Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 587
Filtrar
1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 6, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is commonly used to assess the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms. However, psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the PHQ-9 have only been assessed in adolescents. We present normative data for women and an evaluation of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent validity, and factor structure) of the Norwegian PHQ-9 among women with and without eating disorders (ED). METHODS: In this case-control study, a total of 793 females aged 18-78 years (mean 30.39; SD 9.83) completed an online self-report assessment. Measures included the ED100K and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) to assess ED psychopathology, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) scale and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale Short Form (DERS-SF) to assess symptoms of anxiety and emotion regulation deficits. Participants were categorized into three groups, i.e., previous ED (19.7%, n = 148), current ED (36.3%, n = 272), and no history of ED (44.0%, n = 330), based on self-reported scores on the ED 100 K and the EDE-Q. RESULTS: Mean PHQ-9 total score for those with a previous history of ED was 10.67 (SD 6.33), for those with a current ED 16.61 (SD 5.84), and for those with no lifetime history of ED 6.83 (SD 5.58). Excellent internal consistency was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha's for individuals with a previous ED (.88), for individuals with a current ED (.86), and for individuals with no history of ED (.88). Acceptable convergent validity was indicated based on significant correlations between the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and DERS-SF. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a mediocre fit for a one-factor structure of the PHQ-9, regardless of diagnostic status. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the PHQ-9 are acceptable across females with and without ED, and the PHQ-9 can be recommended for use in clinical ED settings and for people without mental disorders.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479754

RESUMO

Abnormalities in amygdala volume are well-established in schizophrenia and commonly reported in bipolar disorders. However, the specificity of volumetric differences in individual amygdala nuclei is largely unknown. Patients with schizophrenia disorders (SCZ, N = 452, mean age 30.7 ± 9.2 [SD] years, females 44.4%), bipolar disorders (BP, N = 316, 33.7 ± 11.4, 58.5%), and healthy controls (N = 753, 34.1 ± 9.1, 40.9%) underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Total amygdala, nuclei, and intracranial volume (ICV) were estimated with Freesurfer (v6.0.0). Analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression models, adjusting for age, age2, ICV, and sex, were fitted to examine diagnostic group and subgroup differences in volume, respectively. Bilateral total amygdala and all nuclei volumes, except the medial and central nuclei, were significantly smaller in patients relative to controls. The largest effect sizes were found for the basal nucleus, accessory basal nucleus, and cortico-amygdaloid transition area (partial η2 > 0.02). The diagnostic subgroup analysis showed that reductions in amygdala nuclei volume were most widespread in schizophrenia, with the lateral, cortical, paralaminar, and central nuclei being solely reduced in this disorder. The right accessory basal nucleus was marginally smaller in SCZ relative to BP (t = 2.32, P = .05). Our study is the first to demonstrate distinct patterns of amygdala nuclei volume reductions in a well-powered sample of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Volume differences in the basolateral complex (lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei), an integral part of the threat processing circuitry, were most prominent in schizophrenia.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 3, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414458

RESUMO

Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that loneliness is associated with severe mental disorders (SMDs) and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between loneliness, SMDs, and CVD risk factors remain unknown. Here we explored overlapping genetic architecture and genetic loci shared between SMDs, loneliness, and CVD risk factors. We analyzed large independent genome-wide association study data on schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depression (MD), loneliness and CVD risk factors using bivariate causal mixture mode (MiXeR), which estimates the total amount of shared variants, and conditional false discovery rate to evaluate overlap in specific loci. We observed substantial genetic overlap between SMDs, loneliness and CVD risk factors, beyond genetic correlation. We identified 149 loci jointly associated with loneliness and SMDs (MD n = 67, SCZ n = 54, and BD n = 28), and 55 distinct loci jointly associated with loneliness and CVD risk factors. A total of 153 novel loneliness loci were found. Most of the shared loci possessed concordant effect directions, suggesting that genetic risk for loneliness may increase the risk of both SMDs and CVD. Functional analyses of the shared loci implicated biological processes related to the brain, metabolic processes, chromatin and immune system. Altogether, the study revealed polygenic overlap between loneliness, SMDs and CVD risk factors, providing new insights into their shared genetic architecture and common genetic mechanisms.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462475

