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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680469

RESUMO

HBeAg is a marker of HBV-activity, and HBeAg-loss predicts a favorable clinical outcome. Here, we characterize HBeAg-levels across different phases of HBV infection, their correlation with virological/biochemical markers and the virological response to anti-HBV therapy. Quantitative HBeAg (qHBeAg, DiaSorin) is assessed in 101 HBeAg+ patients: 20 with acute-infection, 20 with chronic infection, 32 with chronic hepatitis and 29 with immunosuppression-driven HBV-reactivation (HBV-R). A total of 15/29 patients with HBV-R are monitored for >12 months after starting TDF/ETV. qHBeAg is higher in immunosuppression-driven HBV-R (median[IQR]:930[206-1945]PEIU/mL) and declines in chronic hepatitis (481[28-1393]PEIU/mL, p = 0.03), suggesting HBeAg production, modulated by the extent of immunological pressure. This is reinforced by the negative correlation between qHBeAg and ALT in acute infection (Rho = -0.66, p = 0.006) and chronic hepatitis (Rho = -0.35; p = 0.05). Interestingly, qHBeAg strongly and positively correlates with qHBsAg across the study groups, suggesting cccDNA as a major source of both proteins in the setting of HBeAg positivity (with limited contribution of integrated HBV-DNA to HBsAg production). Focusing on 15 patients with HBV-R starting TDF/ETV, virological suppression and HBeAg-loss are achieved in 60% and 53.3%. Notably, the combination of qHBeAg > 2000 PEIU/mL + qHBsAg > 52,000 IU/mL at HBV-R is the only factor predicting no HBeAg loss (HBeAg loss: 0% with vs. 72.7% without qHBeAg > 2000 PEIU/mL + qHBsAg > 52,000 IU/mL, p = 0.03). In conclusion, qHBeAg varies over the natural course of HBV infection, according to the extent of immunological pressure. In the setting of HBV-R, qHBeAg could be useful in predicting the treatment response under immunosuppression.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682731

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional cationic glycoprotein synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils, possesses an in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we conducted an in vivo preliminary study to investigate the antiviral effect of oral and intranasal liposomal bovine Lf (bLf) in asymptomatic and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. From April 2020 to June 2020, a total of 92 mild-to-moderate (67/92) and asymptomatic (25/92) COVID-19 patients were recruited and divided into three groups. Thirty-two patients (14 hospitalized and 18 in home-based isolation) received only oral and intranasal liposomal bLf; 32 hospitalized patients were treated only with standard of care (SOC) treatment; and 28, in home-based isolation, did not take any medication. Furthermore, 32 COVID-19 negative, untreated, healthy subjects were added for ancillary analysis. Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients obtained an earlier and significant (p < 0.0001) SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion compared to the SOC-treated and untreated COVID-19 patients (14.25 vs. 27.13 vs. 32.61 days, respectively). Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients showed fast clinical symptoms recovery compared to the SOC-treated COVID-19 patients. In bLf-treated patients, a significant decrease in serum ferritin, IL-6, and D-dimers levels was observed. No adverse events were reported. These observations led us to speculate a potential role of bLf in the management of mild-to-moderate and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate HIV-1 tropism in 1382 combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-experienced patients failing therapy to characterize those with exhausted therapeutic options. METHODS: HIV-1 genotypic tropism was inferred through Geno2Pheno by estimating the false-positive-rate (FPR) values. Cumulative resistance and drug activity were evaluated by Stanford algorithm. RESULTS: Overall, median (IQR) CD4 count (cells/mm3) nadir and at last genotypic resistance test (GRT) available were 98 (33-211) and 312 (155-517), respectively. Considering HIV-1 tropism, 30.5% had X4/dual-mixed strains (FPR ≤5%: 22.2%; FPR 5%-10%: 8.3%). By stratifying according to tropism, by decreasing FPR, a significant decrease of CD4 nadir and at last GRT was observed. The proportion of individuals with CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, who were perinatally infected and with a long treatment history significantly increased as FPR levels decreased. Regarding resistance, 933 (67.5%) individuals accumulated at least one class resistance, with 52.7%, 48.2%, 23.5% and 13.2% of individuals showing resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs and INIs; while 23.2%, 27.2%, 14.3% and 2.8% harboured resistance to 1, 2, 3 and 4 classes, respectively. Individuals with FPR ≤5% showed a significantly higher level of resistance to PIs, NRTIs and INIs compared with others. The proportion of individuals harbouring strains susceptible to ≤2 active drugs was only about 2%; nonetheless, this proportion doubled (4.6%) in patients infected with FPR ≤5%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that a small proportion of cART failing individuals have limited therapeutic options. However, tropism determination might help to identify people who have accumulated a high level of resistance and have a greater risk of advanced disease.

