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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(5): 1077-1086, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

2.
Muscle Nerve ; 63(1): 52-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006184

RESUMO

Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are considered sporadic, without a known genetic basis, and environmental exposures are thought to play a causal role. To learn more about sporadic ALS etiology, we recruited n = 188 ALS patients from northern New England and Ohio and matched controls 2:1 from the general population of the same regions. Questionnaires evaluated the association between a variety of lifestyle, behavioral (ie, hobbies and activities), and occupational factors and the risk of ALS, including the duration of time between exposure and ALS onset, and exposure frequency. Head trauma was associated with increased ALS risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.60 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-2.45), with significantly greater effects for injuries occurring 10 or more years prior to symptom onset (P = .037). ALS risk was increased for those reporting severe electrical burns (adjusted OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.37-6.03), with odds ratios highest for burns after age 30 (OR 3.14), and for burns 10 or more years prior to symptom onset (OR 3.09). Hobbies involving lead were the most strongly associated with ALS risk (adjusted OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.45-5.91). Exposures to lead 20 or more years prior to diagnosis had larger effect sizes compared to those occurring more recently. Holding a job in mechanics, painting, or construction was associated with ALS. The identification of these specific environmental factors associated with ALS highlight the need for future prospective and laboratory studies to assess causality, biological mechanisms, and find prevention or treatment opportunities.

3.
Epilepsy Res ; 166: 106406, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify disparities in care pathways and time from first seizure to epilepsy diagnosis, we examined 2010-2014 Medicaid claims (including pharmacy) data from 16 States for individuals with incident epilepsy. METHODS: We identified adults (18-64) with an incident epilepsy diagnosis from 1/2012 through 6/2014. These individuals were enrolled in Medicaid for the entire study period and had no history of anti-epileptic drug (AED) use before their first seizure claim. We identified care pathways and calculated the duration from initial seizure to epilepsy diagnosis. We tested associations between these pathways and race/ethnicity, as well as time differences between care pathways using a Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: The 14,337 adults followed five different care pathways. Their overall median duration from first seizure code to epilepsy diagnosis code was 19.0 months (interquartile range: 4.6, 30.4), and 56.0% filled an AED prescription. Some minorities were more likely to follow pathways with increased durations and delay to diagnosis, and the duration to diagnosis varied significantly across the care pathways. SIGNIFICANCE: The many different care pathways seen in people with epilepsy show substantial and significant time delays between first seizure diagnosis and epilepsy diagnosis, including significant racial/ethnic disparities that warrant attention.

4.
Cancer Biomark ; 29(1): 101-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among patients diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), 30% to 70% experience recurrences within 6 to 12 years of diagnosis. The need to screen for these events every 3 to 6 months and ultimately annually by cystoscopy makes bladder cancer one of the most expensive malignancies to manage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify reproducible prognostic microRNAs in resected non-muscle invasive bladder tumor tissue that are predictive of the recurrent tumor phenotype as potential biomarkers and molecular therapeutic targets. METHODS: Two independent cohorts of NMIBC patients were analyzed using a biomarker discovery and validation approach, respectively. RESULTS: miRNA Let-7f-5p showed the strongest association with recurrence across both cohorts. Let-7f-5p levels in urine and plasma were both found to be significantly correlated with levels in tumor tissue. We assessed the therapeutic potential of targeting Lin28, a negative regulator of Let-7f-5p, with small-molecule inhibitor C1632. Lin28 inhibition significantly increased levels of Let-7f-5p expression and led to significant inhibition of viability and migration of HTB-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified Let-7f-5p as a miRNA biomarker of recurrence in NMIBC tumors. We further demonstrate that targeting Lin28, a negative regulator of Let-7f-5p, represents a novel potential therapeutic opportunity in NMIBC.

