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3.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(16): 9121-9151, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212944

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in huge numbers of infections and deaths worldwide and brought the most severe disruptions to societies and economies since the Great Depression. Massive experimental and computational research effort to understand and characterize the disease and rapidly develop diagnostics, vaccines, and drugs has emerged in response to this devastating pandemic and more than 130 000 COVID-19-related research papers have been published in peer-reviewed journals or deposited in preprint servers. Much of the research effort has focused on the discovery of novel drug candidates or repurposing of existing drugs against COVID-19, and many such projects have been either exclusively computational or computer-aided experimental studies. Herein, we provide an expert overview of the key computational methods and their applications for the discovery of COVID-19 small-molecule therapeutics that have been reported in the research literature. We further outline that, after the first year the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears that drug repurposing has not produced rapid and global solutions. However, several known drugs have been used in the clinic to cure COVID-19 patients, and a few repurposed drugs continue to be considered in clinical trials, along with several novel clinical candidates. We posit that truly impactful computational tools must deliver actionable, experimentally testable hypotheses enabling the discovery of novel drugs and drug combinations, and that open science and rapid sharing of research results are critical to accelerate the development of novel, much needed therapeutics for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 642383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135888

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma and affects over 200 million people worldwide. The control and treatment of this neglected tropical disease is based on a single drug, praziquantel, which raises concerns about the development of drug resistance. This, and the lack of efficacy of praziquantel against juvenile worms, highlights the urgency for new antischistosomal therapies. In this review we focus on innovative approaches to the identification of antischistosomal drug candidates, including the use of automated assays, fragment-based screening, computer-aided and artificial intelligence-based computational methods. We highlight the current developments that may contribute to optimizing research outputs and lead to more effective drugs for this highly prevalent disease, in a more cost-effective drug discovery endeavor.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Schistosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomicidas , Animais , Humanos
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47013, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to tens of thousands of chemical substances that need to be assessed for their potential toxicity. Acute systemic toxicity testing serves as the basis for regulatory hazard classification, labeling, and risk management. However, it is cost- and time-prohibitive to evaluate all new and existing chemicals using traditional rodent acute toxicity tests. In silico models built using existing data facilitate rapid acute toxicity predictions without using animals. OBJECTIVES: The U.S. Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) Acute Toxicity Workgroup organized an international collaboration to develop in silico models for predicting acute oral toxicity based on five different end points: Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 value, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency hazard (four) categories, Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling hazard (five) categories, very toxic chemicals [LD50 (LD50≤50mg/kg)], and nontoxic chemicals (LD50>2,000mg/kg). METHODS: An acute oral toxicity data inventory for 11,992 chemicals was compiled, split into training and evaluation sets, and made available to 35 participating international research groups that submitted a total of 139 predictive models. Predictions that fell within the applicability domains of the submitted models were evaluated using external validation sets. These were then combined into consensus models to leverage strengths of individual approaches. RESULTS: The resulting consensus predictions, which leverage the collective strengths of each individual model, form the Collaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite (CATMoS). CATMoS demonstrated high performance in terms of accuracy and robustness when compared with in vivo results. DISCUSSION: CATMoS is being evaluated by regulatory agencies for its utility and applicability as a potential replacement for in vivo rat acute oral toxicity studies. CATMoS predictions for more than 800,000 chemicals have been made available via the National Toxicology Program's Integrated Chemical Environment tools and data sets (ice.ntp.niehs.nih.gov). The models are also implemented in a free, standalone, open-source tool, OPERA, which allows predictions of new and untested chemicals to be made. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8495.


Assuntos
Órgãos Governamentais , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
6.
ChemMedChem ; 16(7): 1093-1103, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247522