4.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 57(3): 201-204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554113

RESUMO

Italy has been one of the countries with the greatest burden of HCV in Western Europe and with the highest number of HCV liver-related deaths. In order to achieve HCV elimination by 2030 Italy, like many other countries, will need to succeed in tackling the undiagnosed individuals with active HCV infection. To this aim beginning in 2021, a nationwide action has been implemented, consisting of the performance of screening tests among key populations and birth cohorts (1969-1989), estimated to have a high prevalence of undiagnosed individuals. The realization of the proactive screening during the first two years will define the tracks for the whole optimized screening strategy, including also the screening of 1948-1968 birth cohorts, reported to be the best cost-effective strategy in achieving the HCV elimination targets by 2030 in Italy. Each Italian region needs to define the present and future steps to reach HCV elimination goal by 2030 guaranteeing the equity of care.

5.
Liver Int ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Optimized diagnostic algorithms to detect active infections are crucial to achieving HCV elimination. We evaluated the cost effectiveness and sustainability of different algorithms for HCV active infection diagnosis, in a context of a high endemic country for HCV infection. METHODS: A Markov disease progression model, simulating six diagnostic algorithms in the birth cohort 1969-1989 over a 10-year horizon from a healthcare perspective was used. Conventionally diagnosis of active HCV infection is through detection of antibodies (HCV-Ab) detection followed by HCV-RNA or HCV core antigen (HCV-Ag) confirmatory testing either on a second sample or by same sample reflex testing. The undiagnosed and unconfirmed rates were evaluated by assays false negative estimates and each algorithm patients' drop-off. Age, liver disease stages distribution, liver disease stage costs, treatment effectiveness and costs were used to evaluate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). RESULTS: The reference option was Rapid HCV-Ab followed by second sample HCV-Ag testing which produced the lowest QALYs (866,835 QALYs). The highest gains in health (QALYs=974,458) was obtained by HCV-RNA reflex testing which produced a high cost-effective ICER (€891/QALY). Reflex testing (same sample-single visit) vs two patients' visits algorithms, yielded the highest QALYs and high cost-effective ICERs (€566 and €635/QALY for HCV-Ag and HCV-RNA, respectively), confirmed in 99.9% of the 5,000 probabilistic simulations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm, by a cost effectiveness point of view, the EASL and WHO clinical practice guidelines recommending HCV reflex testing as most cost effective diagnostic option vs other diagnostic pathways.

6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009878, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473805

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 fine-tunes the interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral responses, which play a key role in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression. Indeed, critically ill patients show an impaired type I IFN response accompanied by elevated inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, responsible for cell and tissue damage and associated multi-organ failure. Here, the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells was investigated by interrogating an in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based experimental model. We found that, even in absence of a productive viral replication, the virus mediates a vigorous TLR7/8-dependent production of both type I and III IFNs and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, known to contribute to the cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. Interestingly, we observed how virus-induced type I IFN secreted by PBMC enhances anti-viral response in infected lung epithelial cells, thus, inhibiting viral replication. This type I IFN was released by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) via an ACE-2-indipendent but Neuropilin-1-dependent mechanism. Viral sensing regulates pDC phenotype by inducing cell surface expression of PD-L1 marker, a feature of type I IFN producing cells. Coherently to what observed in vitro, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects displayed a similar pDC phenotype associated to a very high serum type I IFN level and induction of anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes in PBMC. Conversely, hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 display very low frequency of circulating pDC with an inflammatory phenotype and high levels of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum. This study further shed light on the early events resulting from the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells occurring in vitro and confirmed ex vivo. These observations can improve our understanding on the contribution of pDC/type I IFN axis in the regulation of the anti-viral state in asymptomatic and severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/classificação , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Pulmão/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-18, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524945

