemoral joints, arthrokinematics were assessed during the first 15% of the gait cycle during level walking and the first 10% of the gait cycle during downhill running. Results: During level walking and downhill running, the medial compartment had a greater cartilage contact area versus the lateral compartment. Both compartments had a significantly less cartilage contact area during running versus walking (medial compartment gait cycle affected: 8%-10%; lateral compartment gait cycle affected: 5%-10%). Further, medial and lateral compartment tibiofemoral contact paths were significantly more posterior and longer during downhill running. Conclusion: There was a decreased tibiofemoral cartilage contact area during downhill running compared with level walking, suggesting that underlying bone morphology may play a key role in determining the size of cartilage contact regions. Clinical Relevance: This study provides the first data characterizing tibiofemoral cartilage contact patterns during level walking and downhill running. These results provide evidence in support of performing biomechanical assessments during both level walking and downhill running to obtain a comprehensive picture of tibiofemoral cartilage behavior after clinical interventions.

18.
J Orthop Res ; 37(4): 965-971, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747456

RESUMO

If intervertebral disc degeneration can be identified early, preventative treatments may be initiated before symptoms become disabling and costly. Changes in disc mechanics, such as the decrease in the compressive modulus of the nucleus, are some of the earliest signs of degeneration. Therefore, in vivo changes in the disc response to compressive load may serve as a biomarker for pending or early disc degeneration. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for using in vivo dynamic disc deformation to identify pathologic structural degeneration of the intervertebral disc. A validated model-based tracking technique determined vertebral motion from biplane radiographs collected during dynamic flexion/extension and axial rotation of the cervical spine. A computational model of the subaxial intervertebral discs was developed to identify the dynamic functional nucleus of each disc, that is, the disc region that underwent little to no additional compression during dynamic movements. The size and location of the dynamic functional nucleus was determined for 10 C5/C6 spondylosis patients, 10 C5/C6/C7 spondylosis patients, and 10 asymptomatic controls. The dynamic functional nucleus size was sensitive (significantly smaller than controls in 5 of 6 measurements at the diseased disc) and specific (no difference from controls in 9 of 10 measurements at non-diseased discs) to pathologic disc degeneration. These results provide evidence to suggest that structural disc degeneration, manifested by changes in the disc response to functional loading, may be identified in vivo from dynamic imaging collected during functional movements. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:1-7, 2019.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Vértebras Cervicais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
19.
Spine J ; 18(12): 2333-2342, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Neck pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in primary care settings, and a major contributor to health-care costs. Cervical manipulation is a common and clinically effective intervention for neck pain. However, the in vivo biomechanics of manipulation are unknown due to previous challenges with accurately measuring intervertebral kinematics in vivo during the manipulation. PURPOSE: The objectives were to characterize manual forces and facet joint gapping during cervical spine manipulation and to assess changes in clinical and functional outcomes after manipulation. It was hypothesized that patient-reported pain would decrease and intervertebral range of motion (ROM) would increase after manipulation. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Laboratory-based prospective observational study. PATIENT SAMPLE: 12 patients with acute mechanical neck pain (4 men and 8 women; average age 40 ± 15 years). OUTCOME MEASURES: Amount and rate of cervical facet joint gapping during manipulation, amount and rate of force applied during manipulation, change in active intervertebral ROM from before to after manipulation, and numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) to measure change in pain after manipulation. METHODS: Initially, all participants completed a NPRS (0-10). Participants then performed full ROM flexion-extension, rotation, and lateral bending while seated within a custom biplane radiography system. Synchronized biplane radiographs were collected at 30 images/s for 3 seconds during each movement trial. Next, synchronized, 2.0-milliseconds duration pulsed biplane radiographs were collected at 160 images/s for 0.8 seconds during the manipulation. The manipulation was performed by a licensed chiropractor using an articular pillar push technique. For the final five participants, two