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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253954

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Assuntos
Periodontite , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifúngicos
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641394

RESUMO

Eugenia florida DC. belongs to the Myrtaceae family, which is present in almost all of Brazil. This species is popularly known as pitanga-preta or guamirim and is used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems. In this study, two specimens of Eugenia florida (Efl) were collected in different areas of the same region. Specimen A (EflA) was collected in an area of secondary forest (capoeira), while specimen B (EflB) was collected in a floodplain area. The essential oils (EOs) were extracted from both specimens of Eugenia florida by means of hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile compounds present, and the antioxidant capacity of the EOs was determined by antioxidant capacity (AC-DPPH) and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant (TEAC) assay. For E. florida, limonene (11.98%), spathulenol (10.94%) and α-pinene (5.21%) were identified as the main compounds of the EO extracted from sample A, while sample B comprised selina-3,11-dien-6α-ol (12.03%), eremoligenol (11.0%) and γ-elemene (10.70%). This difference in chemical composition impacted the antioxidant activity of the EOs between the studied samples, especially in sample B of E. florida. This study is the first to report on the antioxidant activity of Eugenia florida DC. essential oils.

3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200300

RESUMO

Propolis is a balsamic product obtained from vegetable resins by exotic Africanized bees Apis mellifera L., transported and processed by them, originating from the activity that explores and maintains these individuals. Because of its vegetable and natural origins, propolis is a complex mixture of different compound classes; among them are the volatile compounds present in the aroma. In this sense, in the present study we evaluated the volatile fraction of propolis present in the aroma obtained by distillation and simultaneous extraction, and its chemical composition was determined using coupled gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flame ionization detection. The majority of compounds were sesquiterpene and hydrocarbons, comprising 8.2-22.19% α-copaene and 6.2-21.7% ß-caryophyllene, with additional compounds identified in greater concentrations. Multivariate analysis showed that samples collected from one region may have different chemical compositions, which may be related to the location of the resin's production. This may be related to other bee products.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Própole/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Brasil , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Resinas Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072598

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from Eugenia patrisii, E. punicifolia, and Myrcia tomentosa, specimens A and B, using hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile constituents present, and the antioxidant capacity of EOs was determined using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. For E. patrisii, germacrene D (20.03%), bicyclogermacrene (11.82%), and (E)-caryophyllene (11.04%) were identified as the major constituents of the EOs extracted from specimen A, whereas specimen B primarily comprised γ-elemene (25.89%), germacrene B (8.11%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.76%). The EOs of E. punicifolia specimen A contained ß-Elemene (25.12%), (E)-caryophyllene (13.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (9.88%), while specimen B was composed of (E)-caryophyllene (11.47%), bicyclogermacrene (5.86%), ß-pinene (5.86%), and γ-muurolene (5.55%). The specimen A of M. tomentosa was characterized by γ-elemene (12.52%), germacrene D (11.45%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.22%), while specimen B contained spathulenol (40.70%), α-zingiberene (9.58%), and γ-elemene (6.89%). Additionally, the chemical composition of the EOs was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by the collection period. Furthermore, the EOs of the studied specimens, especially specimen A of E. punicifolia, showed a greater antioxidant activity in DPPH rather than TEAC, as represented by a significantly high inhibition percentage (408.0%).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromanos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Picratos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/análise
5.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946153

RESUMO

Leaves of Lippia thymoides (Verbenaceae) were dried in an oven at 40, 50 and 60 °C and the kinetic of drying and the influence of the drying process on the chemical composition, yield, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the obtained essential oils were evaluated. The composition of the essential oils was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection analyses. The influence of drying on the chemical composition of the essential oils of L. thymoides was evaluated by multivariate analysis, and their antioxidant activity was investigated via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The Midilli model was the most appropriate to describe the behavior of drying kinetic data of L. thymoides leaves. Thymol was the major compound for all analyzed conditions; the maximum content was obtained from fresh leaves (62.78 ± 0.63%). The essential oils showed DPPH radical scavenging activity with an average of 73.10 ± 12.08%, and the fresh leaves showed higher inhibition (89.97 ± 0.31%). This is the first study to evaluate the influence of drying on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of L. thymoides essential oils rich in thymol.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lippia/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Timol/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Temperatura , Timol/farmacologia
6.
Toxicon ; 195: 111-118, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667485