RESUMO

Increasing reports of multidrug-resistant malaria parasites urge the discovery of new effective drugs with different chemical scaffolds. Protein kinases play a key role in many cellular processes such as signal transduction and cell division, making them interesting targets in many diseases. Protein kinase 7 (PK7) is an orphan kinase from the Plasmodium genus, essential for the sporogonic cycle of these parasites. Here, we applied a robust and integrative artificial intelligence-assisted virtual-screening (VS) approach using shape-based and machine learning models to identify new potential PK7 inhibitors with in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Eight virtual hits were experimentally evaluated, and compound LabMol-167 inhibited ookinete conversion of Plasmodium berghei and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum at nanomolar concentrations with low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. As PK7 does not have an essential role in the Plasmodium blood stage and our virtual screening strategy aimed for both PK7 and blood-stage inhibition, we conducted an in silico target fishing approach and propose that this compound might also inhibit P. falciparum PK5, acting as a possible dual-target inhibitor. Finally, docking studies of LabMol-167 with P. falciparum PK7 and PK5 proteins highlighted key interactions for further hit-to lead optimization.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(2): 27002, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are xenobiotics that mimic the interaction of natural hormones and alter synthesis, transport, or metabolic pathways. The prospect of EDCs causing adverse health effects in humans and wildlife has led to the development of scientific and regulatory approaches for evaluating bioactivity. This need is being addressed using high-throughput screening (HTS) in vitro approaches and computational modeling. OBJECTIVES: In support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led two worldwide consortiums to virtually screen chemicals for their potential estrogenic and androgenic activities. Here, we describe the Collaborative Modeling Project for Androgen Receptor Activity (CoMPARA) efforts, which follows the steps of the Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP). METHODS: The CoMPARA list of screened chemicals built on CERAPP's list of 32,464 chemicals to include additional chemicals of interest, as well as simulated ToxCast™ metabolites, totaling 55,450 chemical structures. Computational toxicology scientists from 25 international groups contributed 91 predictive models for binding, agonist, and antagonist activity predictions. Models were underpinned by a common training set of 1,746 chemicals compiled from a combined data set of 11 ToxCast™/Tox21 HTS in vitro assays. RESULTS: The resulting models were evaluated using curated literature data extracted from different sources. To overcome the limitations of single-model approaches, CoMPARA predictions were combined into consensus models that provided averaged predictive accuracy of approximately 80% for the evaluation set. DISCUSSION: The strengths and limitations of the consensus predictions were discussed with example chemicals; then, the models were implemented into the free and open-source OPERA application to enable screening of new chemicals with a defined applicability domain and accuracy assessment. This implementation was used to screen the entire EPA DSSTox database of ∼875,000 chemicals, and their predicted AR activities have been made available on the EPA CompTox Chemicals dashboard and National Toxicology Program's Integrated Chemical Environment. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5580.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Disruptores Endócrinos , Androgênios , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Receptores Androgênicos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
8.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaav9784, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249867

RESUMO

Many drug candidates fail therapeutic development because of poor aqueous solubility. We have conceived a computer-aided strategy to enable polymeric micelle-based delivery of poorly soluble drugs. We built models predicting both drug loading efficiency (LE) and loading capacity (LC) using novel descriptors of drug-polymer complexes. These models were employed for virtual screening of drug libraries, and eight drugs predicted to have either high LE and high LC or low LE and low LC were selected. Three putative positives, as well as three putative negative hits, were confirmed experimentally (implying 75% prediction accuracy). Fortuitously, simvastatin, a putative negative hit, was found to have the desired micelle solubility. Podophyllotoxin and simvastatin (LE of 95% and 87% and LC of 43% and 41%, respectively) were among the top five polymeric micelle-soluble compounds ever studied experimentally. The success of the strategy described herein suggests its broad utility for designing drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Podofilotoxina/química , Polímeros/química , Sinvastatina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Micelas , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
9.
J Nat Prod ; 82(5): 1177-1182, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046273

RESUMO

As part of a drug discovery program aimed at the identification of anti- Trypanosoma cruzi metabolites from Brazilian flora, four acetogenins (1-4) were isolated from the seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa and were identified by NMR spectroscopy and HRESIMS. The new compounds 1 and 2 displayed activity against the trypomastigote (IC50 = 0.4 and 3.6 µM) and amastigote (IC50 = 23.0 and 27.7 µM) forms. The structurally related known compound 3 showed less potency to the amastigotes, with an IC50 value of 58 µM, while the known compound 4 was inactive. To evaluate the potential mechanisms for parasite death, parameters were evaluated by fluorometric assays: (i) plasma membrane permeability, (ii) plasma membrane electric potential (ΔΨp), (iii) reactive oxygen species production, and (iv) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The results obtained indicated that compounds 1 and 2 depolarize plasma membranes, affecting ΔΨp and ΔΨm and contributing to the observed cellular damage and disturbing the bioenergetic system. In silico studies of pharmacokinetics and toxicity (ADMET) properties predicted that all compounds were nonmutagenic, noncarcinogenic, nongenotoxic, and weak hERG blockers. Additionally, none of the isolated acetogenins 1-4 were predicted as pan-assay interference compounds.