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several common genetic variants influencing major depression and general cognitive abilities, but little is known about whether the two share any of their genetic aetiology. Here we investigate shared genomic architectures between major depression (MD) and general intelligence (INT) with the MiXeR statistical tool and their overlapping susceptibility loci with conjunctional false discovery rate (conjFDR), which evaluate the level of overlap in genetic variants and improve the power for gene discovery between two phenotypes. We analysed GWAS data on MD (n = 480,359) and INT (n = 269,867) to characterize polygenic architecture and identify genetic loci shared between these phenotypes. Despite non-significant genetic correlation (rg = -0.0148, P = 0.50), we observed large polygenic overlap and identified 92 loci shared between MD and INT at conjFDR < 0.05. Among the shared loci, 69 and 64 are new for MD and INT, respectively. Our study demonstrates polygenic overlap between these phenotypes with a balanced mixture of effect.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems. METHODS: The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse ('baseline') and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging ('follow-up'). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)]. RESULTS: Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

7.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12880, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064741

RESUMO

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (rg = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (rg = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (rg = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (rgs = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 416, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257657

RESUMO

Cognitive impairments are considered core features in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Cognitive impairments are, to a lesser degree, also documented in healthy first-degree relatives. Although recent studies have shown (negative) genetic correlations between schizophrenia and general cognitive ability, the association between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and individual cognitive phenotypes remains unclear. We here investigated the association between a polygenic score for schizophrenia (SCZPGS) and six well-defined cognitive domains, in addition to a composite measure of cognitive ability and a measure of premorbid intellectual ability in 731 participants with a psychotic disorder and 851 healthy controls. We also investigated the association between a PGS for general cognitive ability (COGPGS) and the same cognitive domains in the same sample. We found no significant associations between the SCZPGS and any cognitive phenotypes, in either patients with a psychotic disorder or healthy controls. For COGPGS we observed stronger associations with cognitive phenotypes in healthy controls than in participants with psychotic disorders. In healthy controls, the association between COGPGS (at the p value threshold of ≥0.01) and working memory remained significant after Bonferroni correction (ß = 0.12, p = 8.6 × 10-5). Altogether, the lack of associations between SCZPGS and COGPGS with cognitive performance in participants with psychotic disorders suggests that either environmental factors or unassessed genetic factors play a role in the development of cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders. Working memory should be further studied as an important cognitive phenotype.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 425, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293520

RESUMO

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.

10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257880

RESUMO

The neuropeptide oxytocin has been popularized for its role in social behaviour and nominated as a candidate treatment for several psychiatric illnesses due to promising preclinical results. However, these results so far have failed to reliably translate from animal models to human research. In response, there have been justified calls to improve intranasal oxytocin delivery methodology in terms of verifying that intranasal administration increases central levels of oxytocin. Nonetheless, improved methodology needs to be coupled with a robust theory of the role of oxytocin in behaviour and physiology to ask meaningful research questions. Moreover, stringent methodology based on robust theory may yield interesting results, but such findings will have limited utility if they are not reproducible. We outline how the precision of intranasal oxytocin research can be improved by the complementary consideration of methodology, theory and reproducibility.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340180

RESUMO

The deviation between chronological age and age predicted using brain MRI is a putative marker of overall brain health. Age prediction based on structural MRI data shows high accuracy in common brain disorders. However, brain aging is complex and heterogenous, both in terms of individual differences and the underlying biological processes. Here, we implemented a multimodal model to estimate brain age using different combinations of cortical area, thickness and sub-cortical volumes, cortical and subcortical T1/T2-weighted ratios, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on arterial spin labeling. For each of the 11 models we assessed the age prediction accuracy in healthy controls (HC, n = 750) and compared the obtained brain age gaps (BAGs) between age-matched subsets of HC and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 54), mild (MCI, n = 90) and subjective (SCI, n = 56) cognitive impairment, schizophrenia spectrum (SZ, n = 159) and bipolar disorder (BD, n = 135). We found highest age prediction accuracy in HC when integrating all modalities. Furthermore, two-group case-control classifications revealed highest accuracy for AD using global T1-weighted BAG, while MCI, SCI, BD and SZ showed strongest effects in CBF-based BAGs. Combining multiple MRI modalities improves brain age prediction and reveals distinct deviations in patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders. The multimodal BAG was most accurate in predicting age in HC, while group differences between patients and HC were often larger for BAGs based on single modalities. These findings indicate that multidimensional neuroimaging of patients may provide a brain-based mapping of overlapping and distinct pathophysiology in common disorders.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1009163, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227023