5.
J Neurooncol ; 148(3): 473-480, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent molecular characterization of gliomas has uncovered somatic gene variation and DNA methylation changes that are associated with etiology, prognosis, and therapeutic response. Here we describe genomic profiling of gliomas assessed for associations between genetic mutations and patient outcomes, including overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). METHODS: Mutations in a 50-gene cancer panel, 1p19q co-deletion, and MGMT promoter methylation (MGMT methylation) status were obtained from tumor tissue of 293 glioma patients. Multivariable regression models for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were constructed for MGMT methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, and gene mutations controlling for age, treatment status, and WHO grade. RESULTS: Mutational profiles of gliomas significantly differed based on WHO Grade, such as high prevalence of BRAF V600E, IDH1, and PTEN mutations in WHO Grade I, II/III, and IV tumors, respectively. In multivariate regression analysis, MGMT methylation and IDH1 mutations were significantly associated with improved OS (HR = 0.44, p = 0.0004 and HR = 0.21, p = 0.007, respectively), while FLT3 and TP53 mutations were significantly associated with poorer OS (HR = 19.46, p < 0.0001 and HR = 1.67, p = 0.014, respectively). MGMT methylation and IDH1 mutations were the only significant alterations associated with improved RFS in the model (HR = 0.42, p < 0.0001 and HR = 0.37, p = 0.002, respectively). These factors were then included in a combined model, which significantly exceeded the predictive value of the base model alone (age, surgery, radiation, chemo, grade) (likelihood ratio test OS p = 1.64 × 10-8 and RFS p = 3.80 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the genomic landscape of gliomas in a single-institution cohort and identifies a novel association between FLT3 mutation and OS in gliomas.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1423-1429, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. METHODS: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. RESULTS: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery (P < 0.001) and validation (P < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in TPM3 (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, P = 1.65 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele (TPM3 in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of TPM3 (OR = 1.16, P = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 (HLA-A in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, P = 1.76 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329357

RESUMO

Objective: The majority of cases of the fatal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are of unknown etiology. A proportion of these cases are likely to be attributable to contaminant exposures, although the specific environmental etiology of ALS remains largely a mystery. Certain forms of the neurotoxic metal mercury readily cross into the central nervous system. Fish is a dietary source of methylmercury, but also of beneficial components, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prior work using clinic-based studies of toenails and hair as keratinous biomarkers of exposure suggest elevated mercury levels in ALS patients compared with controls. We sought to validate this relationship in a U.S. case-control comparison of mercury levels in nail clippings. Methods: We performed trace element analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on the nail clippings of n = 70 female, geographically representative ALS patients from the National ALS Biorepository and compared them to n = 210 age-matched controls from a set of n = 1216 nationally distributed controls from the Sister and Two Sister Studies. Results: Compared to the lowest quartile of nail mercury, moderate levels were associated with decreased risk of ALS (P = 4.18e-6). However, the odds of having nail mercury levels above the 90th percentile were 2.3-fold higher among ALS patients compared with controls (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.10-4.58, adjusted for age and smoking status). Conclusion: This finding suggests that excessive mercury exposure may be associated with the neurodegenerative health of aging populations.

9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 104(Pt A): 106906, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006792