RESUMO

Vaccination prevents 2-3 million deaths worldwide every year. Nevertheless, vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) still cause a considerable number of deaths especially in subjects belonging to "risk groups." These are represented by older adults, immunocompromised individuals and all subjects with underlying chronic medical conditions (cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal and liver chronic diseases, diabetes, immunodeficiency disorders). They have a weaker immune system and, if infected, are more likely to develop severe complications of their condition or of the preventable-infectious disease. This document summarizes the recommendations for vaccination of the main Global Institutional Organizations and analyses the risks of comorbidities associated with infectious disease and the benefits of vaccination for each specific group. The document provides a clear, practical and authoritative guide to adult vaccination.

8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103157, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) can impair the specific immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Specifically, it is recognized that ocrelizumab reduces or abrogates anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production after natural infection or vaccination, while very little is known about T-cell responses. METHODS: We developed an interferon (IFN)-γ release assay (IGRA) to detect T-cell responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 after overnight stimulation of whole blood with peptide libraries covering the immunodominant sequence domains of the Spike glycoprotein (S) and the Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N). RESULTS: Five patients with MS receiving ocrelizumab treatment for at least 1 year and recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in the study. Despite the absence or the very low concentration of anti-S antibodies, a T-cell response was detectable in all the five MS patients. These results are in accordance with the marked reduction of peripheral B-lymphocyte absolute counts induced by ocrelizumab, that, conversely, did not affect peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subset absolute and relative counts and CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of specific T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving B-cell depleting therapies represents a useful tool to improve the diagnostic approach in SARS-CoV-2 infection and to accurately assess the immunological response after natural infection or vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esclerose Múltipla , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108013, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339963

RESUMO

The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has not yet fully defined, but the availability of sensitive and specific serological assays is crucial to observe the presence of specific antibodies against the human receptor binding domain (S-RBD) and high specificity ACE-2-binding antibodies or neutralizing antibodies (NT) in response to vaccines. Indeed, these peculiar antibodies should prevent viral interaction between RBD and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, located on surface of host cells. In this study, 72 samples from 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 35 not-hospitalized patients were analyzed longitudinally. The detection of S-RBD and NT antibodies was carried out using CLIA tests. Hospitalized patients showed elevated serum levels of S-RBD (97.22%) and NT (77.78%) antibodies, differently, not-hospitalized, who were paucisymptomatic or asymptomatic patients, showed lower serum levels of S-RBD (65.71%) and NT (38.14%) antibodies. The results suggest that the NT serum level is strongly related to disease severity (p < 0.001) and to the serum level of S-RBD antibodies (p < 0.0001).


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos
10.
HIV Med ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432363

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemsex in a European context is the use of any of the following drugs to facilitate sex: crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and, to a lesser extent, cocaine and ketamine. This study describes the prevalence of self-reported recreational drug use and chemsex in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing HIV services in four countries. It also examines the problematic impacts and harms of chemsex and access to chemsex-related services. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional multi-centre questionnaire study of HIV-positive MSM accessing nine HIV services in the UK, Spain, Greece and Italy. RESULTS: In all, 1589 HIV-positive MSM attending HIV services in four countries completed the questionnaire. The median age of participants was 38 years (interquartile range: 32-46 years) and 1525 (96.0%) were taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the previous 12 months, 709 (44.6%) had used recreational drugs, 382 (24.0%) reported chemsex and 104 (6.5%) reported injection of chemsex-associated drugs ('slamsex'). Of the 382 engaging in chemsex, 155 (40.6%) reported unwanted side effects as a result of chemsex and 81 (21.2%) as a result of withdrawal from chemsex. The reported negative impacts from chemsex were on work (25.1%, 96), friends/family (24.3%, 93) and relationships (28.3%, 108). Fifty-seven (14.9%) accessed chemsex-related services in the past year, 38 of whom (67%) felt the service met their needs. DISCUSSION: A quarter of participants self-reported chemsex in the past 12 months. There were high rates of harms from chemsex across all countries, including negative impacts on work, friends/family and relationships. Although a minority of those engaging in chemsex accessed support, most found this useful.