Assuntos
Acetogeninas/farmacologia , Annonaceae/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetogeninas/química , Acetogeninas/isolamento & purificação , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sementes/química
10.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 17: 352-361, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949306

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania (NTD) endemic in 98 countries. Although some drugs are available, current treatments deal with issues such as toxicity, low efficacy, and emergence of resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new targets for the development of new antileishmanial drugs. Protein kinases (PKs), which play an essential role in many biological processes, have become potential drug targets for many parasitic diseases. A refined bioinformatics pipeline was applied in order to define and compare the kinomes of L. infantum and L. braziliensis, species that cause cutaneous and visceral manifestations of leishmaniasis in the Americas, the latter being potentially fatal if untreated. Respectively, 224 and 221 PKs were identified in L. infantum and L. braziliensis overall. Almost all unclassified eukaryotic PKs were assigned to six of nine major kinase groups and, consequently, most have been classified into family and subfamily. Furthermore, revealing the kinomes for both Leishmania species allowed for the prioritization of potential drug targets that could be explored for discovering new drugs against leishmaniasis. Finally, we used a drug repurposing approach and prioritized seven approved drugs and investigational compounds to be experimentally tested against Leishmania. Trametinib and NMS-1286937 inhibited the growth of L. infantum and L. braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes and therefore might be good candidates for the drug repurposing pipeline.

11.
Phytomedicine ; 54: 302-307, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From a previous screening of Brazilian biodiversity for antitrypanosomal activity, the n-hexane extract from twigs of Nectandra oppositifolia (Lauraceae) demonstrated in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. PURPOSE: To perform the isolation and chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from n-hexane extract from twigs of N. oppositifolia and evaluate their therapeutical potential as well as to elucidate their mechanism of action against T. cruzi. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract from twigs of N. oppositifolia afforded three related butenolides: isolinderanolide D (1), isolinderanolide E (2) and secosubamolide A (3). These compounds were evaluated in vitro against T. cruzi (trypomastigote and amastigote forms) and against NCTC (L929) cells for mammalian cytotoxicity. Additionally, phenotypic analyzes of compounds-treated parasites were performed: alterations in the plasma membrane permeability, plasma membrane electric potential (ΔΨp), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induction of ROS. RESULTS: Compounds 1-3 were effective against T. cruzi, with IC50 values of 12.9, 29.9 and 12.5 µM for trypomastigotes and 25.3, 10.1 and 12.3 µM for intracellular amastigotes. Furthermore, it was observed alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of parasites treated with butenolides 1-3. These compounds caused no alteration to the parasite plasma membrane, and the deregulation of the mitochondria might be an early event to cell death. In addition, in silico studies showed that all butenolides were predicted to be non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non hERG blockers, with acceptable human intestinal absorption, low inhibitory promiscuity with the main five CYP isoforms, and with high metabolic stability. Otherwise, tested butenolides showed unfavorable blood-brain barrier penetration (BBB+). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the anti-T. cruzi effects of compounds 1-3 isolated from N. oppositifolia and indicated that the lethal effect of these compounds in trypomastigotes of T. cruzi could be associated to the alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm).


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Lauraceae/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Butirolactona/isolamento & purificação , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , 4-Butirolactona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Brasil , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
13.
Future Microbiol ; 13: 1523-1535, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311802

RESUMO

AIM: The shape-based virtual screening was used for the identification of new compounds anti-paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). MATERIALS & METHODS: The study was performed according to the following steps: collection and curation of a dataset of quinolinyl N-oxide chalcones with anti-PCM activity, development and validation of shape-based models, application of the best model for virtual screening, and experimental validation. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Among 31 computational hits, eight compounds showed potent antifungal activity and low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. The checkerboard assay showed that most promising hit (compound 3) displayed additive effects with the antifungal cotrimoxazole and amphotericin B. Therefore, the shape-based virtual screening allowed us to discover promising compounds in prospective hit-to-lead optimization studies for tackling PCM.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Chalcona/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Paracoccidioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Células 3T3 BALB , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/farmacologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Estudos Prospectivos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 146, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559909