pressure sensors placed on the thumb of the chiropractor (Novel pliance system) recorded pressure at 160 Hz. After manipulation, all participants repeated the full ROM movement testing and once again completed the NPRS. A validated volumetric model-based tracking process that matched subject-specific bone models (from computed tomography) to the biplane radiographs was used to track bone motion with submillimeter accuracy. Facet joint gapping was calculated as the average distance between adjacent articular facet surfaces. Pre- to postmanipulation changes were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: The facet gap increased 0.9 ± 0.40 mm during manipulation. The average rate of facet gapping was 6.2 ± 3.9 mm/s. The peak force and rate of force application during manipulation were 65 ± 4 N and 440 ± 58 N/s. Pain score improved from 3.7 ± 1.2 before manipulation to 2.0 ± 1.4 after manipulation (p <. 001). Intervertebral ROM increased after manipulation by 1.2° (p = .006), 2.1° (p = .01), and 3.9° (p = .003) at the C4/C5, C5/C6, and C6/C7 motion segments, respectively, during flexion-extension; by 1.5° (p = .028), 1.9° (p = .005), and 1.3° (p = .050) at the C3/C4, C4/C5, and C5/C6 motion segments, respectively, during rotation; and by 1.3° (p = .034) and 1.1° (p = .050) at the C4/C5 and C5/C6 motion segments, respectively, during lateral bending. Global head ROM relative to the torso increased after manipulation by 8º (p = .023), 10º (p = .002), and 13º (p = .019) during lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively, after manipulation. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to measure facet gapping during cervical manipulation on live humans. The results demonstrate that target and adjacent motion segments undergo facet joint gapping during manipulation and that intervertebral ROM is increased in all three planes of motion after manipulation. The results suggest that clinical and functional improvement after manipulation may occur as a result of small increases in intervertebral ROM across multiple motion segments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of characterizing in real time the manual inputs and biological responses that comprise cervical manipulation, including clinician-applied force, facet gapping, and increased intervertebral ROM. This provides a basis for future clinical trials to identify the mechanisms behind manipulation and to optimize the mechanical factors that reliably and sufficiently impact the key mechanisms behind manipulation.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/fisiologia , Manipulação da Coluna/métodos , Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Cervicalgia/terapia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem , Articulação Zigapofisária/fisiologia
20.
Am J Sports Med ; 46(5): 1158-1165, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited in vivo kinematic information exists on managing meniscal injury during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). HYPOTHESIS: Isolated anatomic ACLR restores knee kinematics, whereas ACLR in the presence of medial meniscal injury is associated with altered long-term knee kinematics. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: From March 2011 to December 2012, 49 of 57 participants in a clinical trial underwent anatomic ACLR with successful kinematic testing at 24 months after ACLR. Twenty-five patients had associated meniscal tears: medial (n = 11), lateral (n = 9), or bilateral (n = 5). With a dynamic stereo radiography system with superimposed high-resolution computed tomography scans of patient knees, kinematics were measured during downhill running. The initial single-support phase of the gait cycle (0%-10%) was analyzed. RESULTS: Anterior tibial translation (ATT) was the only kinematic outcome between patients' ACLR and contralateral knees that had significant interactions among meniscal groups ( P = .007). There was significant difference in ATT between patients with intact menisci and medial tears ( P = .036) and with medial tears and lateral tears ( P = .025). Patients with intact menisci had no difference in ATT, with a negligible effect size between the ACLR and contralateral knees (mean ± SEM: 13.1 ± 0.7 mm vs 12.6 ± 0.5 mm, P = .24, Cohen d = 0.15, n = 24), while patients with medial meniscal tears had an increase in ATT, with a medium effect size between the ACLR and contralateral knees (15.4 ± 1.0 mm vs 13.2 ± 1.0 mm, P = .024, Cohen d = 0.66, n = 11). CONCLUSION: Associated medial meniscal injury in the setting of ACLR leads to increased ATT at 24-month follow-up. Furthermore, isolated anatomic ACLR in the absence of meniscal injury demonstrated no significant difference from native knee kinematics at 24-month follow-up during rigorous "high demand" knee activity with the current sample size. Patients undergoing anatomic ACLR in the presence of medial meniscal injury remained at a higher likelihood of sustaining altered long-term knee kinematics.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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