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1.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180228, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform a literature review on the existing international criteria and protocols for tracheostomy decannulation. RESEARCH: strategies: Literature review using the PubMed database with the English keywords "Tracheostomy", "Weaning", "Decannulation", "Removal Tube", "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences", "Intensive Care Units", "Dysphagia", "Swallowing", "Deglutition" and "Deglutition Disorders ". SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies published in the last five years (2012 to 2017); studies with human adult population (i.e. ages above 18 years); articles published in English; unrestricted full access articles; and research related to the objectives of the study. DATA ANALYSIS: we analyzed sample characterization; professionals involved in the decannulation process; steps of the decannulation process; total time in days of tracheostomy use; total time in days to complete decannulation process; and failure factors to complete the decannulation process. RESULTS: Most of the studies investigated tracheostomy decannulation in a sample of males with neurological impairments. The professionals involved in the decannulation process were doctors, speech therapists, physiotherapists and nurses. The most cited decannulation steps were: swallowing assessment; occlusion training; evaluation of air permeability; ability to manipulate secretion and exchange of cannula; cuff deflation and cough training; use of speech valve. CONCLUSION: Speech therapists are of great help during the decannulation process, since the assessment of swallowing was one of the decisive steps of the investigated studies. The processes of decannulation includes a multidisciplinary approach and should be performed by the cooperation between physicians, physiotherapists and speech therapists.

2.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180274, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the effect of dog intervention on the regular session of speech therapy for developmental stuttering in adults. METHODS: The study involved young adults and adults with developmental stuttering. The study sample was composed of eight participants, six males and two females, ranging in age from 16 to 45 years. Participants were divided into two groups: G1 - those who underwent treatment for stuttering with the presence of a dog-therapist in the therapy room and G2 - those who underwent treatment for stuttering without the presence of the dog therapist. We included a control group, G3, composed of fluent participants, matched in age and sex to G1 and G2 to control the natural variability of speech fluency. RESULTS: Comparative results between the groups indicated that the group that performed the treatment without the presence of the dog achieved better performance, evolution and efficacy rates. CONCLUSION: for the population in this study, the dog intervention on speech therapy did not improve treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida por Animais/métodos , Fonoterapia/métodos , Gagueira/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
3.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180238, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Verify the correlation between two scar assessment scales and the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMD) in patients with head and neck (H&N) burns. METHODS: Participants of this study were 16 adult individuals with H&N full-thickness burns. Data were collected through assessment of mandibular range of movement and application of the following instruments: Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), Vancouver Scar Scale, and Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES). RESULTS: Results showed moderate negative correlation between the variables deglutition, breathing, total score of the functions, total score on the OMES and scores on the scar assessment scales, indicating that the higher (more severe) the scores on these scales, the lower the scores on the items of the OMES (indicative of greater OMD severity). No correlations were observed between the items of the OMES and the POSAS Patient scale. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that there is correlation between scar severity in burn patients, measured through clinical scales, and presence of OMD. Patients who present scores indicative of H&N pathological scars should be immediately referred to orofacial myofunctional assessment.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 501-508, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A swallowing disorder is present in more than 50% of patients with acute stroke. To identify clinical prognostic indicators of the swallowing function in a population with acute ischemic stroke and to determine prioritization indicators for swallowing rehabilitation. METHODS: Participants were adults admitted to the emergency room who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. Data gathering involved a swallowing assessment to determine the functional level of swallowing (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) and the verification of demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: The study sample included 295 patients. For analysis purposes, patients were grouped as follows: ASHA NOMS levels 1 and 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); levels 3, 4 and 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); levels 6 and 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). Statistical analyses indicated that patients who presented a poorer swallowing function (ASHA1) were older (age ≥ 70 years); had anterior circulation infarct; had lower scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 14 points); took longer to initiate swallowing rehabilitation; had longer hospital stays; made more use of alternative feeding methods; needed more sessions of swallowing rehabilitation to remove alternate feeding methods; took longer to return to oral feeding and had poorer outcomes (fewer individuals discharged from swallowing rehabilitation sessions and increased mortality). CONCLUSION: Patients with acute ischemic stroke, admitted to the emergency room, aged ≥ 70 years, score on the GCS ≤ 14, anterior circulation infarct and dementia should be prioritized for swallowing assessment and rehabilitation.

5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 501-508, July 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011364

RESUMO

ABSTRACT A swallowing disorder is present in more than 50% of patients with acute stroke. Objective To identify clinical prognostic indicators of the swallowing function in a population with acute ischemic stroke and to determine prioritization indicators for swallowing rehabilitation. Methods Participants were adults admitted to the emergency room who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. Data gathering involved a swallowing assessment to determine the functional level of swallowing (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) and the verification of demographic and clinical variables. Results The study sample included 295 patients. For analysis purposes, patients were grouped as follows: ASHA NOMS levels 1 and 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); levels 3, 4 and 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); levels 6 and 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). Statistical analyses indicated that patients who presented a poorer swallowing function (ASHA1) were older (age ≥ 70 years); had anterior circulation infarct; had lower scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 14 points); took longer to initiate swallowing rehabilitation; had longer hospital stays; made more use of alternative feeding methods; needed more sessions of swallowing rehabilitation to remove alternate feeding methods; took longer to return to oral feeding and had poorer outcomes (fewer individuals discharged from swallowing rehabilitation sessions and increased mortality). Conclusion Patients with acute ischemic stroke, admitted to the emergency room, aged ≥ 70 years, score on the GCS ≤ 14, anterior circulation infarct and dementia should be prioritized for swallowing assessment and rehabilitation.


RESUMO Alterações da deglutição são observadas em mais de 50% dos pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) agudo. Objetivo Identificar os indicadores de prognóstico clínico da funcionalidade da deglutição na população com AVCI em fase aguda, visando o estabelecimento de indicadores de priorização de atendimento fonoaudiológico. Métodos Participaram do estudo adultos admitidos em Pronto Socorro (PS) com AVCI. As etapas de coleta de dados envolveram avaliação fonoaudiológica para determinação do nível funcional da deglutição (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) e a coleta de variáveis demográficas e clínicas. Resultados A amostra do estudo incluiu 295 pacientes agrupados de acordo com os níveis ASHA NOMS: níveis 1 e 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); níveis 3, 4 e 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); níveis 6 e 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). As análises indicaram os seguintes resultados significantes: pacientes com pior funcionalidade da deglutição (ASHA1) apresentaram média de idade superior a 70 anos, maior comprometimento da circulação cerebral anterior pós-AVCI, pior pontuação na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG ≤ 14 pontos), demoraram mais tempo para iniciar o atendimento fonoaudiológico, permaneceram mais tempo internados no hospital, fizeram mais uso de via alternativa de alimentação, necessitaram de mais sessões fonoaudiológicas para retirada da via alternativa de alimentação, demoraram mais tempo para retornar para alimentação por via oral e apresentaram pior desfecho (um número menor de indivíduos recebeu alta fonoaudiológica e apresentaram mortalidade aumentada). Conclusão Pacientes com AVCI agudo, admitidos em PS, que apresentem idade ≥ 70 anos, pontuação na ECG ≤ 14, com comprometimento do sistema circulatório cerebral anterior e demência, devem ser priorizados no atendimento fonoaudiológico.

6.
Codas ; 31(2): e20170278, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize and compare the functional aspects of swallowing and clinical markers in intensive care patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: Participants of this study were 113 adults diagnosed with TBI. Data collection stage involved: clinical assessment of the risk for bronchoaspiration performed by a speech-language therapist; assessment of the functional level of swallowing (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS ); assessment of the patient' health status (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment - SOFA). RESULTS: After the inclusion criteria were applied, patients were grouped according to their swallowing functional level: levels 1 and 2 - ASHA1 (n=25); levels 3, 4 and 5 - ASHA2 (n=37); levels 6 and 7 - ASHA3 (n=51). The statistical analyses indicated the following significant results: the ASHA3 group presented lower severity levels of TBI at the clinical assessment of bronchoaspiration, remained less time intubated (approximately um third less than the more severe group), remained fewer days in hospital and needed less therapy sessions to return to safe oral feeding. The clinical predictor signs for bronchoaspiration that best characterized the groups were the presence of altered auscultation and the presence of coughing after swallowing. Patients in the ASHA3 group presented these signs less frequently. CONCLUSION: The score obtained on the SOFA and the time of orotracheal intubation were identified as the prognostic indicators of functional swallowing. The presence of altered cervical auscultation and coughing were clinical predictors of dysphagia.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
7.
CoDAS ; 31(2): e20170278, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989654

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo caracterizar e comparar os aspectos funcionais da deglutição e indicadores clínicos na população com traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) em unidade de terapia intensiva. Método Participaram do estudo 113 adultos com diagnóstico de TCE. As etapas de coleta de dados envolveram: a avaliação fonoaudiológica clínica do risco de broncoaspiração, determinação do nível funcional da deglutição (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS), determinação da gravidade clínica do indivíduo de acordo com a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Resultados Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, os pacientes selecionados foram agrupados de acordo com os níveis funcionais de deglutição: níveis 1 e 2 - ASHA1 (n=25); níveis 3, 4 e 5 - ASHA2 (n=37); níveis 6 e 7 - ASHA3 (n=51). As análises estatísticas indicaram os seguintes resultados significantes: o grupo ASHA3 apresentou menor gravidade do TCE no momento da avaliação fonoaudiológica, menor tempo de intubação orotraqueal (um terço a menos que o grupo mais grave), ficou menos tempo hospitalizado e necessitou de menos sessões de atendimento fonoaudiológico para o retorno seguro para via oral de alimentação. Os sinais clínicos preditores de broncoaspiração que mais diferenciaram os grupos foi a presença de ausculta cervical alterada e presença de tosse após a deglutição, sendo que o grupo ASHA3 apresentou esses sinais com menor frequência. Conclusão O escore SOFA e o tempo de intubação orotraqueal foram indicadores do prognóstico da funcionalidade da deglutição. A presença ausculta cervical alterada e tosse foram preditores clínicos de disfagia.


ABSTRACT Purpose To characterize and compare the functional aspects of swallowing and clinical markers in intensive care patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods Participants of this study were 113 adults diagnosed with TBI. Data collection stage involved: clinical assessment of the risk for bronchoaspiration performed by a speech-language therapist; assessment of the functional level of swallowing (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS ); assessment of the patient' health status (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment - SOFA). Results After the inclusion criteria were applied, patients were grouped according to their swallowing functional level: levels 1 and 2 - ASHA1 (n=25); levels 3, 4 and 5 - ASHA2 (n=37); levels 6 and 7 - ASHA3 (n=51). The statistical analyses indicated the following significant results: the ASHA3 group presented lower severity levels of TBI at the clinical assessment of bronchoaspiration, remained less time intubated (approximately um third less than the more severe group), remained fewer days in hospital and needed less therapy sessions to return to safe oral feeding. The clinical predictor signs for bronchoaspiration that best characterized the groups were the presence of altered auscultation and the presence of coughing after swallowing. Patients in the ASHA3 group presented these signs less frequently. Conclusion The score obtained on the SOFA and the time of orotracheal intubation were identified as the prognostic indicators of functional swallowing. The presence of altered cervical auscultation and coughing were clinical predictors of dysphagia.

8.
CoDAS ; 31(5): e20180238, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039603

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a correlação entre duas escalas para avaliação das cicatrizes pós-queimaduras com as alterações miofuncionais orofaciais em pacientes queimados. Método Participaram do estudo 16 adultos com sequelas de queimaduras de terceiro grau em cabeça e pescoço. As etapas de coleta de dados envolveram: aplicação das escalas de avaliação da cicatrização Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scales (POSAS) e Vancouver Scar Scale, aplicação da Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial com Escores Expandidos (AMIOFE-E) e avaliação da mobilidade mandibular. Resultados Os resultados indicaram correlação negativa moderada entre os itens de deglutição, respiração, escore total de funções e escore total na AMIOFE-E e as escalas de cicatriz, indicando que, quanto mais grave a pontuação nessas escalas, menor a pontuação nos itens do AMIOFE-E (indicativo de maior alteração). Não foram observadas correlações entre os itens da avaliação clínica da motricidade orofacial e a escala de gravidade da cicatriz preenchida pelos pacientes. Conclusão Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que existe uma correlação entre a gravidade da cicatriz de pacientes queimados, medida por meio de escalas médicas, e as alterações miofuncionais orofaciais. Pacientes que apresentarem pontuação indicativa de cicatrizes patológicas em região de cabeça e pescoço devem ser imediatamente encaminhados para avaliação miofuncional orofacial.


ABSTRACT Purpose Verify the correlation between two scar assessment scales and the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMD) in patients with head and neck (H&N) burns. Methods Participants of this study were 16 adult individuals with H&N full-thickness burns. Data were collected through assessment of mandibular range of movement and application of the following instruments: Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), Vancouver Scar Scale, and Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES). Results Results showed moderate negative correlation between the variables deglutition, breathing, total score of the functions, total score on the OMES and scores on the scar assessment scales, indicating that the higher (more severe) the scores on these scales, the lower the scores on the items of the OMES (indicative of greater OMD severity). No correlations were observed between the items of the OMES and the POSAS Patient scale. Conclusion Results suggest that there is correlation between scar severity in burn patients, measured through clinical scales, and presence of OMD. Patients who present scores indicative of H&N pathological scars should be immediately referred to orofacial myofunctional assessment.

9.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2077, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001363

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivos Investigar estudos sobre o tratamento das queimaduras em cabeça e pescoço, nas diversas áreas da saúde envolvidas na assistência a queimados (médica, enfermagem, fonoaudiologia, fisioterapia e terapia ocupacional), avaliando a eficácia das técnicas empregadas, principalmente no que se refere à reabilitação da funcionalidade da musculatura em cabeça e pescoço. Estratégia de pesquisa Os artigos foram selecionados por meio da base de dados PubMed, utilizando os descritores "burn and face and speech-language pathology", "burn and face and speech language", "burn and face and rehabilitation", "burn and face and myofunctional rehabilitation", "burn and face and myofunctional therapy", "nonsurgical and scar and management", "burn and face and nonsurgical" e "burn and face and scar and management". Critérios de seleção Foram incluídos artigos que investigaram os tratamentos das queimaduras em cabeça e pescoço, associados à reabilitação da funcionalidade da musculatura em cabeça e pescoço, utilizando exercícios musculares e/ou terapias manuais. Resultados A maioria dos tratamentos descritos apresentou efeitos benéficos para pacientes com queimaduras. Foi observada grande variabilidade da metodologia adotada para a aplicação e verificação dos efeitos dos tratamentos. Conclusão Apesar do crescente número de pesquisas, ainda não existe consenso quanto à melhor técnica terapêutica e ao real benefício de cada uma delas. Existe uma grande diversidade nos protocolos de tratamento, sendo que um número pequeno de estudos de tratamento visa a funcionalidade do sistema miofuncional orofacial. A maioria dos estudos tem, como foco, atividades motoras isoladas, que visam à mobilidade mandibular.


ABSTRACT Purpose Analyze studies addressing the treatment of head and neck burns in different fields of health care, especially treatments that involve the functional rehabilitation of the head and neck muscles. Research strategy This qualitative review of the literature analyzed international scientific publications in the PubMed database that used the following keywords: "burn and face and speech-language pathology", "burn and face and speech language", "burn and face and rehabilitation", "burn and face and myofunctional rehabilitation", "burn and face and myofunctional therapy", "nonsurgical and scar and management", "burn and face and nonsurgical", and "burn and face and scar and management". Selection criteria Scientific publications on treatment strategies for head and neck burns associated to functional rehabilitation of the head and neck muscles using muscle exercises and/or manual therapy were included in this study. Results Overall, most of the treatments described in the investigated studies presented positive outcomes for patients with head and neck burns. The studies showed wide variability in terms of treatment proposals and methodologies used to verify treatment efficacy. Conclusion Although a growing number of publications on the rehabilitation of head and neck burns were observed, the best therapeutic technique and its real benefits remain unclear. There is a wide range of treatment protocols, and very few focus on the functional treatment of the orofacial myofunctional system. Most of the studies propose isolated motor activities to improve the mandibular range of movements.


Assuntos
Humanos , Queimaduras/reabilitação , Terapia Miofuncional , Cabeça , Pescoço , Sistema Estomatognático , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas
10.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2050, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001365

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Comparar três métodos de aprendizagem sobre anatomia e fisiologia do sistema miofuncional orofacial, sendo dois interativos (uso de softwares educacionais) e um tradicional, quanto à aprendizagem conceitual de estudantes de graduação em Fonoaudiologia. Métodos Participaram 36 estudantes do segundo ano, alocados randomicamente em grupos: Grupo 1 (G1) - método interativo com jogo computacional 2D (n=12); Grupo 2 (G2) - método interativo com modelo computacional 3D (n=12); Grupo 3 (G3) - método tradicional (textos e figuras 2D) (n=12). Os métodos de aprendizagem foram aplicados durante estudo complementar, por sete semanas, após aula expositiva. Foi realizada uma avaliação de conhecimento antes da aplicação dos métodos de aprendizagem, imediatamente após e seis meses depois da conclusão, e o desempenho dos grupos, nos três momentos, foi comparado. Os dados foram analisados no software SPSS, versão 21 (nível de significância de 5%). Resultados Predominaram sujeitos do gênero feminino, com média de idade de 22,0 (±4,7) anos (F2,33=60,72, p=0,260). Os resultados indicaram que, no G1, apenas o pré-teste diferiu do pós-teste, enquanto no G2 e no G3 o pré-teste diferiu do pós-teste e do pós-teste tardio. Ao verificar a interação entre o desempenho dos grupos e os momentos de avaliação, observou-se que os resultados do GI foram inferiores aos dos demais grupos (F2,22=722,30 p<0,001). Conclusão O uso de modelo computacional 3D foi comparável ao do método tradicional para a aprendizagem conceitual e retenção de conhecimento, em curto e longo prazo, sendo ambos mais eficazes do que o uso de jogo computacional 2D.


ABSTRACT Purpose Compare three learning methods on Anatomy and Physiology of the Orofacial Myofunctional System (OMS): two interactive methods with educational software and one traditional method, regarding the conceptual learning of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences (SLHS) undergraduate students. Methods Thirty-six students were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1) - 2D computer game-based method (n=12); Group 2 (G2) - 3D computational model method (n=12); Group 3 (G3) - traditional method (texts and 2D images) (n=12). The learning methods were applied during a complementary study schedule, for seven weeks, after a lecture. Knowledge assessments were conducted prior to the application of the learning methods, immediately after, and six months after completion; the performance of the groups at the three moments was compared. Data were analyzed in SPSS 21 software (p≤0.005). Results Female individuals were predominant, with mean age of 22.0 (±4.7) years (F2.33=60.72; p=0.260). The results show that only the pre-test differed from the short-term test in the G1, whereas the pre-test differed from the short- and the long-term tests in the G2 and G3. Regarding correlation between the performance of the groups and the moments of evaluation, it was observed that the results for the G1 were inferior (F2.22=722.30; p<0.001). Conclusion The 3D computational model was comparable to the traditional method for short- and long-term conceptual learning and knowledge retention, and both were more effective than the 2D computer game.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecnologia Educacional/educação , Músculos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Jogos Experimentais , Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Instrução por Computador , Treinamento por Simulação
11.
CoDAS ; 31(5): e20180274, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039609

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar o efeito da intervenção do cão na sessão regular de terapia fonoaudiológica para a gagueira do desenvolvimento em jovens adultos. Método Foram selecionados jovens adultos e adultos com diagnóstico de gagueira do desenvolvimento. Concluíram o estudo oito participantes, seis do sexo masculino e dois do sexo feminino, com idades variando entre 16 e 45 anos. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 - que realizou o tratamento para gagueira com a presença de um cão terapeuta em sala de terapia e G2 - que realizou o tratamento para gagueira sem a presença do cão terapeuta. Foi incluído um grupo controle, G3 - composto por participantes fluentes, pareado em idade e sexo ao G1 e G2, para controle da variabilidade natural da fluência da fala. Resultados A análise comparativa entre os grupos indicou que o grupo que realizou o tratamento sem a presença do cão alcançou melhores índices de performance, evolução e eficácia. Conclusão Para a população pesquisada neste estudo, não foi observado efeito da intervenção do cão na terapia fonoaudiológica.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the effect of dog intervention on the regular session of speech therapy for developmental stuttering in adults. Methods The study involved young adults and adults with developmental stuttering. The study sample was composed of eight participants, six males and two females, ranging in age from 16 to 45 years. Participants were divided into two groups: G1 - those who underwent treatment for stuttering with the presence of a dog-therapist in the therapy room and G2 - those who underwent treatment for stuttering without the presence of the dog therapist. We included a control group, G3, composed of fluent participants, matched in age and sex to G1 and G2 to control the natural variability of speech fluency. Results Comparative results between the groups indicated that the group that performed the treatment without the presence of the dog achieved better performance, evolution and efficacy rates. Conclusion for the population in this study, the dog intervention on speech therapy did not improve treatment.

12.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 45(3): e1687, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify factors associated with dysphagia in patients undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (pOTI) and the post-extubation consequences. METHODS: 150 patients undergoing pOTI participated in the study, evaluated according to the deglutition functional level (American Speech Language - Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS), severity determination (The Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SOFA) and submitted to collection of variables age, mortality, days of orotracheal intubation, number of sessions to introduce oral diet, and days to hospital discharge. We grouped patients according to ASHA classification: 1 (levels 1 and 2), 2 (levels 3, 4 and 5) and 3 (levels 6 and 7). RESULTS: the variables associated with impaired deglutition functionality were age (p<0.001), mortality (p<0.003), OTI days (p=0.001), number of sessions to introduce oral diet (p<0.001) and days to hospital discharge (p=0.018). Multiple comparisons indicated significant difference between ASHA1 and ASHA2 groups in relation to ASHA3 group. ASHA1 and ASHA2 groups had a lower SOFA score when compared with the ASHA3 group (p=0.004). Only 20% of ASHA1 patients and 32% of ASHA2 patients presented safe deglutition levels before discharge. CONCLUSION: factors associated with dysphagia in patients submitted to pOTI were age over 55 years and orotracheal intubation time (greater in the cases with worse deglutition functionality). The post-extubation consequences were increased mortality and length of hospital stay in the presence of dysphagia.


Assuntos
Extubação , Transtornos de Deglutição/classificação , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Estado Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 23: e1871, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-888394

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução: A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) é complexa e multifatorial. São encontrados, na literatura, estudos que comparam diferentes métodos de tratamento. Objetivo: Investigar estudos sobre o tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares (DTMs) nas diversas áreas da saúde, avaliando a eficácia das técnicas empregadas, principalmente no que se refere ao uso da terapia miofuncional orofacial. Estratégia de pesquisa: Os artigos compilados neste estudo foram selecionados por meio da base de dados PubMed, utilizando os descritores "temporomandibular disorders and oral motor therapy", "orofacial myofunctional therapy and temporomandibular disorders" e "temporomandibular disorders and myofunctional rehabilitation". O levantamento realizado limitou-se aos artigos publicado nos idiomas Inglês e Português, entre janeiro de 2006 e dezembro de 2016. Critérios de seleção: Foram incluídos artigos sobre os tratamentos das DTMs associados aos exercícios musculares e/ou terapias manuais. Publicações sem acesso completo, repetidas por sobreposição das palavras-chave, revisões de literatura, cartas ao editor e não relacionadas diretamente ao tema foram excluídas. Resultados: Dos 102 estudos selecionados, 22 atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos. Em geral, a maioria dos tratamentos descritos apresentou efeitos benéficos para pacientes com DTMs. Foi observada grande variabilidade da metodologia adotada para a aplicação e verificação dos efeitos dos tratamentos e somente poucos estudos fizeram uso de grupo controle. Conclusão: Apesar do crescimento no número de pesquisas sobre DTMs, ainda não é possível estabelecer qual a melhor técnica de tratamento. Após análise dos artigos selecionados, observou-se que as técnicas combinadas de terapia (ex.: exercício associado ao uso de equipamento para redução da dor) produzem melhores resultados, com maior redução da dor e melhora da mobilidade mandibular.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Disorders of TMJ are complex and multifactorial. Studies comparing different treatment methods are found in the literature. Purpose: To verify the effectiveness of muscle and orofacial myofunctional rehabilitation for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ). Research strategy: This qualitative review of the literature analyzed international scientific publications in PubMed database that used the following keywords: temporomandibular disorders and oral motor therapy; orofacial myofunctional therapy and temporomandibular disorders; temporomandibular disorders and myofunctional rehabilitation. Our investigation was limited to articles published in English or Portuguese languages, between January 2006 and December 2016. Selection criteria: Scientific publications about rehabilitation strategies for TMJ associated to muscle exercises and/ or manual therapy were included. The publications that did not present access to the full text, that were repeated by overlapping keywords, case studies, letters to the editor and those that were not directly related to the topic of investigation were excluded. Results: One hundred and two studies were identified out of which 22 matched our inclusion criteria. Overall, most of the treatments described in the investigated studies presented positive outcomes for the patients with TMJ. The studies presented a wide variability in terms of treatment proposals and methodology used to verify treatment effectiveness. A very small number of studies included control groups. Combined techniques (e.g. exercises associated to the use of equipment to reduce pain) produced better therapy effects, with greater pain reduction and improved mandibular mobility. Conclusion: Although we observed a growing number of publications about TMJ rehabilitation, the best therapeutic technique and its real benefits remains unclear.


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia Miofuncional , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia , Articulação Temporomandibular , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(3): e1687, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-956558

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à disfagia em pacientes submetidos à intubação orotraqueal prolongada (IOTp) e as consequências pós-extubação. Métodos: participaram do estudo 150 pacientes submetidos à IOTp, avaliados segundo o nível funcional da deglutição (American Speech Language - Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS), a determinação da gravidade (The Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SOFA) e a coleta das seguintes variáveis: idade, mortalidade, dias de intubação orotraqueal, número de atendimentos para introdução da alimentação oral e dias para alta hospitalar. Os pacientes foram agrupados de acordo com a classificação do ASHA: 1 (níveis 1 e 2), 2 (níveis 3, 4 e 5) e 3 (níveis 6 e 7). Resultados: as análises indicaram as seguintes variáveis associadas a pior funcionalidade da deglutição: idade (p<0,001), mortalidade (p<0,003); dias de IOT (p=0,001), número de atendimentos para introdução de dieta oral (p<0,001) e dias para alta hospitalar (p=0,018). As comparações múltiplas indicaram diferença significante na comparação dos grupos ASHA1 e ASHA2 em relação ao grupo ASHA3. Os grupos ASHA1 e ASHA2 apresentaram menor score na SOFA quando comparados ao grupo ASHA3 (p=0,004). Somente 20% dos pacientes do grupo ASHA1 e 32% dos pacientes do ASHA2 apresentaram níveis seguros de deglutição antes da alta hospitalar. Conclusão: os fatores associados à disfagia em pacientes submetidos à IOTp foram: idade acima de 55 anos e tempo de intubação orotraqueal (maior nos casos com pior funcionalidade da deglutição). As consequências pós-extubação foram: aumento da mortalidade e do tempo de internação hospitalar na presença da disfagia.


ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors associated with dysphagia in patients undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (pOTI) and the post-extubation consequences. Methods: 150 patients undergoing pOTI participated in the study, evaluated according to the deglutition functional level (American Speech Language - Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS), severity determination (The Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SOFA) and submitted to collection of variables age, mortality, days of orotracheal intubation, number of sessions to introduce oral diet, and days to hospital discharge. We grouped patients according to ASHA classification: 1 (levels 1 and 2), 2 (levels 3, 4 and 5) and 3 (levels 6 and 7). Results: the variables associated with impaired deglutition functionality were age (p<0.001), mortality (p<0.003), OTI days (p=0.001), number of sessions to introduce oral diet (p<0.001) and days to hospital discharge (p=0.018). Multiple comparisons indicated significant difference between ASHA1 and ASHA2 groups in relation to ASHA3 group. ASHA1 and ASHA2 groups had a lower SOFA score when compared with the ASHA3 group (p=0.004). Only 20% of ASHA1 patients and 32% of ASHA2 patients presented safe deglutition levels before discharge. Conclusion: factors associated with dysphagia in patients submitted to pOTI were age over 55 years and orotracheal intubation time (greater in the cases with worse deglutition functionality). The post-extubation consequences were increased mortality and length of hospital stay in the presence of dysphagia.

15.
Codas ; 29(5): e20160146, 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091112

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). METHODS: Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy. Patients were divided into two groups: early intervention group (EIG) - 43 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty before 2 years of age and late intervention group (LIG) - 54 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty after 2 years of age. All patients underwent speech-language pathology assessment. The following parameters were assessed: resonance classification, presence of nasal turbulence, presence of weak intraoral air pressure, presence of audible nasal air emission, speech understandability, and compensatory articulation disorder (CAD). RESULTS: At statistical significance level of 5% (p≤0.05), no significant difference was observed between the groups in the following parameters: resonance classification (p=0.067); level of hypernasality (p=0.113), presence of nasal turbulence (p=0.179); presence of weak intraoral air pressure (p=0.152); presence of nasal air emission (p=0.369), and speech understandability (p=0.113). The groups differed with respect to presence of compensatory articulation disorders (p=0.020), with the LIG presenting higher occurrence of altered phonemes. CONCLUSION: It was possible to assess the general profile and speech characteristics of the study participants. Patients submitted to early primary palatoplasty present better speech profile.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Fala , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/cirurgia , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtorno Fonológico
16.
Am J Case Rep ; 18: 783-789, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The body of literature on oral motor and swallowing disorders in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is limited. CASE REPORT The purpose of this study was to characterize oral motor and swallowing disorders in two siblings with AT, based on oral motor and swallowing assessments. Specific procedures were applied for oral motor and swallowing assessments and both patients underwent videofluoroscopy (VFS). Case 1 presented vocal instability, change in postural control during feeding; food retention in oral cavity; slower oral transit time; and multiple swallowing (signs for solid and liquid). Case 2 presented parted lips at rest and reduced muscle strength; reduced strength and mobility of the tongue; vocal weakness and instability; reduced speech precision and intelligibility; decreased intonation pattern; food retention in oral cavity during feeding; slower oral transit time; multiple swallowing (signs for solid and liquid); poor bolus ejection; incoordination and difficulty in controlling the sips of water taken from the cup; altered cervical auscultation after swallowing and respiratory distress (liquid and puree). For both patients VFS results revealed laryngeal penetration for liquid. CONCLUSIONS Although the literature describes the occurrence of dysarthria and swallowing disorders in patients with AT, little attention has been given to describing which oral motor deficits are responsible for these disorders. Early identification of swallowing alterations and rehabilitation could decrease the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Future studies are necessary in order to investigate the deterioration process of swallowing in AT and the influence of rehabilitation in maintaining functional health.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Ataxia Telangiectasia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Irmãos , Língua/fisiopatologia , Disartria/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distúrbios da Voz/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Codas ; 29(4): e20160130, 2017 Jul 20.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746463

RESUMO

Purpose: To characterize the speech fluency profile of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Study participants were 40 individuals of both genders aged 40 to 80 years divided into 2 groups: Research Group - RG (20 individuals with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease) and Control Group - CG (20 individuals with no communication or neurological disorders). For all of the participants, three speech samples involving different tasks were collected: monologue, individual reading, and automatic speech. Results: The RG presented a significant larger number of speech disruptions, both stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies, and higher percentage of speech discontinuity in the monologue and individual reading tasks compared with the CG. Both groups presented reduced number of speech disruptions (stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies) in the automatic speech task; the groups presented similar performance in this task. Regarding speech rate, individuals in the RG presented lower number of words and syllables per minute compared with those in the CG in all speech tasks. Conclusion: Participants of the RG presented altered parameters of speech fluency compared with those of the CG; however, this change in fluency cannot be considered a stuttering disorder.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Leitura , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Gagueira/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Codas ; 29(3): e20160088, 2017 May 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28538826

RESUMO

Purpose: The objective was to determine if there was functional improvement of swallowing pattern in subjects identified with risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia after four weeks of specific oropharyngeal exercises. These exercises have pre-determined intensity and duration. Methods: It is a longitudinal study of functional effect, determined by initial and final comparative measures. Participants were adults and elderly, selected in a period of 24 months. A total of 68 participants were included. All subjects had a clinical evaluation of swallowing, and an initial measure in a functional scale. The individuals were split into two groups, according to the initial levelling of ASHA NOMS scale. In Group 1 (G1) - ASHA NOMS, initial of levels 1 and 2; Group 2 (G2) - ASHA NOMS, initial of levels 3, 4 and 5. All subjects executed an exercise protocol performed for four weeks. The protocol includes sessions with a speech therapist, and continuity of activities in home environment. Finally, new measurement of swallowing performance was held. Results: For G2 group there was statistically significant improvement. For G1, the relation was insignificant, despite the intense change in ASHA NOMS scale, however, in this group there was a reduced number of individuals due to the profile severity. Conclusion: The program was effective because after four exercise sessions, there was significant improvement in swallowing pattern, demonstrated by functional scale.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/reabilitação , Deglutição , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Adulto , Brasil , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Codas ; 29(2): e20160136, 2017 Mar 16.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327784

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the speech performance of fluent speakers and individuals who stutter during spontaneous speech, automatic speech, and singing. Methods: The study sample was composed of 34 adults, 17 individuals who stutter and 17 fluent controls, matched for gender and age. The speech performance of participants was compared by means of three tasks: monologue, automatic speech, and singing. The following aspects were assessed: total number of common disruptions and total number of stuttering-like disruptions. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed only for the monologue task in both intra- and inter-group comparisons. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study indicate that tasks of higher motor and melodic complexities, such as the monologue task, negatively affect the speech fluency of both fluent speakers and individuals who stutter.


Assuntos
Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canto , Medida da Produção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
20.
CoDAS ; 29(4): e20160130, 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890779

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar o perfil da fluência da fala de indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson em diferentes tarefas de fala. Método Participaram do estudo 40 indivíduos, de 40 a 80 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, divididos em 2 grupos: GP (grupo pesquisa - 20 indivíduos com diagnóstico de Doença de Parkinson); GC (grupo controle - 20 indivíduos sem qualquer alteração de comunicação e/ou neurológica). Para todos os participantes, foram coletadas três amostras de fala envolvendo diferentes tarefas: monólogo, leitura individual e fala automática. Resultados O GP apresentou um número significativamente maior de rupturas, tanto comuns quanto gagas, e maiores porcentagens de descontinuidade de fala e disfluências gagas nas tarefas de monólogo e leitura quando comparado ao GC. Nas tarefas de fala automática, ambos os grupos apresentaram número reduzido de rupturas comuns e gagas, não apresentando diferença significante entre os grupos para esta tarefa. Em relação à velocidade de fala, tanto em palavras quanto em sílabas por minuto, os indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson apresentaram velocidade reduzida em relação ao grupo controle em todas as tarefas de fala. Conclusão O GP apresentou alteração em todos os parâmetros da fluência avaliados no presente estudo quando comparado ao grupo controle, porém esta alteração da fluência não se configura como um quadro de gagueira.


ABSTRACT Purpose To characterize the speech fluency profile of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods Study participants were 40 individuals of both genders aged 40 to 80 years divided into 2 groups: Research Group - RG (20 individuals with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease) and Control Group - CG (20 individuals with no communication or neurological disorders). For all of the participants, three speech samples involving different tasks were collected: monologue, individual reading, and automatic speech. Results The RG presented a significant larger number of speech disruptions, both stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies, and higher percentage of speech discontinuity in the monologue and individual reading tasks compared with the CG. Both groups presented reduced number of speech disruptions (stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies) in the automatic speech task; the groups presented similar performance in this task. Regarding speech rate, individuals in the RG presented lower number of words and syllables per minute compared with those in the CG in all speech tasks. Conclusion Participants of the RG presented altered parameters of speech fluency compared with those of the CG; however, this change in fluency cannot be considered a stuttering disorder.

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