RESUMO

Circulating inflammatory markers are essential to human health and disease, and they are often dysregulated or malfunctioning in cancers as well as in cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the genetic contribution to the physiological variation of levels of circulating inflammatory markers is largely unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide genetic study of blood concentration of ten cytokines, including the hitherto unexplored calcium-binding protein (S100B). The study leverages a unique sample of neonatal blood spots from 9,459 Danish subjects from the iPSYCH initiative. We estimate the SNP-heritability of marker levels as ranging from essentially zero for Erythropoietin (EPO) up to 73% for S100B. We identify and replicate 16 associated genomic regions (p < 5 x 10-9), of which four are novel. We show that the associated variants map to enhancer elements, suggesting a possible transcriptional effect of genomic variants on the cytokine levels. The identification of the genetic architecture underlying the basic levels of cytokines is likely to prompt studies investigating the relationship between cytokines and complex disease. Our results also suggest that the genetic architecture of cytokines is stable from neonatal to adult life.

14.
Schizophr Res ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antipsychotics may cause relapse and hospitalizations in patients with psychotic disorders. The purpose was to quantify and compare the outpatient's nonadherence rates of atypical antipsychotics by objective detection in blood samples. METHODS: Totally, 13,217 outpatients with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data of atypical antipsychotics were included. An event of complete nonadherence was defined as an occurrence of undetectable level of a prescribed antipsychotic in the blood sample submitted for TDM. Patients with such an event(s) were defined as nonadherent of the respective drug treatment (outcome). The rates of nonadherence patients were compared between the drugs by logistic regression. RESULTS: In the study population, 70.2% of the patients were prescribed doses compliant with a schizophrenia diagnosis. The mean olanzapine equivalent dose in the population was 13.4 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3, 13.6). The frequency of nonadherence patients, regardless of drug, was 3.7% (CI: 3.4-4.0). The nonadherence patient rate was lowest in clozapine-treated patients (2.2%; CI: 1.5-2.8), followed by aripiprazole (2.3%; 1.7-2.8), risperidone (2.4%; 1.6-3.0), quetiapine (2.8%; 2.3-3.2) and olanzapine (4.9%; 4.1-5.3). Users of olanzapine had significantly higher risk of complete nonadherence (Odds ratio: 1.9; CI: 1.6-2.3, p < 0.001) compared to patients treated with other antipsychotics as a group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, complete nonadherence of atypical antipsychotics, measured as undetectable blood level, was disclosed for ~5% of outpatients with psychotic disorders. The rate of complete nonadherence was significantly higher during olanzapine treatment compared to other atypical antipsychotics. Further studies should investigate if this reflects drug differences in tolerability or other causal relationships.

16.
Psychophysiology ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037836

RESUMO

Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12-87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS-or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.

17.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053074

RESUMO

The development of "omic" technologies and deep phenotyping may facilitate a systems biology approach to understanding anxiety disorders. Systems biology approaches incorporate data from multiple modalities (e.g., genomic, neuroimaging) with functional analyses (e.g., animal and tissue culture models) and mathematical modeling (e.g., machine learning) to investigate pathological biophysical networks at various scales. Here we review: i) the neurobiology of anxiety disorders; ii) how systems biology approaches have advanced this work; and iii) the clinical implications and future directions of this research. Systems biology approaches have provided an improved functional understanding of candidate biomarkers and have suggested future potential for refining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of anxiety disorders. The systems biology approach for anxiety disorders is, however, in its infancy and in some instances is characterized by insufficient power and replication. The studies reviewed here represent important steps to further untangling the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

