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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019943

RESUMO

Importance: About 20% to 30% of people with schizophrenia have psychotic symptoms that do not respond adequately to first-line antipsychotic treatment. This clinical presentation, chronic and highly disabling, is known as treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). The causes of treatment resistance and their relationships with causes underlying schizophrenia are largely unknown. Adequately powered genetic studies of TRS are scarce because of the difficulty in collecting data from well-characterized TRS cohorts. Objective: To examine the genetic architecture of TRS through the reassessment of genetic data from schizophrenia studies and its validation in carefully ascertained clinical samples. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two case-control genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia were performed in which the case samples were defined as individuals with TRS (n = 10 501) and individuals with non-TRS (n = 20 325). The differences in effect sizes for allelic associations were then determined between both studies, the reasoning being such differences reflect treatment resistance instead of schizophrenia. Genotype data were retrieved from the CLOZUK and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) schizophrenia studies. The output was validated using polygenic risk score (PRS) profiling of 2 independent schizophrenia cohorts with TRS and non-TRS: a prevalence sample with 817 individuals (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia [CardiffCOGS]) and an incidence sample with 563 individuals (Genetics Workstream of the Schizophrenia Treatment Resistance and Therapeutic Advances [STRATA-G]). Main Outcomes and Measures: GWAS of treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The results of the GWAS were compared with complex polygenic traits through a genetic correlation approach and were used for PRS analysis on the independent validation cohorts using the same TRS definition. Results: The study included a total of 85 490 participants (48 635 [56.9%] male) in its GWAS stage and 1380 participants (859 [62.2%] male) in its PRS validation stage. Treatment resistance in schizophrenia emerged as a polygenic trait with detectable heritability (1% to 4%), and several traits related to intelligence and cognition were found to be genetically correlated with it (genetic correlation, 0.41-0.69). PRS analysis in the CardiffCOGS prevalence sample showed a positive association between TRS and a history of taking clozapine (r2 = 2.03%; P = .001), which was replicated in the STRATA-G incidence sample (r2 = 1.09%; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this GWAS, common genetic variants were differentially associated with TRS, and these associations may have been obscured through the amalgamation of large GWAS samples in previous studies of broadly defined schizophrenia. Findings of this study suggest the validity of meta-analytic approaches for studies on patient outcomes, including treatment resistance.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320404

RESUMO

Lithium is the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), but there is a large variation in response rate and adverse effects. Although the molecular effects of lithium have been studied extensively, the specific mechanisms of action remain unclear. In particular, the molecular changes underlying lithium adverse effects are little known. Multiple linear regression analyses of lithium serum concentrations and global gene expression levels in whole blood were carried out using a large case-control sample (n = 1450). Self-reported adverse effects of lithium were assessed with the "Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser" (UKU) adverse effect rating scale, and regression analysis was used to identify significant associations between lithium-related genes and six of the most common adverse effects. Serum concentrations of lithium were significantly associated with the expression levels of 52 genes (FDR < 0.01), largely replicating previous results. We found 32 up-regulated genes and 20 down-regulated genes in lithium users compared to non-users. The down-regulated gene set was enriched for several processes related to the translational machinery. Two adverse effects were significantly associated (p < 0.01) with three or more lithium-associated genes: tremor (FAM13A-AS1, FAR2, ITGAX, RWDD1, and STARD10) and xerostomia (ANKRD13A, FAR2, RPS8, and RWDD1). The adverse effect association with the largest effect was between CAMK1D expression and nausea/vomiting. These results suggest putative transcriptional mechanisms that may predict lithium adverse effects, and could thus have a large potential for informing clinical practice.