11.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) can seriously affect the hematopoietic system, with involvement of both myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as plasma components. These hematological changes act as a marker for the diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and WHO websites from 1950 to May 2021 for papers on the interaction between TB and common and rare hematological manifestation. RESULTS: Hematological reactions in patients with TB are possible in both young and old women and men but seem more frequent in the elderly, and they can be predictors of both diagnosis and worse outcome for TB, regardless of whether it is pulmonary, extra pulmonary or miliary. Even anti-TB therapies can cause hematological adverse events, among which some are serious and rare and can compromise the patient's recovery pathway to completing treatment. CONCLUSION: Hematological screening and follow-up, including complete blood count and coagulation, are always necessary both at the diagnosis of TB and during antitubercular treatment in order to monitor hematological parameters. Short therapy regimens for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) may also be useful for reducing hematological toxicity, especially in contexts where this cannot be monitored. Close monitoring of drug interactions and hematological adverse events is always recommended.

12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3349-3378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376971

RESUMO

Dalbavancin is a novel, long-acting lipoglycopeptide characterized by a long elimination half-life coupled with excellent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positives. Although it is currently approved only for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, an ever-growing amount of evidence supports the efficacy of dalbavancin as a long-term therapy in osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, endocarditis, and bloodstream infections. This article provides a critical reappraisal of real-world use of dalbavancin for off-label indications. A search strategy using specific keywords (dalbavancin, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, long-term suppressive therapy, bloodstream infection, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile) until April 2021 was performed on the PubMed-MEDLINE database. As for other novel antibiotics, a conundrum between approved indications and potential innovative therapeutic uses has emerged for dalbavancin as well. The promising efficacy in challenging scenarios (i.e., osteomyelitis, endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections), coupled with the unique pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, makes dalbavancin a valuable alternative to daily in-hospital intravenous or outpatient antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of long-term Gram-positive infections. This makes dalbavancin valuable in the current COVID-19 scenario, in which hospitalization and territorial medicine empowerment are unavoidable.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Off-Label , Participação do Paciente , Teicoplanina/análogos & derivados , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Teicoplanina/efeitos adversos , Teicoplanina/farmacocinética , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(4): 106406, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Comparisons between rilpivirine (RPV) and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-infected individuals are currently lacking. This study aimed to compare, in an observational cohort setting, the durability of treatment with RPV-based and INSTI-based first-line regimens. METHODS: Patients who started first-line ARTs based on RPV or INSTIs, with HIV-RNA < 100 000 copies/mL and CD4 cell count > 200 cells/µL were included. The primary endpoint was the cumulative probability of treatment failure (TF = virological failure [confirmed HIV-RNA > 50 copies/mL] or discontinuation of the anchor drug in the regimen), as assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariable Cox regression was used to control for potential confounding. RESULTS: Of the 1991 included patients, 986 started ART with an RPV-based regimen and 1005 with an INSTIs-based regimen. The median (IQR) follow-up was 20 (10, 35) months. The cumulative 2-year probability of TF with RPV (9.1% [95% 7.2, 11.1]) was lower than that observed in the INSTIs group (16.6% [13.8, 19.4], P = 0.0002) but not when compared with dolutegravir (DTG) alone. Starting ART with an INSTIs-based regimen vs. RPV was associated with a higher risk of TF after controlling for potential confounding factors (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR [95% CI]: 1.64 [1.28, 2.10]; P < 0.001). The results were similar when restricting the analysis to single-tablet regimens, although the probability of virological success was higher for INSTIs and DTG. CONCLUSIONS: In ART-naïve patients with low viral loads and high CD4 counts, the risk of treatment failure was lower in those who started RPV-based vs. INSTIs-based regimens other than DTG-based ones.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 666600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220505

