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1.
Korean J Orthod ; 49(5): 310-318, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598487

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to identify possible risk factors for external apical root resorption (EARR) in the maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment. Methods: The root length of 2,173 maxillary incisors was measured on periapical radiographs of 564 patients who received orthodontic treatment. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate intraexaminer and interexaminer reproducibility. Multiple binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between EARR and various factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Results: The risk of developing EARR was 70% higher in orthodontic treatment with maxillary premolar extraction (p = 0.004), 58% higher in patients with increased overjet (p = 0.012), 41% lower in two-phase orthodontic treatment (p = 0.037), and 33% lower in patients with deep bite (p = 0.039). The lateral incisors were 54% more likely to develop EARR (p < 0.001), dilacerated roots were 2.26 times more likely to develop EARR (p < 0.001), and for each additional millimeter of root length, the risk of EARR increased by 29% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The potential risk factors for EARR after orthodontic treatment included treatment with maxillary premolar extraction, increased overjet at the beginning of treatment, and dilacerated roots.

2.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 11(5): e491-e495, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275524

RESUMO

The unerupted and impacted tooth is a common problem and the reason for many orthodontic and pediatric dental referrals, yet the approach to their management is still an area of controversy. This article presents two cases of severely impacted teeth that spontaneously erupted in the maxillary and mandibular arches. The first patient, a 9-year-old girl, presented a severe impaction of mandibular right and left second premolars. The second patient, a 7-year-old girl, presented with a severely impacted maxillary central incisor. In both cases, the teeth spontaneously erupted into excellent positions without surgical procedures and orthodontic traction. This raises important questions concerning the possible treatment options for such teeth as well as the timing of any interceptive treatment. In cases of unerupted or impacted teeth, a multidisciplinary approach is indicated involving orthodontics, paedodontics and oral surgery to establish the optimal treatment plan. Key words:Tooth eruption, tooth, impacted, orthodontics, interceptive, case reports.

3.
J Nutr Biochem ; 59: 93-103, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986312

RESUMO

A high-fat (HF) diet leads to detrimental effects on alveolar bone (AB); however, the mechanisms linking adiposity to bone loss are poorly understood. This study investigated if AB resorption induced by an HF diet is associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression and if adipocytes can directly interfere with osteoclastogenesis. We also evaluated the effects of diet restriction (DR) on bone phenotype. C57BL6/J mice were fed normal chow or an HF diet for 12 weeks. Samples of maxillae, femur, blood and white adipose tissue were analyzed. In vitro co-culture of bone marrow-derived osteoclasts and mature adipocytes was carried out. The results revealed an increased number of osteoclasts and fewer osteoblasts in animals fed the HF diet, which led to the disruption of trabecular bone and horizontal AB loss. Similar effects were observed in the femur. The metabolic parameters and the deleterious effects of the HF diet on AB and the femur were reversed after DR. The HF diet modulated the expression of 30 inflammatory genes in AB such as Fam3c, InhBa, Tnfs11, Ackr2, Pxmp2 and Chil3, which are related to the inflammatory response and bone remodeling. In vitro, mature adipocytes produced increased levels of adipokines, and co-culture with osteoclasts resulted in augmented osteoclastogenesis. The results indicate that the mechanisms by which an HF diet affects bone involve induction of osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory gene expression. Adipokines apparently are key molecules in this process. Strategies to control diet-induced bone loss might be beneficial in patients with preexisting bone inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteoclastos/patologia
4.
Nutrition ; 45: 59-67, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129238

RESUMO

The consumption of different types of diets influences not only body health but the bone remodeling process as well. Nutritional components can directly affect maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone microarchitecture. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge regarding the influence of diets and dietary supplementation on alveolar bone. Accumulating evidence from experimental models suggests that carbohydrate- and fat-rich diets are detrimental for alveolar bone, whereas protective effects are associated with consumption of calcium, ω-3, and bioactive compounds. Little is known about the effects of protein-free and protein-rich diets, boron, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and caffeine on alveolar bone remodeling. Adipokines and direct effects of nutritional components on bone cells are proposed mechanisms linking diet and bone. Results from animal models substantiate the role of nutritional components on alveolar bone. It is a well-built starting point for clinical studies on nutritional monitoring and intervention for patients with alveolar bone disorders, especially those who are treatment refractory.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta , Arcada Osseodentária/ultraestrutura , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais , Avaliação Nutricional
5.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(1): 369-376, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28488057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the first molar roots of cleft lip and palate subjects along different root development stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty participants with unilateral cleft lip and palate were divided into three groups (n = 10), according to the type of expander used: Hyrax, iMini and Fan-type. A cone beam CT scan was performed before (T1) and 3 months after stabilization of the appliance (T2). Measurements of root lengths of the first permanent maxillary molars were taken to evaluate root development and external apical root resorption (EARR). RESULTS: Roots presenting open apexes before treatment exhibited a statistically significant increase in root length after treatment (P < .001). Conversely, there were no significant changes in the root length of roots that had closed apexes at the beginning of treatment (P > .05). Furthermore, there were no differences among groups, or correlation between cleft side and gender was found vis-à-vis to changes in the root length (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Orthopaedic forces of RME were neither able to interrupt the root development process nor to cause EARR in cleft subjects. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: As the RME is the most common orthodontic procedure in patients with cleft lip and palate, understanding its impact on dental structures is of fundamental importance.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/terapia , Fissura Palatina/terapia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Prospectivos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Raiz Dentária/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 22(1): 98-109, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444016