RESUMO

Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide every year and leading to about a half million deaths. Malaria parasites of humans have evolved resistance to all current antimalarial drugs, urging for the discovery of new effective compounds. Given that the inhibition of deoxyuridine triphosphatase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfdUTPase) induces wrong insertions in plasmodial DNA and consequently leading the parasite to death, this enzyme is considered an attractive antimalarial drug target. Using a combi-QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) approach followed by virtual screening and in vitro experimental evaluation, we report herein the discovery of novel chemical scaffolds with in vitro potency against asexual blood stages of both P. falciparum multidrug-resistant and sensitive strains and against sporogonic development of P. berghei. We developed 2D- and 3D-QSAR models using a series of nucleosides reported in the literature as PfdUTPase inhibitors. The best models were combined in a consensus approach and used for virtual screening of the ChemBridge database, leading to the identification of five new virtual PfdUTPase inhibitors. Further in vitro testing on P. falciparum multidrug-resistant (W2) and sensitive (3D7) parasites showed that compounds LabMol-144 and LabMol-146 demonstrated fair activity against both strains and presented good selectivity versus mammalian cells. In addition, LabMol-144 showed good in vitro inhibition of P. berghei ookinete formation, demonstrating that hit-to-lead optimization based on this compound may also lead to new antimalarials with transmission blocking activity.

15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 112: 526-534, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412406

RESUMO

Computational models have earned broad acceptance for assessing chemical toxicity during early stages of drug discovery or environmental safety assessment. The majority of publicly available QSAR toxicity models have been developed for datasets including mostly drugs or drug-like compounds. We have evaluated and compared chemical spaces occupied by cosmetics, drugs, and pesticides, and explored whether current computational models of toxicity endpoints can be universally applied to all these chemicals. Our analysis of the chemical space overlap and applicability domain (AD) of models built previously for twenty different toxicity endpoints showed that most of these models afforded high coverage (>90%) for all three classes of compounds analyzed herein. Only T. pyriformis models demonstrated lower coverage for drugs and pesticides (38% and 54%, respectively). These results show that, for the most part, historical QSAR models built with data available for different toxicity endpoints can be used for toxicity assessment of novel chemicals irrespective of the intended commercial use; however, the AD restriction is necessary to assure the expected prediction accuracy. Local models may need to be developed to capture chemicals that appear as outliers with respect to global models.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/toxicidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Modelos Químicos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Toxicidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203486

RESUMO

Five bis-arylimidamides were assayed as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents by in vitro, in silico, and in vivo approaches. None were considered to be pan-assay interference compounds. They had a favorable pharmacokinetic landscape and were active against trypomastigotes and intracellular forms, and in combination with benznidazole, they gave no interaction. The most selective agent (28SMB032) tested in vivo led to a 40% reduction in parasitemia (0.1 mg/kg of body weight/5 days intraperitoneally) but without mortality protection. In silico target fishing suggested DNA as the main target, but ultrastructural data did not match.


Assuntos
Amidinas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária/métodos
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 277: 55-61, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864277

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects more than eight million people in Tropical and Subtropical countries especially in Latin America. Current treatment is limited to nifurtimox and benznidazole, both with reduced effectiveness and high toxicity. In this work, the n-hexane extract from leaves of Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against T. cruzi. Using several chromatographic steps, four related neolignans were isolated and chemically characterized as dehydrodieugenol B (1), 1-(8-propenyl)-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (2), 1-[(7S)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzene (3), and 1-[(7S)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (4). These compounds were tested against intracellular amastigotes and extracellular trypomastigotes of T. cruzi and for mammalian cytotoxicity. Neolignan 4 showed the higher selectivity index (SI) against trypomastigotes (>5) and amastigotes (>13) of T. cruzi. The investigation of the mechanism of action demonstrated that neolignan 4 caused substantial alteration of the plasma membrane permeability, together with mitochondrial dysfunctions in trypomastigote forms. In silico studies of pharmacokinetics and toxicity (ADMET) properties predicted that all compounds were non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-genotoxic, weak hERG blockers, with acceptable volume of distribution (1.66-3.32 L/kg), and low rodent oral toxicity (LD50 810-2200 mg/kg). Considering some clinical events of cerebral Chagas disease, the compounds also demonstrated favorable properties, such as blood-brain barrier penetration. Unfavorable properties were also predicted as high promiscuity for P450 isoforms, high plasma protein binding affinity (>91%), and moderate-to-low oral bioavailability. Finally, none of the isolated neolignans was predicted as interference compounds (PAINS). Considering the promising chemical and biological properties of the isolated neolignans, these compounds could be used as starting points to develop new lead compounds for Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Lauraceae/química , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiparasitários/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Macaca mulatta , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 22(8)2017 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757583

RESUMO

Medicinal chemists continue to be fascinated by chalcone derivatives because of their simple chemistry, ease of hydrogen atom manipulation, straightforward synthesis, and a variety of promising biological activities. However, chalcones have still not garnered deserved attention, especially considering their high potential as chemical sources for designing and developing new effective drugs. In this review, we summarize current methodological developments towards the design and synthesis of new chalcone derivatives and state-of-the-art medicinal chemistry strategies (bioisosterism, molecular hybridization, and pro-drug design). We also highlight the applicability of computer-assisted drug design approaches to chalcones and address how this may contribute to optimizing research outputs and lead to more successful and cost-effective drug discovery endeavors. Lastly, we present successful examples of the use of chalcones and suggest possible solutions to existing limitations.


Assuntos
Chalcona , Desenho de Fármacos , Pró-Fármacos , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/síntese química , Chalcona/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 129: 287-302, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235702

RESUMO

A new generation of potent hDHODH inhibitors designed by a scaffold-hopping replacement of the quinolinecarboxylate moiety of brequinar, one of the most potent known hDHODH inhibitors, is presented here. Their general structure is characterized by a biphenyl moiety joined through an amide bridge with an acidic hydroxyazole scaffold (hydroxylated thiadiazole, pyrazole and triazole). Molecular modelling suggested that these structures should adopt a brequinar-like binding mode involving interactions with subsites 1, 2 and 4 of the hDHODH binding site. Initially, the inhibitory activity of the compounds was studied on recombinant hDHODH. The most potent compound of the series in the enzymatic assays was the thiadiazole analogue 4 (IC50 16 nM). The activity was found to be dependent on the fluoro substitution pattern at the biphenyl moiety as well as on the choice/substitution of the heterocyclic ring. Structure determination of hDHODH co-crystallized with one representative compound from each series (4, 5 and 6) confirmed the brequinar-like binding mode as suggested by modelling. The specificity of the observed effects of the compound series was tested in cell-based assays for antiproliferation activity using Jurkat cells and PHA-stimulated PBMC. These tests were also verified by addition of exogenous uridine to the culture medium. In particular, the triazole analogue 6 (IC50 against hDHODH: 45 nM) exerted potent in vitro antiproliferative and immunosuppressive activity without affecting cell survival.


Assuntos
Azóis/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/antagonistas & inibidores , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Células Jurkat , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Difração de Raios X
20.
Phytomedicine ; 24: 62-67, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From a previous screening of Brazilian biodiversity for antiprotozoal activity, the hexane extract from leaves of Nectandra leucantha (Nees & Mart.) (Lauraceae) demonstrated activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Chromatographic separation of this extract afforded bioactive dehydrodieugenol (1). Furthermore, methylated derivative 2 (dehydrodieugenol dimethyl ether) was prepared and also tested against T. cruzi. PURPOSE: To examine the therapeutical potential of compounds 1 and 2 against T. cruzi as well as to elucidate the mechanism of action of bioactive compound 1 against T. cruzi. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: Crude hexane extract from leaves was subjected to chromatographic steps to afford bioactive compound 1. In order to analyze the effect of additional methyl group in the antiparasitic activity of 1, derivative 2 was prepared (both are no pan-assay interference compounds - PAINS). These compounds were evaluated in vitro against T. cruzi (trypomastigote and amastigote forms) and analyzed for the potential effect in host cells through the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. Finally, the plasma membrane effect of the most potent compound 1 was investigated in T. cruzi trypomastigotes. RESULTS: Compounds 1 and 2 displayed activity against amastigotes of T. cruzi. Although both compounds promoted activity against intracellular amastigotes, the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species of host cells were unaltered, suggesting an antiparasitic activity other than host cell activation. Considering 1 the most effective compound against T. cruzi, the interference in the plasma membrane of the trypomastigotes was investigated using the fluorescent probe SYTOX® Green. After a short-term incubation, the fluidity and integrity of the plasma membrane was completely altered, suggesting it as a primary target for compound 1 in T. cruzi. CONCLUSION: Compounds 1 and 2 selectively eliminated the intracellular parasites without host cell activation and could be important scaffolds for the search of new hit compounds.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Lauraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Brasil , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
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