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (Lf) is a cationic glycoprotein synthetized by exocrine glands and is present in all human secretions. It is also secreted by neutrophils in infection and inflammation sites. This glycoprotein possesses antimicrobial activity due to its capability to chelate two ferric ions per molecule, as well as to interact with bacterial and viral anionic surface components. The cationic features of Lf bind to cells, protecting the host from bacterial and viral injuries. Its anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by the ability to enter inside the nucleus of host cells, thus inhibiting the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokine genes. In particular, Lf down-regulates the synthesis of IL-6, which is involved in iron homeostasis disorders and leads to intracellular iron overload, favoring viral replication and infection. The well-known antiviral activity of Lf has been demonstrated against DNA, RNA, and enveloped and naked viruses and, therefore, Lf could be efficient in counteracting also SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this purpose, we performed in vitro assays, proving that Lf exerts an antiviral activity against SARS-COV-2 through direct attachment to both SARS-CoV-2 and cell surface components. This activity varied according to concentration (100/500 µg/ml), multiplicity of infection (0.1/0.01), and cell type (Vero E6/Caco-2 cells). Interestingly, the in silico results strongly supported the hypothesis of a direct recognition between Lf and the spike S glycoprotein, which can thus hinder viral entry into the cells. These in vitro observations led us to speculate a potential supplementary role of Lf in the management of COVID-19 patients.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12762, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140530

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of baseline lymphocyte subset counts in predicting the outcome and severity of COVID-19 patients. Hospitalized patients confirmed to be infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were included and classified according to in-hospital mortality (survivors/nonsurvivors) and the maximal oxygen support/ventilation supply required (nonsevere/severe). Demographics, clinical and laboratory data, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were retrospectively analyzed. Overall, 160 patients were retrospectively included in the study. T-lymphocyte subset (total CD3+, CD3+ CD4+, CD3+ CD8+, CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ double positive [DP] and CD3+ CD4- CD8- double negative [DN]) absolute counts were decreased in nonsurvivors and in patients with severe disease compared to survivors and nonsevere patients (p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that absolute counts of CD3+ T-lymphocytes < 524 cells/µl, CD3+ CD4+ < 369 cells/µl, and the number of T-lymphocyte subsets below the cutoff (T-lymphocyte subset index [TLSI]) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Baseline T-lymphocyte subset counts and TLSI were also predictive of disease severity (CD3+ < 733 cells/µl; CD3+ CD4+ < 426 cells/µl; CD3+ CD8+ < 262 cells/µl; CD3+ DP < 4.5 cells/µl; CD3+ DN < 18.5 cells/µl). The evaluation of peripheral T-lymphocyte absolute counts in the early stages of COVID-19 might represent a useful tool for identifying patients at increased risk of unfavorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Cidade de Roma/epidemiologia
17.
Methods ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000391

RESUMO

Droplet digital PCR is an innovative and promising approach for highly sensitive quantification of nucleic acids that is being increasingly used in the field of clinical virology, including the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Here, we comprehensively report a robust and reproducible ddPCR assay for the highly sensitive quantification of serum HBV-DNA. The assay showed a limit of detection of 4 copies/ml (<1IU/ml) by Probit analysis, showed a good linearity (R2 = 0.94) and a high intra- and inter-run reproducibility with differences between the values obtained in the same run or in two independent runs never exceeding 0.14logcopies/mL and 0.21logcopies/mL, respectively. By analysing serum samples from chronically HBV infected patients (mostly under antiviral treatment), ddPCR successfully quantified serum HBV-DNA in 89.8% of patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA < 20 IU/mL [equivalent to <112copies/ml] by classical Real-Time PCR assay, with a median (IQR) of 8(5-14)IU/mL [45(28-78)copies/ml], and in 66.7% of patients with undetectable serum HBV-DNA, with a median (IQR) of 5(4-9)IU/mL [28(20-50)copies/ml]. Similarly, by analysing serum samples from patients with a serological profile compatible with occult HBV infection (anti-HBc+/HBsAg-), ddPCR successfully quantified serum HBV-DNA in 40% of patients with a median (IQR) value of 1(1-2)IU/mL [5(5-11)copies/ml], in line with the extremely limited viral replication typically observed in occult HBV infection. Overall, the availability of assays for the highly sensitive quantification of serum HBV-DNA can provide an added value in optimizing the diagnosis of occult hepatitis B infection, improving the therapeutic management of chronically HBV infected patients, also in the light of innovative drugs (upcoming in clinical practise) aimed at achieving HBV functional cure.

18.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(4): 796-808, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the reorganization of the central nervous system provided by resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI), graph-theoretical analysis, and a newly developed functional brain network disruption index in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: Forty HIV-positive patients without neurological impairment and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent rs-fMRI at 3T; blood sampling was obtained the same day to evaluate biochemical variables (absolute, relative, and nadir CD4 T-lymphocytes value and plasmatic HIV-RNA). From fMRI data, disruption indices, as well as global and local graph theoretical measures, were estimated and examined for group differences (HIV vs. controls) as well as for associations with biochemical variables (HIV only). Finally, all data (global and local graph-theoretical measures, disruption indices, and biochemical variables) were tested for putative differences across three patient groups based on the duration of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). RESULTS: Brain function of HIV patients appeared to be deeply reorganized as compared to normal controls. The disruption index showed significant negative association with relative CD4 values, and a positive significant association between plasmatic HIV-RNA and local graph-theoretical metrics in the left lingual gyrus and the right lobule IV and V of right cerebellar hemisphere was also observed. Finally, a differential distribution of HIV clinical biomarkers and several brain metrics was observed across cART duration groups. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that rs-fMRI combined with advanced graph theoretical analysis and disruption indices is able to detect early and subtle functional changes of brain networks in HIV patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cerebelo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital
19.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922732

RESUMO

HCV is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV NS5A domain-1 interacts with cellular proteins inducing pro-oncogenic pathways. Thus, we explore genetic variations in NS5A domain-1 and their association with HCC, by analyzing 188 NS5A sequences from HCV genotype-1b infected DAA-naïve cirrhotic patients: 34 with HCC and 154 without HCC. Specific NS5A mutations significantly correlate with HCC: S3T (8.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.01), T122M (8.8% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001), M133I (20.6% vs. 3.9%, p < 0.001), and Q181E (11.8% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001). By multivariable analysis, the presence of >1 of them independently correlates with HCC (OR (95%CI): 21.8 (5.7-82.3); p < 0.001). Focusing on HCC-group, the presence of these mutations correlates with higher viremia (median (IQR): 5.7 (5.4-6.2) log IU/mL vs. 5.3 (4.4-5.6) log IU/mL, p = 0.02) and lower ALT (35 (30-71) vs. 83 (48-108) U/L, p = 0.004), suggesting a role in enhancing viral fitness without affecting necroinflammation. Notably, these mutations reside in NS5A regions known to interact with cellular proteins crucial for cell-cycle regulation (p53, p85-PIK3, and ß-catenin), and introduce additional phosphorylation sites, a phenomenon known to ameliorate NS5A interaction with cellular proteins. Overall, these results provide a focus for further investigations on molecular bases of HCV-mediated oncogenesis. The role of theseNS5A domain-1 mutations in triggering pro-oncogenic stimuli that can persist also despite achievement of sustained virological response deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
20.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926816

RESUMO

Although Italy has been on track for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination since 2019, it fell off track due to the decrease in the number of treated patients. HCV elimination in Italy will be possible if immediate action is taken. A health policy was implemented beginning in 2021, consisting of screening among key populations and birth cohorts (1969-1989), estimated to have a high prevalence of undiagnosed individuals. The active screening requires regional governance that manages the processes' complexity integrating a well-organized network between territory assistance and hospital to achieve an effective HCV care cascade. This document aims to support the regional decision-making process by defining paths for screening and linkage-to-care. Implementing active screening strategies beyond a risk-based approach is required as a General Practitioners' task. Simplified paths must be drawn for the key populations screening. The infrastructure built for COVID-19 vaccination could be used also for HCV screening. According to a multidisciplinary care delivery, screening should be supplemented with rapid linkage-to-care and treatment of newly diagnosed patients. The realization of the proactive screening during the first two years is vital because it will define the tracks for the whole HCV cost-effective screening of 1948-1988 birth cohorts in Italy.

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