18.
Neuroimage ; 224: 117441, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039618

RESUMO

The macro- and microstructural architecture of human brain white matter undergoes substantial alterations throughout development and ageing. Most of our understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these lifespan adaptations come from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion MRI (dMRI), which enables visualisation and quantification of brain white matter with unprecedented sensitivity and detail. However, with some notable exceptions, previous studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, limited age ranges, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on conventional single-shell dMRI. In this mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal study (mean interval: 15.2 months) including 702 multi-shell dMRI datasets, we combined complementary dMRI models to investigate age trajectories in healthy individuals aged 18 to 94 years (57.12% women). Using linear mixed effect models and machine learning based brain age prediction, we assessed the age-dependence of diffusion metrics, and compared the age prediction accuracy of six different diffusion models, including diffusion tensor (DTI) and kurtosis imaging (DKI), neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), spherical mean technique multi-compartment (SMT-mc), and white matter tract integrity (WMTI). The results showed that the age slopes for conventional DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], axial diffusivity [AD], radial diffusivity [RD]) were largely consistent with previous research, and that the highest performing advanced dMRI models showed comparable age prediction accuracy to conventional DTI. Linear mixed effects models and Wilk's theorem analysis showed that the 'FA fine' metric of the RSI model and 'orientation dispersion' (OD) metric of the NODDI model showed the highest sensitivity to age. The results indicate that advanced diffusion models (DKI, NODDI, RSI, SMT mc, WMTI) provide sensitive measures of age-related microstructural changes of white matter in the brain that complement and extend the contribution of conventional DTI.

19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017498

RESUMO

Early-onset psychosis disorders are serious mental disorders arising before the age of 18 years. Here, we investigate the largest neuroimaging dataset, to date, of patients with early-onset psychosis and healthy controls for differences in intracranial and subcortical brain volumes. The sample included 263 patients with early-onset psychosis (mean age: 16.4 ± 1.4 years, mean illness duration: 1.5 ± 1.4 years, 39.2% female) and 359 healthy controls (mean age: 15.9 ± 1.7 years, 45.4% female) with magnetic resonance imaging data, pooled from 11 clinical cohorts. Patients were diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia (n = 183), affective psychosis (n = 39), or other psychotic disorders (n = 41). We used linear mixed-effects models to investigate differences in intracranial and subcortical volumes across the patient sample, diagnostic subgroup and antipsychotic medication, relative to controls. We observed significantly lower intracranial (Cohen's d = -0.39) and hippocampal (d = -0.25) volumes, and higher caudate (d = 0.25) and pallidum (d = 0.24) volumes in patients relative to controls. Intracranial volume was lower in both early-onset schizophrenia (d = -0.34) and affective psychosis (d = -0.42), and early-onset schizophrenia showed lower hippocampal (d = -0.24) and higher pallidum (d = 0.29) volumes. Patients who were currently treated with antipsychotic medication (n = 193) had significantly lower intracranial volume (d = -0.42). The findings demonstrate a similar pattern of brain alterations in early-onset psychosis as previously reported in adult psychosis, but with notably low intracranial volume. The low intracranial volume suggests disrupted neurodevelopment in adolescent early-onset psychosis.

20.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported various symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with sex. Some were conflicting or confirmed in only one study. OBJECTIVES: We examined sex associations to PD phenotypes cross-sectionally and longitudinally in large-scale data. METHODS: We tested 40 clinical phenotypes, using longitudinal, clinic-based patient cohorts, consisting of 5946 patients, with a median follow-up of 3.1 years. For continuous outcomes, we used linear regressions at baseline to test sex-associated differences in presentation, and linear mixed-effects models to test sex-associated differences in progression. For binomial outcomes, we used logistic regression models at baseline and Cox regression models for survival analyses. We adjusted for age, disease duration, and medication use. In the secondary analyses, data from 17 719 PD patients and 7588 non-PD participants from an online-only, self-assessment PD cohort were cross-sectionally evaluated to determine whether the sex-associated differences identified in the primary analyses were consistent and unique to PD. RESULTS: Female PD patients had a higher risk of developing dyskinesia early during the follow-up period, with a slower progression in activities of daily living difficulties, and a lower risk of developing cognitive impairments compared with male patients. The findings in the longitudinal, clinic-based cohorts were mostly consistent with the results of the online-only cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We observed sex-associated contributions to PD heterogeneity. These results highlight the necessity of future research to determine the underlying mechanisms and importance of personalized clinical management. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA