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1.
Acta Med Port ; 32(2): 101-110, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections represent the most frequent conditions in pediatric clinical practice that motivate antibiotic prescribing. The objective was to identify the frequency and pattern of antibacterial prescribing in respiratory diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over a period of two years (divided by the presentation of the clinical guideline standards) data was collected from clinical records of children with respiratory disease. Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact test were used to test associations between variables, statistical significance p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were 547 visits (mean age 6 years ± 5.3, 55% male gender). Analysis for Group A Streptococcus of the oropharynx was most frequently requested by pediatric residents (p = 0.005). Chest x-rays were more frequently requested by the Family Physician (p = 0.033). An antibiotic was prescribed in 87% of pneumonias, 84% acute otitis media, 68% acute tonsillitis, 25% laryngitis, 17% upper respiratory infections, 16% acute bronchiolitis. The Family Physician prescribed antibiotics more often than the Pediatrics resident in acute tonsillitis (p = 0.003) and in acute otitis media (p = 0.013). The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin (61%). There were no significant differences between the two periods studied regarding the number of prescriptions and antibiotic choice of the conditions studied. DISCUSSION: Antibiotic prescribing in pediatric acute respiratory infections was high and the choice of antibiotic therapy could be adjusted. We found no difference in antibiotic prescribing after the presentation of the clinical guideline standards. CONCLUSION: An improvement in the antibiotic prescription in children and adolescents in the outpatient clinic is considered necessary.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Acta Med Port ; 31(9): 489-495, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis occur in pediatric age, with unknown incidence, morbidity and mortality. Our aim is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, complementary diagnostic tests and prognosis of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical study of pediatric patients admitted to a Level II hospital for pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis, between 2000 and 2014. Demographic characteristics, clinical history, comorbidities and risk factors were studied. RESULTS: Eleven patients (n = 7 pulmonary thromboembolism, n = 5 deep venous thrombosis, n = 1 both), 64% females and with 16 years old average, were admitted. All patients with pulmonary thromboembolism presented symptoms of chest pain and/or dyspnea, 25% syncope/palpitations and 25% fever. All patients with deep venous thrombosis reported localized pain at the site of obstruction, 83% edema/cyanosis of the affected limb and 17% fever. The study of positive thrombophilia was the most frequent risk factor in both entities. The mean value of D-dimers was 3252 ug/dL and 2660 ug/dL in pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis, respectively. All patients started anticoagulation, three required intensive care, two had sequelae and one died. DISCUSSION: All patients had at least one risk factor, and hereditary hypercoagulability was most commonly established. CONCLUSIONS: The increased incidence in the pediatric population described in some studies can be attributed to an increased awareness of this pathology, medical advances and increasing survival of chronic diseases. There is a lack of evidence-based recommendations identifying patients at risk of thrombosis so that decisions can be made carefully, balancing the risk and benefit in each case.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
3.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 28(4): ID32169, out-dez 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-981130

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analisar os dados de gestações com risco de toxoplasmose congênita e investigar a evolução dos recém-nascidos, em um hospital de nível II em Portugal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal retrospetivo incluiu recém-nascidos com risco de toxoplasmose congênita e suas mães, cujo parto ocorreu entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2015. Os critérios de inclusão foram mãe com soroconversão para toxoplasmose durante a gestação ou primeira amostra sérica com IgM e IgG específicas positivas. O diagnóstico de toxoplasmose congênita foi definido por IgM específica positiva ao nascimento e/ou reação em cadeia da polimerase positiva no líquido amniótico e/ou persistência de IgG específica até os 12 meses de vida. A toxoplasmose congênita foi definida como sintomática quando os achados clínicos foram atribuídos à doença. Os testes Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher foram usados para testar associações entre variáveis, assumindo-se significado estatístico quando p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 39.585 nascimentos vivos no período em estudo e foram identificados 98 casos com risco de toxoplasmose congênita, dos quais 89 completaram o seguimento. A prevalência de IgG para T. gondii nas gestantes foi de 26% (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95% 24-27%). Foram confirmados 22 casos de toxoplasmose congênita (5,6 por 10.000 nascidos vivos, IC95% 3,5-8,5 por 10.000). Dos 22 recém-nascidos, 18 (82%, IC95% 61-93%) eram sintomáticos. Os achados clínicos mais frequentes foram calcificação intracraniana (64%), hepatomegalia e/ou elevação das transaminases (32%) e retinocoroidite (14%). As lesões cerebrais foram mais frequentes quando a infeção materna foi documentada no primeiro e segundo trimestres em comparação com o terceiro (p=0,018). Em 31 casos (35%), as gestantes foram tratadas desde o momento do diagnóstico até o parto com espiramicina, não se tendo encontrado diferenças relativamente à taxa de transmissão vertical ou ao aparecimento de manifestações clínicas entre os recém-nascidos de mães tratadas e não tratadas. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de toxoplasmose congênita foi superior à reportada em outros países da Europa. A prevalência de calcificações intracranianas foi maior do que a descrita na literatura, enquanto que a de retinocoroidite e estrabismo foi menor. As alterações cerebrais nos recém-nascidos foram mais frequentes nas infecções de primeiro e segundo trimestre. Não houve diferença na taxa de transmissão vertical e na ocorrência de manifestações clínicas entre os recém-nascidos cujas mães receberam espiramicina na gestação ou não receberam tratamento.


AIMS: To analyze the data on pregnancies with risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and to investigate the newborns' outcome, in a level II hospital in Portugal. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study included newborns at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis and their mothers, whose delivery occurred between January 2000 and December 2015. The inclusion criteria were mother with seroconversion to toxoplasmosis during pregnancy or first serum sample with positive specific IgM and IgG. The diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was defined by positive specific IgM at birth and/or polymerase chain reaction positive in amniotic fluid and/or persistence of specific IgG up to 12 months of life. Congenital toxoplasmosis was defined as symptomatic when clinical findings were attributed to the disease. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to test associations between variables, assuming statistical significance when p<0.05. RESULTS: There were 39,585 live births in the study period and 98 cases with risk of congenital toxoplasmosis were identified, of which 89 completed the follow-up. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG in the pregnant women was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] 24-27%). Twenty-two cases of congenital toxoplasmosis (5.6 per 10,000 live births, 95%CI 3.5-8.5 per 10,000) were confirmed. Of the 22 newborns, 18 (82%, 95%CI 61-93%) were symptomatic. The most frequent clinical findings were intracranial calcification (64%), hepatomegaly and / or elevation of transaminases (32%) and retinochoroiditis (14%). Cerebral lesions were more frequent when maternal infection was documented in the first and second trimester compared to the third trimester (p=0.018). In 31 cases (35%), the pregnant women were treated from the time of diagnosis until delivery with spiramycin, and no differences were found regarding the rate of vertical transmission or the appearance of clinical manifestations among the newborns of treated and non-treated mothers treated. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis was higher than that reported in other European countries. The prevalence of intracranial calcifications was higher than that described in the literature, whereas retinochoroiditis and strabismus occurrence was lower. Brain lesions in newborns were more frequent in first- and second-trimester infections. There was no difference in the rate of vertical transmission and in the occurrence of clinical manifestations among newborns whose mothers received spiramycin during gestation and those whose mothers did not receive treatment.


Assuntos
Toxoplasmose Congênita , Pediatria , Recém-Nascido , Medicina
4.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 28(3): ID29642, jul-set 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Repositório RHS | ID: biblio-909969

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Caraterizar como os especialistas e residentes de Pediatria e de Medicina Geral e Familiar consideram que abordam os adolescentes, identificar as suas habilitações em Medicina do Adolescente, averiguar que tópicos dessa área os médicos gostariam de ver abordados em futuros treinamentos e comparar as percepções dos médicos das duas especialidades em relação à sua experiência na prática em saúde do adolescente. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em inquérito enviado via correio eletrônico a 241 médicos da área de influência de um hospital de nível II, tendo-se incluído especialistas e residentes de Pediatria e de Medicina Geral e Familiar de centros de saúde do concelho de Viseu, Portugal. Utilizaram-se os testes Qui-quadrado ou teste Exacto de Fisher para testar associações entre variáveis, assumindo-se significado estatístico quando p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Um total de 113 médicos completou o inquérito, sendo 74% do gênero feminino, com uma mediana de anos de prática de 12 anos (intervalo interquartil 5-30, mínimo 2 anos, máximo 38 anos). O grupo de Pediatria tinha mais formação em Medicina do Adolescente (57%) do que o grupo de Medicina Geral e Familiar (25%) (p=0,007). Mais médicos com formação específica em Medicina do Adolescente consideravam-se preparados para a entrevista ao adolescente (51%, vs. 28% dos que não tinham formação específica, p=0,03). Os médicos Gerais e de Família orientavam mais os adolescentes sobre consumo de substâncias, contracepção e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, enquanto os médicos de Pediatria identificavam mais adolescentes com depressão. A maioria dos médicos avaliou-se como tendo conhecimentos insuficientes em Medicina do Adolescente, sendo o treino insuficiente a barreira mais frequentemente referida. Cinquenta e sete por cento dos médicos de Pediatria, 78% dos médicos Gerais e de Família e 84% dos que não tinham formação específica em Medicina do Adolescente, considerando as duas especialidades, gostariam de aprofundar os seus conhecimentos nessa área. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo permitiu identificar que áreas de conhecimento sobre Medicina do Adolescente estão deficitárias na formação dos pediatras e dos médicos gerais e de família. A maioria dos médicos, principalmente os que não tiveram formação em Medicina do Adolescente, mostraram-se interessados em preencher essa lacuna.


AIMS: To characterize the way in which General and Family physicians and Pediatricians consider approaching adolescents, identify their qualifications in Adolescent Medicine, ascertain which topics of this specialty these physicians would like to see addressed in future training, and to compare the perceptions of physicians of both specialties with respect to their experience in adolescent health practice. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on a survey sent by e-mail to 241 physicians in the area of influence of a level II hospital, including specific training interns or experts in Pediatrics and General and Family Medicine from health centers of the municipality of Viseu, Portugal. Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact test were used to test associations between variables, assuming statistical significance when p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 113 physicians completed the survey, of them 74% female, with a median of 12 years of practice (interquartile range 5-30, minimum 2 years, maximum 38 years). The Pediatrics group had more training in Adolescent Medicine (57%) than the General and Family Medicine group (25%) (p=0.007). More physicians with specific training in Adolescent Medicine considered themselves prepared for the adolescent interview (51%, vs. 28% of those who did not have specific training, p=0.03). Family and General practitioners guided adolescents more about substance use, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases, while Pediatrics doctors identified more adolescents with depression. Most physicians rated themselves as having insufficient knowledge in Adolescent Medicine, with insufficient training being the most frequently referred barrier. Fifty-seven percent of Pediatrics doctors, 78% of General practitioners and 84% of those with no specific training in Adolescent Medicine, considering the two specialties, would like to deepen their knowledge in this area. CONCLUSIONS: This study allowed identifying which areas of knowledge on Adolescent Medicine are deficient in the training of Pediatricians and General practitioners. Most physicians, especially those with no training in Adolescent Medicine, showed interest in filling this gap.


Assuntos
Medicina do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Educação Médica , Pediatria , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Clínicos Gerais/educação
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