4.
Neuroimage ; 245: 118709, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ratio of T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images is often used as a proxy measure of cortical myelin. However, the T1w/T2w-ratio is based on signal intensities that are inherently non-quantitative and known to be affected by extrinsic factors. To account for this a variety of processing methods have been proposed, but a systematic evaluation of their efficacy is lacking. Given the dependence of the T1w/T2w-ratio on scanner hardware and T1w and T2w protocols, it is important to ensure that processing pipelines perform well also across different sites. METHODS: We assessed a variety of processing methods for computing cortical T1w/T2w-ratio maps, including correction methods for nonlinear field inhomogeneities, local outliers, and partial volume effects as well as intensity normalisation. These were implemented in 33 processing pipelines which were applied to four test-retest datasets, with a total of 170 pairs of T1w and T2w images acquired on four different MRI scanners. We assessed processing pipelines across datasets in terms of their reproducibility of expected regional distributions of cortical myelin, lateral intensity biases, and test-retest reliability regionally and across the cortex. Regional distributions were compared both qualitatively with histology and quantitatively with two reference datasets, YA-BC and YA-B1+, from the Human Connectome Project. RESULTS: Reproducibility of raw T1w/T2w-ratio distributions was overall high with the exception of one dataset. For this dataset, Spearman rank correlations increased from 0.27 to 0.70 after N3 bias correction relative to the YA-BC reference and from -0.04 to 0.66 after N4ITK bias correction relative to the YA-B1+ reference. Partial volume and outlier corrections had only marginal effects on the reproducibility of T1w/T2w-ratio maps and test-retest reliability. Before intensity normalisation, we found large coefficients of variation (CVs) and low intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), with total whole-cortex CV of 10.13% and whole-cortex ICC of 0.58 for the raw T1w/T2w-ratio. Intensity normalisation with WhiteStripe, RAVEL, and Z-Score improved total whole-cortex CVs to 5.91%, 5.68%, and 5.19% respectively, whereas Z-Score and Least Squares improved whole-cortex ICCs to 0.96 and 0.97 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the presence of large intensity nonuniformities, bias field correction is necessary to achieve acceptable correspondence with known distributions of cortical myelin, but it can be detrimental in datasets with less intensity inhomogeneity. Intensity normalisation can improve test-retest reliability and inter-subject comparability. However, both bias field correction and intensity normalisation methods vary greatly in their efficacy and may affect the interpretation of results. The choice of T1w/T2w-ratio processing method must therefore be informed by both scanner and acquisition protocol as well as the given study objective. Our results highlight limitations of the T1w/T2w-ratio, but also suggest concrete ways to enhance its usefulness in future studies.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWASs). METHODS: A GWAS on PTSD symptoms was performed in 51 cohorts followed by a fixed-effects meta-analysis (N = 182,199 European ancestry participants). A GWAS of LTE burden was performed in the UK Biobank cohort (N = 132,988). Genetic correlations were evaluated with linkage disequilibrium score regression. Multivariate analysis was performed using Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS. Functional mapping and annotation of leading loci was performed with FUMA. Replication was evaluated using the Million Veteran Program GWAS of PTSD total symptoms. RESULTS: GWASs of PTSD symptoms and LTE burden identified 5 and 6 independent genome-wide significant loci, respectively. There was a 72% genetic correlation between PTSD and LTE. PTSD and LTE showed largely similar patterns of genetic correlation with other traits, albeit with some distinctions. Adjusting PTSD for LTE reduced PTSD heritability by 31%. Multivariate analysis of PTSD and LTE increased the effective sample size of the PTSD GWAS by 20% and identified 4 additional loci. Four of these 9 PTSD loci were independently replicated in the Million Veteran Program. CONCLUSIONS: Through using a quantitative trait measure of PTSD, we identified novel risk loci not previously identified using prior case-control analyses. PTSD and LTE have a high genetic overlap that can be leveraged to increase discovery power through multivariate methods.

6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 33: 102881, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883402

RESUMO

Abnormal default mode network (DMN) connectivity has been found in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there are limited studies on early onset psychosis (EOP), and their results show lack of agreement. Here, we investigated within-network DMN connectivity in EOP compared to healthy controls (HC), and its relationship to clinical characteristics. A sample of 68 adolescent patients with EOP (mean age 16.53 ± 1.12 [SD] years, females 66%) and 95 HC (mean age 16.24 ± 1.50 [SD], females 60%) from two Scandinavian cohorts underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). A group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the DMN across all participants. Dual regression was used to estimate spatial maps reflecting each participant's DMN network, which were compared between EOP and HC using voxel-wise general linear models and permutation-based analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed within the patient group, to explore associations between diagnostic subcategories and current use of psychotropic medication in relation to connectivity strength. The analysis revealed significantly reduced DMN connectivity in EOP compared to HC in the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, fusiform cortex, putamen, pallidum, amygdala, and insula. The subgroup analysis in the EOP group showed strongest deviations for affective psychosis, followed by other psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. There was no association between DMN connectivity strength and the current use of psychotropic medication. In conclusion, the findings demonstrate weaker DMN connectivity in adolescent patients with EOP compared to healthy peers, and differential effects across diagnostic subcategories, which may inform our understanding of underlying disease mechanisms in EOP.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139759, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928356

RESUMO

Importance: White matter (WM) abnormalities are commonly reported in psychiatric disorders. Whether peripartum insufficiencies in brain oxygenation, known as birth asphyxia, are associated with WM of patients with severe mental disorders is unclear. Objective: To examine the association between birth asphyxia and WM in adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (BDs) compared with healthy adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, all individuals participating in the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project were linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN), where a subset of 271 patients (case group) and 529 healthy individuals (control group) had undergone diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Statistical analyses were performed from June 16, 2020, to March 9, 2021. Exposures: Birth asphyxia was defined based on measures from standardized reporting at birth in the MBRN. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations between birth asphyxia and WM regions of interest diffusion metrics, ie, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, adjusted for age, age squared, and sex. Results: Of the 850 adults included in the study, 271 were in the case group (140 [52%] female individuals; mean [SD] age, 28.64 [7.43] years) and 579 were in the control group (245 [42%] female individuals; mean [SD] age, 33.54 [8.31] years). Birth asphyxia measures were identified in 15% to 16% of participants, independent of group. The posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) showed a significant diagnostic group × birth asphyxia interaction (F(1, 843) = 11.46; P = .001), reflecting a stronger association between birth asphyxia and FA in the case group than the control group. RD, but not AD, also displayed a significant diagnostic group × birth asphyxia interaction (F(1, 843) = 9.28; P = .002) in the PLIC, with higher values in patients with birth asphyxia and similar effect sizes as observed for FA. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, abnormalities in the PLIC of adult patients with birth asphyxia may suggest a greater susceptibility to hypoxia in patients with severe mental illness, which could lead to myelin damage or impeded brain development. Echoing recent early-stage schizophrenia studies, abnormalities of the PLIC are relevant to psychiatric disorders, as the PLIC contains important WM brain pathways associated with language, cognitive function, and sensory function, which are impaired in schizophrenia and BDs.

10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 33: 102921, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown that estimated brain age is deviant from chronological age in various common brain disorders. Brain age estimation could be useful for investigating patterns of brain maturation and integrity, aiding to elucidate brain mechanisms underlying these heterogeneous conditions. Here, we examined functional brain age in two large samples of children and adolescents and its relation to mental health. METHODS: We used resting-state fMRI data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC; n = 1126, age range 8-22 years) to estimate functional connectivity between brain networks, and utilized these as features for brain age prediction. We applied the prediction model to 1387 individuals (age range 8-22 years) in the Healthy Brain Network sample (HBN). In addition, we estimated brain age in PNC using a cross-validation framework. Next, we tested for associations between brain age gap and various aspects of psychopathology and cognitive performance. RESULTS: Our model was able to predict age in the independent test samples, with a model performance of r = 0.54 for the HBN test set, supporting consistency in functional connectivity patterns between samples and scanners. Linear models revealed a significant association between brain age gap and psychopathology in PNC, where individuals with a lower estimated brain age, had a higher overall symptom burden. These associations were not replicated in HBN. DISCUSSION: Our findings support the use of brain age prediction from fMRI-based connectivity. While requiring further extensions and validations, the approach may be instrumental for detecting brain phenotypes related to intrinsic connectivity and could assist in characterizing risk in non-typically developing populations.

11.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 319: 111416, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847406

RESUMO

The amygdala is involved in fear perception and aggression regulation, and smaller volumes have been associated with psychotic and non-psychotic violence. We explored the relationship between amygdala nuclei volumes in violent offenders with and without psychosis, and the association to psychopathy traits. 3T MRI scans (n = 204, males, 18-66 years) were obtained from psychotic violent offenders (PSY-V, n = 29), non-psychotic violent offenders (NPV, n = 19), non-violent psychosis patients (PSY-NV, n = 67), and healthy controls (HC, n = 89). Total amygdala and 9 amygdala nuclei volumes were obtained with FreeSurfer. Psychopathy traits were measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R). Multivariate analyses explored diagnostic differences in amygdala nuclei volumes and associations to psychosis, violence, and psychopathy traits. PSY-V had a smaller basal nucleus, anterior amygdaloid area, and cortical amygdalar transition area (CATA), whereas PSY-NV had a smaller CATA than HC. Volumes in NPV did not differ from HC, and there were no associations between PCL-R total or factor scores and any of the nuclei or whole amygdala volumes. The lower volumes of amygdala nuclei involved in fear modulation, stress responses, and social interpretation may point towards some mechanisms of relevance to violence in psychosis, but the results warrant replication in larger subject samples.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 599, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824196

RESUMO

Oxytocin is a neuromodulator and hormone that is typically associated with social cognition and behavior. In light of its purported effects on social cognition and behavior, research has investigated its potential as a treatment for psychiatric illnesses characterized by social dysfunction, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. While the results of these trials have been mixed, more recent evidence suggests that the oxytocin system is also linked with cardiometabolic conditions for which individuals with severe mental disorders are at a higher risk for developing. To investigate whether the oxytocin system has a pleiotropic effect on the etiology of severe mental illness and cardiometabolic conditions, we explored oxytocin's role in the shared genetic liability of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, type-2 diabetes, and several phenotypes linked with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk using a polygenic pathway-specific approach. Analysis of a large sample with about 480,000 individuals (UK Biobank) revealed statistically significant associations across the range of phenotypes analyzed. By comparing these effects to those of polygenic scores calculated from 100 random gene sets, we also demonstrated the specificity of many of these significant results. Altogether, our results suggest that the shared effect of oxytocin-system dysfunction could help partially explain the co-occurrence of social and cardiometabolic dysfunction in severe mental illnesses.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776508

RESUMO

Clinical relevance of genetic testing is increasing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Information about genetic risk may contribute to improved diagnostics, treatment and family planning, but may also be perceived as a burden. Knowledge about the families' preferences with regard to genetic risk information is important for both health care professionals and policy makers. We investigated attitudes towards sharing information about genetic risk of ASD and knowledge about future health among parent members of the Norwegian Autism Association (N = 1455) using a questionnaire, and the relationships with parent and child characteristics, such as age, gender and ASD severity. Most preferred autonomy in deciding whom to inform about genetic risk of ASD (74.4%) and a minority supported extensive intra-familial disclosure of the genetic risk (41.1%). The majority agreed that it is an obligation to know as much as possible relevant for future health (58.0%) and only 51.7% agreed to a principle of a 'right not to know'. In regression models, the attitudes were associated with opinions about benefits and harms of genetic testing (e.g., treatment, family planning, understanding of ASD pathology, insurance discrimination and family conflict). In sum, the findings show that most parents want to know as much as possible relevant for their children's future health and keep their autonomy and intra-familial confidentiality about genetic risk information. Nearly half of the parents were not concerned with a "right not to know". These attitudes can inform development of guidelines and bioethics in the age of genomic precision medicine.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 723158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744818

RESUMO

Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with considerable heterogeneity in course and outcomes, which is in part related to the patients' sex. Studies report a link between serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and therapeutic response. However, the role of sex in these relationships is poorly understood. In a cross-sectional sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, we investigated if the relationship between serum lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides), BMI, and symptoms differs between the sexes. Methods: We included 435 FEP patients (males: N = 283, 65%) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study. Data on clinical status, antipsychotics, lifestyle, serum lipid levels, and BMI were obtained. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) were used to assess psychotic and depressive symptoms. General linear models were employed to examine the relationship between metabolic variables and symptomatology. Results: We observed a female-specific association between serum HDL-C levels and negative symptoms (B = -2.24, p = 0.03) and between triglycerides levels (B = 1.48, p = 0.04) and BMI (B = 0.27, p = 0.001) with depressive symptoms. When controlling for BMI, only the association between serum HDL-C levels and negative symptoms remained significant. Moreover, the HDL-C and BMI associations remained significant after controlling for demography, lifestyle, and illness-related factors. Conclusion: We found a relationship between metabolic factors and psychiatric symptoms in FEP patients that was sex-dependent.

17.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 1412021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726043

RESUMO

Current treatment for serious depression is unsatisfactory, and many patients fail to achieve the desired effect. Ketamine represents a new treatment option, and randomised trials show a rapid effect of intravenous ketamine. Although knowledge about adverse effects and the duration of the effect is somewhat deficient, we believe that the time has come to start clinical treatment in Norway.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (autism) and schizophrenia are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the lives of many individuals. It is important to increase our understanding of how the polygenic risk for neurodevelopmental disorders manifests during childhood in boys and girls. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for ADHD, autism and schizophrenia were calculated in a subsample of 15 205 children from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Mother-reported traits of repetitive behavior, social communication, language and motor difficulties, hyperactivity and inattention were measured in children at 6 and 18 months, 3, 5 and 8 years. Linear regression models in a multigroup framework were used to investigate associations between the three PRS and dimensional trait measures in MoBa, using sex as a grouping variable. RESULTS: Before the age of 2, the ADHD PRS was robustly associated with hyperactivity and inattention, with increasing strength up to 8 years, and with language difficulties at age 5 and 8. The autism PRS was robustly associated with language difficulties at 18 months, motor difficulties at 36 months, and hyperactivity and inattention at 8 years. We did not identify robust associations for the schizophrenia PRS. In general, the PRS associations were similar in boys and girls. The association between ADHD PRS and hyperactivity at 18 months was, however, stronger in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk for autism and ADHD in the general population manifests early in childhood and broadly across behavioral measures of neurodevelopmental traits.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607722

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) might be associated with higher infection rates of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which in turn could result in worsening the clinical course and outcome. This may be due to a high prevalence of somatic comorbidities and an increased risk of delays in and poorer treatment of somatic disease in patients with severe mental illness in general. Vaccination is the most important public health intervention to tackle the ongoing pandemic. We undertook a systematic review regarding the data on vaccinations in individuals with BD. Proportion of prevalence rates, efficacy and specific side effects of vaccinations and in individuals with BD were searched. Results show that only five studies have investigated vaccinations in individuals with BD, which substantially limits the interpretation of overall findings. Studies on antibody production after vaccinations in BD are very limited and results are inconsistent. Also, the evidence-based science on side effects of vaccinations in individuals with BD so far is poor.

20.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly age-related disorder, where common genetic risk variants affect both disease risk and age at onset. A statistical approach that integrates these effects across all common variants may be clinically useful for individual risk stratification. A polygenic hazard score methodology, leveraging a time-to-event framework, has recently been successfully applied in other age-related disorders. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop and validate a polygenic hazard score model in sporadic PD. METHODS: Using a Cox regression framework, we modeled the polygenic hazard score in a training data set of 11,693 PD patients and 9841 controls. The score was then validated in an independent test data set of 5112 PD patients and 5372 controls and a small single-study sample of 360 patients and 160 controls. RESULTS: A polygenic hazard score predicts the onset of PD with a hazard ratio of 3.78 (95% confidence interval 3.49-4.10) when comparing the highest to the lowest risk decile. Combined with epidemiological data on incidence rate, we apply the score to estimate genetically stratified instantaneous PD risk across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the feasibility of a polygenic hazard approach in PD, integrating the genetic effects on disease risk and age at onset in a single model. In combination with other predictive biomarkers, the approach may hold promise for risk stratification in future clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies, which aim at postponing the onset of PD. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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