RESUMO

Convolvulaceae Juss. is a family of vines and shrubs composed of species of ecological and economic importance. Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult. and I. setifera Poir. are ruderal and evergreen weeds that invade pastures and cause intoxication in cattle during the dry season. In the present study, the essential oils (EOs) of the leaves from I. setifera (dry season) and I. asarifolia (dry and wet seasons) were obtained by steam distillation for 3h. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined using gas chromatography coupled to gas spectrometry (CG/MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (CG-FID). To correlate the toxicity of the major chemical constituents of I. setifera and I. asarifolia EOs, we predicted the inhibition activity against the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp) using a machine learning-based (ML-based) algorithm. In silico analyses were also applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics properties related to the penetration in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gastrointestinal absorption. The chemical composition of the EO of I. setifera was characterized by high levels of (E)-caryophyllene (36.7%) and ß-elemene (20.49%). The I. asarifolia EO showed a phytol derivative as the main chemical constituent in the dry season (35.49%), and its content was reduced in the sample collected during the wet season (10.67%). The constituent (E)-caryophyllene was also present in the leaves of I. asarifolia, but at lower levels (15.93-19.93%) when compared to the EOs of I. setifera. Our computational analyses indicated that the constituents caryophyllene oxide, cedroxyde, pentadecanal, and phytol can be related to the toxicity of these weeds. This is the first study to report the chemical composition of I. asarifolia and I. setifera EOs and correlate their molecular mechanism of toxicity using in silico approaches.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Bovinos , Simulação por Computador , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta
7.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440885

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds in the fermented and dried cocoa beans conducted with three distinct inoculants of yeast species due to their high fermentative capacity: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, the mixture in equal proportions 1:1 of both species, and a control fermentation (with no inoculum application). Three starter cultures of yeasts, previously isolated and identified in cocoa fermentation in the municipality of Tomé-Açu, Pará state, Brazil. The seeds with pulp were removed manually and placed in wooden boxes for the fermentation process that lasted from 6 to 7 days. On the last day of fermentation, the almonds were packaged properly and placed to dry (36 °C), followed by preparation for the analysis of volatile compounds by GC-MS technique. In addition to the control fermentation, a high capacity for the formation of desirable compounds in chocolate by the inoculants with P. kudriavzevii was observed, which was confirmed through multivariate analyses, classifying these almonds with the highest content of aldehydes, esters, ketones and alcohols and low concentration of off-flavours. We conclude that the addition of mixed culture starter can be an excellent alternative for cocoa producers, suggesting obtaining cocoa beans with desirable characteristics for chocolate production, as well as creating a product identity for the producing region.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Fermentação , Pichia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Indústria Alimentícia , Sementes/metabolismo
8.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691619

RESUMO

The present work proposed an evaluation of the physiological performance, yield and chemical profile of the essential oil obtained from leaves and roots of Eryngium foetidum L. (Apiaceae) cultivated using different fertilizer sources. The other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter was not different, suggested that the photosystem II was not affected by the different fertilizer sources. Highest essential oil yield was obtained in leaf samples cultivated with the mineral fertilizer (0.18%) and control conditions (0.22%), while it was obtained by mineral fertilization in the case of root samples (0.22%). The principal component analysis - PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis - HCA showed two groups: the first was formed by roots (OrgR, MinR and ConR), characterized by the constituents 2,3,4-Trimethylbenzaldehyde, Muurola-4,10(14)-dien-1ß-ol, Isoshyobunone, para-Mint-1,5-dien-8-ol, 6-Canphenone, (E)-γ-Atlantone and (E)-ß-Farnesene; and the second group formed by leaves (OrgF, MinF, ConF), related to (2E)-2-Dodecenal, t-2-Tetradecenal, 1-Dodecanal, 1-Decanal, Tetradecanal, γ-Terpinene, Mesitylene and ρ-Cymene.

9.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059439

RESUMO

The essential oil (EO) of plants of the Myrtaceae family has diverse chemical composition and several applications. However, data on the oil yield, its composition, and its complete chemistry are still unavailable for some species belonging to this family, such as Myrcia eximia DC. In this study, the chemical compositions of the EOs of Myrcia eximia were evaluated by using gas chromatography (GC) alone and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples for both evaluations were collected from the city of Magalhães Barata, State of Pará, Brazil, in 2017 and 2018. For the plant material collected in 2017, EO was obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) only, while, for the material collected in 2018, EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation (SD), in order to evaluate the differences in chemical composition and mass yield of the EO. The yields of (E)-caryophyllene were 15.71% and 20.0% for the samples collected by HD in 2017 and 2018, respectively, while the yield was 15.0% for the sample collected by SD in 2018. Hexanal was found to be the major constituent in the EO obtained by HD, with yield of up to 26.09%. The oil yields reached 0.08% by using SD, and 0.01% and 0.36% for the samples collected in 2017 and 2018, respectively, using HD. The results of this study provide new information about the mass yield and chemical composition of Myrcia eximia DC, and they can add value and income to traditional populations, as well as facilitate the preservation of this species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Myrtaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brasil , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849129

RESUMO

The essential oils of the fresh and dry flowers, leaves, branches, and roots of Lippia thymoides were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oil of fresh leaves was investigated on silica gel plates. The interactions of the key compounds with acetylcholinesterase were simulated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies. In total, 75 compounds were identified, and oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant components of all the plant parts, ranging from 19.48% to 84.99%. In the roots, the main compounds were saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, having contents varying from 39.5% to 32.17%, respectively. In the evaluation of the anticholinesterase activity, the essential oils (detection limit (DL) = 0.1 ng/spot) were found to be about ten times less active than that of physostigmine (DL = 0.01ng/spot), whereas thymol and thymol acetate presented DL values each of 0.01 ng/spot, equivalent to that of the positive control. Based on the docking and molecular dynamics studies, thymol and thymol acetate interact with the catalytic residues Ser203 and His447 of the active site of acetylcholinesterase. The binding free energies (ΔGbind) for these ligands were -18.49 and -26.88 kcal/mol, demonstrating that the ligands are able to interact with the protein and inhibit their catalytic activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Lippia/citologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Electrophorus/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 238: 54-57, 2017 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342670

RESUMO

The Essential Oils (EOs) from the leaves of species Cinnamomum verum J. Presl are used in the pharmaceutical industry for their numerous biological activities. Currently, the main compound of C. verum EO is eugenol which has acaricidal activity; however, a rare chemotype with benzyl benzoate as the main component can be found. Benzyl benzoate is recognized as an acaricide; however, studies of the C. verum EOs benzyl benzoate chemotype on Rhipicephalus microplus were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricide activity of an EO from a rare chemotype of C. verum, as well as purified benzyl benzoate, against larvae and engorged females of R. microplus resistant to amidines and pyrethroids. The EO was extracted from C. verum leaves and the compounds present were identified using a gas phase chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Efficacy against R. microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. A rare chemotype of C. verum was found to produce EOs with benzyl benzoate (65.4%) as the main compound. The C. verum essential oil was 3.3 times more efficient on the R. microplus larvae than was benzyl benzoate. However, no differences were found on the R. microplus engorged females. This is the first report regarding the acaricidal activity of C. verum with chemotype benzyl benzoate, and this compound showed acaricidal activity on R. microplus larvae.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Acaricidas/química , Animais , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25949264

RESUMO

The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

13.
J Med Microbiol ; 62(Pt 7): 1032-1037, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639986

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and to determine its possible mechanism of action against bacteria of clinical and food interest. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar diffusion and dilution methods; the mechanism of action by transmission electron microscopy and by SDS-PAGE; the bioactive compounds by bioautography; and the chemical analysis by GC/MS. Oleoresin showed activity against nine of the 11 strains of bacteria tested. Bacillus cereus was the most sensitive, with a MIC corresponding to 0.03125 mg ml(-1) and with a bactericidal action. Oleoresin acted on the bacterial cell wall, removing proteins and the S-layer, and interfering with the cell-division process. This activity probably can be attributed to the action of terpenic compounds, among them the bisabolene compound. Gram-negative bacteria tested were not inhibited. C. duckei oleoresin is a potential antibacterial, suggesting that this oil could be used as a therapeutic alternative, mainly against B. cereus.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/citologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23533469

RESUMO

Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- ß -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 µ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 µ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 µ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 µ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity.

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