RESUMO

Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/terapia , Fechamento de Espaço Ortodôntico/métodos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Adulto , Modelos Dentários , Feminino , Humanos , Radiografia Panorâmica , Extração Dentária
7.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 21(6): 82-90, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683832

RESUMO

Objective:: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in cleft patients using two types of expanders. Methods:: Twenty unilateral cleft lip and palate patients were randomly divided into two groups, according to the type of expander used: (I) modified Hyrax and (II) inverted Mini-Hyrax. A pretreatment cone-beam computed tomographic image (T0) was taken as part of the initial orthodontic records and three months after RME, for bone graft planning (T1). Results:: In general, there was no significant difference among groups (p > 0.05). Both showed a significant transverse maxillary expansion (p < 0.05) and no significant forward and/or downward movement of the maxilla (p > 0.05). There was greater dental crown than apical expansion. Maxillary posterior expansion tended to be larger than anterior opening (p < 0.05). Cleft and non-cleft sides were symmetrically expanded and there was no difference in dental tipping between both sides (p > 0.05). Conclusions:: The appliances tested are effective in the transverse expansion of the maxilla. However, these appliances should be better indicated to cleft cases also presenting posterior transverse discrepancy, since there was greater expansion in the posterior maxillary region than in the anterior one.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/terapia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Técnica de Expansão Palatina/instrumentação , Criança , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palato/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 149(3): 358-65, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are widely used for treating hypertension, heart and kidney failure, and the harmful effects of diabetes. Components of the RAS have been identified in various organs, but little is known of their effects on bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the blockage of the RAS influences strain-induced bone remodeling in a model of orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: An orthodontic appliance was placed in C57BL6/J mice that were randomly divided into 2 groups: vehicle-treated mice (VH) and mice treated with losartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker). Orthodontic tooth movement and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells were determined by histopathologic analysis. The expression of mediators involved in bone remodeling was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Blood pressure was measured before and during the experimental period. RESULTS: Orthodontic tooth movement and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells were significantly reduced in the losartan group compared with the VH group. mRNA levels of osteoclast markers (RANK, RANKL, cathepsin K, and metalloproteinase 13) were lower in the losartan mice than in the VH group, whereas the expressions of osteoblast markers and negative regulators of bone resorption (periostin, dentin matrix protein, alkaline phosphatase, collagen 1A1, semaphorin 3A3, metalloproteinase 2, and osteoprotegerin) were higher in the VH group. CONCLUSIONS: Blockage of the RAS system decreases osteoclast differentiation and activity and, consequently, results in decreased strain-induced bone remodeling in orthodontic tooth movement.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Losartan/farmacologia , Maxila/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Fosfatase Ácida/análise , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsina K/análise , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/análise , Colágeno Tipo I/análise , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/análise , Isoenzimas/análise , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/análise , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoprotegerina/análise , Ligante RANK/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/análise , Semaforina-3A/análise , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/instrumentação
9.
Angle Orthod ; 86(4): 617-24, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anterior and posterior maxillary width, the nasal passage volume, the oropharyngeal minimum axial area, and volume changes in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with one of the following four expanders: Hyrax, Fan-Type, inverted mini-hyrax supported on the first permanent molars (iMini-M), or inverted mini-hyrax supported on the first premolars (iMini-B). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with transverse maxillary deficiency who were submitted for rapid maxillary expansion were divided in four groups according to type of expander used. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before and 3 months after expansion. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among the groups, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes in each group. RESULTS: All groups showed a significant increase in the anterior maxillary width, with no intergroup differences. The iMini-B was the only group that did not show a significant increase in the posterior maxillary width. The intergroup comparison demonstrated differences among all groups except between Hyrax and iMini-M, which showed the greatest posterior expansions. The intragroup analysis showed a significant increase in the nasal passage volume in hyrax and inverted mini-hyrax on the molar groups, but the intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference only between Fan-Type and inverted mini-hyrax on the molars. None of the expanders caused significant changes in the oropharyngeal measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Only the Hyrax and inverted mini-hyrax on the molar expanders effectively increased the nasal passage volume, and none of the expanders evaluated in this study modified the oropharyngeal airway.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/terapia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Adolescente , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz
10.
J Craniofac Surg ; 25(6): e523-6, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25347603

RESUMO

Cleft lip and palate patients commonly present maxillary constriction, particularly in the anterior region. The aim of this case report was to describe an alternative clinical approach that used a smaller Hyrax screw unconventionally positioned to achieve greater anterior than posterior expansion in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. The idea presented here is to take advantage of a reduced dimension screw to position it anteriorly. When only anterior expansion was needed (patient 1), the appliance was soldered to the first premolar bands and associated to a transpalatal arch cemented to the first molars. However, when overall expansion was required (patient 2), the screw was positioned anteriorly, but soldered to the first molar bands. Intercanine, premolar, and first molar widths were measured on dental casts with a digital caliper. Pre-expansion and postexpansion radiographs and tomographies were also evaluated. A significant anterior expansion and no intermolar width increase were registered in the first patient. Although patient 2 also presented a greater anterior than posterior expansion, a noteworthy expansion occurred at the molar region. The alternative approach to expand the maxilla in cleft patients reported here caused greater anterior than posterior expansion when the Mini-Hyrax was associated to a transpalatal arch, and its reduced dimension also minimized discomfort and facilitated hygiene.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Técnica de Expansão Palatina/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palato/diagnóstico por imagem , Palato/cirurgia
12.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 146(1): 73-81, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24975001

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in the maxillae of patients with clefts treated with 3 expanders: hyrax, fan-type, and inverted mini-hyrax supported on the first premolars. METHODS: Thirty patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with transverse maxillary deficiency were divided into 3 groups, according to the type of expander that they used. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before and 3 months after expansion, and the paired t test was used to evaluate the changes in each group. RESULTS: The subjects in the inverted mini-hyrax group showed significant forward displacement of the maxilla (P <0.05). On the transversal plane, the hyrax group showed greater expansion in the posterior region than in the anterior region (P <0.05). However, the fan-type and the inverted mini-hyrax groups showed significantly greater maxillary expansion anteriorly than posteriorly (P <0.05). There was a greater tendency for buccal inclination of the supporting teeth when the fan-type was used. The cleft and the noncleft sides expanded symmetrically with all appliances, and there was no difference in dental tipping between these sides (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hyrax expander showed better results for cleft patients requiring anterior and posterior maxillary expansion. The inverted mini-hyrax most effectively restricted posterior expansion, optimizing anterior expansion without causing as much buccal tipping of the supporting teeth as did the fan-type.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/complicações , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Técnica de Expansão Palatina/instrumentação , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Arco Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/etiologia , Má Oclusão/terapia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Coroa do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Angle Orthod ; 84(6): 980-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24731063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Lithothamnium sp (LTT) supplement, a calcium-rich alga widely used for mineral reposition, on strain-induced (orthodontic tooth movement [OTM]) and infection-induced bone resorption (periodontal disease [PD]) in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were divided into two bone resorption models: one with an orthodontic appliance and the other with PD induced by the oral inoculation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetencomitans (Aa). Both groups were fed a regular diet (vehicle), LTT-rich diet (LTT), or calcium-rich diet (CaCO3). Alveolar bone resorption (ABR), the number of osteoclasts, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), calcium, and vitamin D3 were evaluated. RESULTS: The number of osteoclasts was reduced in LTT and CaCO3 mice, which led to diminished OTM and infection-induced alveolar bone loss. In addition, LTT- and calcium-treated groups also presented decreased levels of TNF-α in periodontal tissues and increased levels of calcium in serum. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the LTT supplement influences ABR, probably due to its calcium content, by affecting osteoclast function and local inflammatory response, thus modulating OTM and PD.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Carbonato de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cálcio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rodófitas/química , Fosfatase Ácida/análise , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/fisiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/sangue , Perda do Osso Alveolar/microbiologia , Processo Alveolar/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcitriol/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Contagem de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Isoenzimas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/patologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/instrumentação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 145(4): 461-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purposes of this study were to investigate the dental arch changes after adenotonsillectomies in prepubertal children and to compare the dental arch dimensions of mouth-breathing and nasal-breathing children. METHODS: The sample included 49 prepubertal severely obstructed mouth-breathing children and 46 prepubertal nasal-breathing children. Twenty-four of the 49 mouth-breathing children had an adenotonsillectomy and composed the adenotonsillectomy subgroup. The 25 children in whom the mouth-breathing pattern was unchanged during the 1-year study period composed the control subgroup. RESULTS: The mouth-breathing children showed a deeper palatal vault, a larger mandibular width, and a larger mandibular arch length in comparison with the nasal-breathing children. After airway clearance, the adenotonsillectomy group showed a significant maxillary transverse width gain compared with the control subgroup. The control subgroup showed a significant deepening of the palatal height when compared with the adenotonsillectomy subgroup after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: The adenotonsillectomy subgroup had a significantly different pattern of arch development compared with the untreated controls. After adenotonsillectomy, the mouth-breathing children showed greater maxillary transverse development than did the controls. The palatal vault deepened in the untreated children. The mouth-breathing children showed a deeper palatal vault, a larger mandibular width, and a larger mandibular arch length in comparison with the nasal-breathing children.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Arco Dental/patologia , Tonsilectomia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dente Canino/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/patologia , Mandíbula/patologia , Maxila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Maxila/patologia , Dente Molar/patologia , Respiração Bucal/patologia , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Nariz/fisiologia , Mordida Aberta/patologia , Palato/patologia , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Puberdade , Respiração
15.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 19(6): 123-33, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25628089

RESUMO

Modulation of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is desirable not only to patients because it shortens treatment time, but also to orthodontists, since treatment duration is associated with increased risk of gingival inflammation, decalcification, dental caries, and root resorption. The increased focus on the biological basis of tooth movement has rendered Orthodontics a more comprehensive specialty that incorporates facets of all fields of medicine. Current knowledge raises the possibility of using new therapeutic modalities for modulation of OTM, such as corticotomy, laser therapy, vibration (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound), local injections of biomodulators and gene therapy; with the latter being applicable in the near future. They are intended to enhance or inhibit recruitment, differentiation and/or activation of bone cells, accelerate or reduce OTM, increase stability of orthodontic results, as well as assist with the prevention of root resorption. This article summarizes recent studies on each one of these therapeutic modalities, provides readers with information about how they affect OTM and points out future clinical perspectives.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Osteotomia/métodos , Ultrassom , Vibração/uso terapêutico
16.
Bone ; 52(1): 259-67, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23059626

RESUMO

Bone remodeling is affected by mechanical loading and inflammatory mediators, including chemokines. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) is involved in bone remodeling by binding to C-C chemokine receptors 1 and 5 (CCR1 and CCR5) expressed on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Our group has previously demonstrated that CCR5 down-regulates mechanical loading-induced bone resorption. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the role of CCR1 and CCL3 in bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading during orthodontic tooth movement in mice. Our results showed that bone remodeling was significantly decreased in CCL3(-/-) and CCR1(-/-) mice and in animals treated with Met-RANTES (an antagonist of CCR5 and CCR1). mRNA levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK), its ligand RANKL, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were diminished in the periodontium of CCL3(-/-) mice and in the group treated with Met-RANTES. Met-RANTES treatment also reduced the levels of cathepsin K and metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13). The expression of the osteoblast markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and periostin was decreased, while osteocalcin (OCN) was augmented in CCL3(-/-) and Met-RANTES-treated mice. Altogether, these findings show that CCR1 is pivotal for bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading during orthodontic tooth movement and these actions depend, at least in part, on CCL3.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Quimiocina CCL3/fisiologia , Receptores CCR1/fisiologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Quimiocina CCL3/genética , Primers do DNA , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores CCR1/genética
17.
J Biomech ; 45(16): 2729-35, 2012 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23036306

RESUMO

During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), alveolar bone is resorbed by osteoclasts in compression sites (CS) and is deposited by osteoblasts in tension sites (TS). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized OTM protocol in mice and to investigate the expression of bone resorption and deposition markers in CS and TS. An orthodontic appliance was placed in C57BL6/J mice. To define the ideal orthodontic force, the molars of the mice were subjected to forces of 0.1N, 0.25 N, 0.35 N and 0.5 N. The expression of mediators that are involved in bone remodeling at CS and TS was analyzed using a Real-Time PCR. The data revealed that a force of 0.35 N promoted optimal OTM and osteoclast recruitment without root resorption. The levels of TNF-α, RANKL, MMP13 and OPG were all altered in CS and TS. Whereas TNF-α and Cathepsin K exhibited elevated levels in CS, RUNX2 and OCN levels were higher in TS. Our results suggest that 0.35 N is the ideal force for OTM in mice and has no side effects. Moreover, the expression of bone remodeling markers differed between the compression and the tension areas, potentially explaining the distinct cellular migration and differentiation patterns in each of these sites.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Animais , Catepsina K/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteocalcina/genética , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Ligante RANK/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
18.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 141(2): 153-60, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22284282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cytokines and chemokines regulate bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is involved in osteoclast recruitment and activity, and its expression is increased in periodontal tissues under mechanical loading. In this study, we investigated whether the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-CCL2 axis influences orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: A coil spring was placed in CCR2-deficient (CCR2(-/-)), wild-type, vehicle-treated, and P8A-treated (CCL2 analog) mice. In a histopathologic analysis, the amounts of orthodontic tooth movement and numbers of osteoclasts were determined. The expression of mediators involved in bone remodeling was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Orthodontic tooth movement and the number of TRAP-positive cells were significantly decreased in CCR2(-/-) and P8A-treated mice in relation to wild-type and vehicle-treated mice, respectively. The expressions of RANKL, RANK, and osteoblasts markers (COL-1 and OCN) were lower in CCR2(-/-) than in wild-type mice. No significant difference was found in osteoprotegerin levels between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested a reduction of osteoclast and osteoblast activities in the absence of CCR2. The CCR2-CCL2 axis is positively associated with osteoclast recruitment, bone resorption, and orthodontic tooth movement. Therefore, blockage of the CCR2-CCL2 axis might be used in the future for modulating the extent of orthodontic tooth movement.


Assuntos
Receptores CCR2/fisiologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Fosfatase Ácida/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Contagem de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/fisiologia , Colágeno Tipo I/análise , Isoenzimas/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Knockout , Fios Ortodônticos , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteocalcina/análise , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoprotegerina/análise , Ligante RANK/análise , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/análise , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/instrumentação
19.
Orthodontics (Chic.) ; 12(3): 260-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22022697

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate patients' and parents' reactions to the orthodontic treatment of open bite patients with a mandibular lingual arch and spurs (MASP) and to compare any changes in anxiety and discomfort during treatment in different age groups and sexes. METHODS: Seventy-two patients completed a baseline questionnaire to assess their levels of discomfort and reaction to this appliance. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of 33 patients up to 14 years of age, and group 2 comprised 39 patients 15 years of age and older. A random group of 72 parents composed a special group. Parents' reactions were assessed through analysis of data gathered from an additional questionnaire with specific questions on their children's reactions. RESULTS: Ninety-eight percent of the patients accepted treatment with an MASP. The discomfort time was up to 10 days in the majority of patients. The younger group and the female group seemed to show higher tolerance to an MASP. Speech and chewing impairments were the most common functional problems associated with an MASP. Seventy-six percent of subjects did not feel a lack of confidence when wearing an MASP. CONCLUSION: This treatment was well accepted by patients and parents. This positive result seems to be closely related to how informed they were. Speech and chewing impairments, the most common functional problems, were temporary.


Assuntos
Dor Facial/etiologia , Mordida Aberta/terapia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Funcionais/efeitos adversos , Percepção da Dor , Língua/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Mastigação , Mordida Aberta/etiologia , Pais/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 119(1): 7-14, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21244505

RESUMO

Orthodontic tooth movement is achieved by the remodeling of alveolar bone in response to mechanical loading. Type 1 diabetes results in bone remodeling, suggesting that this disease might affect orthodontic tooth movement. The present study investigated the effects of the diabetic state on orthodontic tooth movement. An orthodontic appliance was placed in normoglycemic (NG), streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DB), and insulin-treated DB (IT) C57BL6/J mice. Histomorphometric analysis and quantitative PCR of periodontium were performed. The DB mice exhibited greater orthodontic tooth movement and had a higher number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP) -positive osteoclasts than NG mice. This was associated with increased expression of factors involved in osteoclast activity and recruitment (Rankl, Csf1, Ccl2, Ccl5, and Tnfa) in DB mice. The expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2, Ocn, Col1, and Alp) was decreased in DB mice. Reversal of the diabetic state by insulin treatment resulted in morphological findings similar to those of NG mice. These results suggest that the diabetic state up-regulates osteoclast migration and activity and down-regulates osteoblast differentiation, resulting in greater orthodontic tooth movement.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Processo Alveolar/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/biossíntese , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato
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