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cognitive impairment is one of the most common complaints for persons with epilepsy (PWE). These impairments are not only associated with seizures, but are also regularly reported as adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Previous studies have examined cognitive effects of both AED monotherapy and polytherapy, yet there is limited research on these differences with respect to both subjective and objective cognition. The current study uses data from previous research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network collaborative. We used three distinct archival datasets from the following: (1) the HOBSCOTCH efficacy trial at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (HOB-1), (2) the multisite replication trial (HOB-2), and (3) epilepsy self-management research conducted at the NYU School of Medicine. METHODS: This retrospective analysis combined baseline data from three datasets to determine how the number of AEDs and the type of AEDs were associated with subjective (patient-reported) and objective (examiner-assessed) cognition. Subjective cognition was captured using the cognitive subscale of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31) in all three datasets (n = 224), while objective cognition was measured using the Repeated Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in the HOB-1 dataset (n = 65) and the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) in the HOB-2 dataset (n = 91). Multivariable linear regression was utilized for our initial assessments, followed by propensity score matching to provide stronger control of covariates. Matching was based on significantly different covariates, such as education, depression, and history of prior epilepsy surgery. Nonparametric statistical tests were utilized to compare these matched subjects. RESULTS: Subjective cognitive impairment was significantly worse among individuals on polytherapy (2 + AEDs) compared with those on monotherapy (1 AED) (adjusted p  =  0.041). These findings were consistent with our propensity score matched comparison of monotherapy and polytherapy, which indicated that polytherapy was associated with worse overall subjective cognition (adjusted p = 0.01), in addition to impairments on the RBANS (Total score p = 0.05) and specific subdomains of the BTACT (Episodic Verbal Memory p < 0.01, Working Memory p < 0.01, Processing Speed p < 0.01). Interestingly, older generation AEDs were associated with better language performance than newer generation and combined generation AED therapy (RBANS Language p = 0.03). These language-specific findings remained significant after controlling for the effects of topiramate and zonisamide (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A greater number of AEDs is significantly and negatively associated with subjective and objective cognition in PWE, and is in line with previous research. Antiepileptic drug type did not, in itself, appear to be associated with subjective cognition. Our findings suggest that ineffective AEDs should be replaced, rather than introducing additional AEDs to a treatment regimen. Further, while subjective and objective cognition assessments were both sensitive at detecting differences based on AED status, the neuropsychological objective subdomains offer additional and specific insights into how cognition is impaired with AEDs.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Topiramato/efeitos adversos , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Zonisamida/efeitos adversos , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 158-160, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with epilepsy (PWE) exercise less than the general population and describe a lower level of fitness. Exercise improves comorbidities associated with epilepsy and may help seizure control. We aimed to record balance and reaction time in patients undergoing antiseizure drug (ASD) taper in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) to determine if there is a reversible, dose-dependent effect of these medications. METHODS: We tested 21 patients and 21 controls using a Wii Balance Board (WBB) and online reaction time test. The patients were recruited during an EMU stay and were tested before and after medication taper. Drug levels were also checked. Sway from center of pressure (COP) and speed of sway were tested with eyes open on two legs, eyes closed on two legs, and eyes open on one leg. Reaction time was tested. RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients on ASDs had more sway from COP (with eyes open on two legs: p = 0.0022 in the anterior-posterior axis and p = 0.022 in the medial-lateral axis using linear regression) and worse reaction time (p < 0.001 using linear regression, adjusted for age and gender). There was no difference in reaction time or sway from COP between trials 1 and 2, before and after stopping ASDs (p = 0.2 using a paired t test for reaction time and p = 0.08 using a paired t test for speed of sway with eyes closed). There was no relationship between time since last seizure or duration of seizures and balance or reaction time. DISCUSSION: Balance and reaction time in patients on ASD is impaired compared with controls. There is no immediate improvement in these measures following ASD withdrawal. This difference may result from vestibular or cerebellar effects. More research is needed to determine the individual effects of particular medications on balance and reaction time.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 782-788, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence is a major challenge in patient management. miRNAs functionally regulate tumor cell proliferation and invasion, and have strong potential as biomarkers because they are robust to degradation. The objective of this project was to identify reproducible prognostic miRNAs in resected non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor tissue that are predictive of the recurrent tumor phenotype. METHODS: We utilized patients diagnosed with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in three independent cohorts for a biomarker discovery/validation approach. Baseline tumor tissue from patients with the clinically challenging, non-muscle-invasive primary low stage (Ta), high grade, and T1 tumors (tumors extending into the lamina propria) comprised the discovery cohort (n = 38). We isolated the tumor tissue RNA and assessed a panel of approximately 800 miRNAs. RESULTS: miR-26b-5p was the top-ranking prognostic tumor tissue miRNA, with a time-to-recurrence HR 0.043 for levels above versus below median, (P adj = 0.0003). miR-26b-5p was related to a dose-response reduction in tumor recurrence, and levels above the median were also associated with reduced time-to-progression (P adj = 0.02). We used two independent longitudinal cohorts that included both low-grade and high-grade Ta and T1 tumors for validation and found a consistent relationship between miR-26b-5p and recurrence and progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that miR-26b-5p levels may be prognostic for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence, and can feasibly be assessed in baseline tumor tissue from a wide variety of clinical settings. IMPACT: Early identification of those non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor patients with refractory phenotypes would enable individualized treatment and surveillance.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 58: 25-32, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inadequate evidence to determine whether there is an effect of alcohol consumption on lung cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from the International Lung Cancer Consortium and the SYNERGY study to investigate this possible association by type of beverage with adjustment for other potential confounders. METHODS: Twenty one case-control studies and one cohort study with alcohol-intake data obtained from questionnaires were included in this pooled analysis (19,149 cases and 362,340 controls). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each measure of alcohol consumption. Effect estimates were combined using random or fixed-effects models where appropriate. Associations were examined for overall lung cancer and by histological type. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association between overall risk of lung cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages compared to non-drinkers, but the association was not monotonic. The lowest risk was observed for persons who consumed 10-19.9 g/day ethanol (OR vs. non-drinkers = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.91), where 1 drink is approximately 12-15 g. This J-shaped association was most prominent for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The association with all lung cancer varied little by type of alcoholic beverage, but there were notable differences for SCC. We observed an association with beer intake (OR for ≥20 g/day vs nondrinker = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Whether the non-monotonic associations we observed or the positive association between beer drinking and squamous cell carcinoma reflect real effects await future analyses and insights about possible biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
18.
Scand J Public Health ; 47(5): 528-537, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360010

RESUMO

Aims: United States' (US) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and treatment practices seek to reduce mortality. We examined the survival of US patients compared with patients in the virtually unscreened Norwegian population. Methods: We compared short-term survival after CRC between the US and Norway using relative survival (RS) and excess mortality (EMR) analyses. The CRC patients were aged 50 and older diagnosed in the US (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry, 2004, N=9511) and in Norway (Cancer Registry of Norway, 2003-2005, N=8256). Results: Death occurred within three years for 39% of the CRC patients. Stage distributions were more favorable for US patients. Stage-specific survival was similar for localized and regional cancers, but more favorable for US distant cancers. In multivariate models of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics, patients (especially below age 80) in the US experienced longer survival (EMR 0.9, CI 0.8-0.9). Stage-specific analyses showed, however, that survival for localized cancers was relatively shorter in the US than in Norway (EMR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.8), but longer for distant cancers (EMR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8). Conclusions: The enhanced survival for US CRC patients likely reflects a screening-related earlier diagnostic stage distribution, as well as prioritized life extension for patients with metastatic cancers, reflecting vastly different health care systems in the two countries. CRC screening is currently under consideration in Norway. For survival outcomes, the current findings do not discourage such an implementation. Other screening-related aspects such as feasibility and cost-benefit are, however, also relevant and warrant further research within a socialized health system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(12): 2100-2105, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with significantly less effective treatment and poorer survival than early-stage colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: Identify and assess patient characteristics, demographic factors, and lifestyle factors that are associated with late-stage colorectal cancer at diagnosis. APPROACH: We linked two longstanding statewide, population-based registry databases: the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry and the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry, to assess the associations between patient characteristics and late-stage CRC diagnoses. The State Cancer Registry provided information on cancer stage and the Colonoscopy Registry provided detailed information on patient characteristics and lifestyle factors, allowing these factors to be analyzed in relation to colorectal cancer stage. KEY RESULTS: The risk of late-stage CRC diagnosis was highest among those diagnosed at a young age (< 50 years old) (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.27-2.58). Those with Medicaid were also at increased risk, particularly < 65 years of age (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.05-5.26). A family or personal history of polyps and/or CRC was associated with early stage at diagnosis (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Public health outreach and screening efforts should focused on patients at risk of late-stage CRC to encourage earlier diagnosis and prevention. Underserved patients have a lower rate of CRC screening and an increased risk of late-stage CRC, emphasizing the critical need to reach these populations. Further investigation of susceptibility characteristics and the effectiveness of non-invasive early screening techniques is warranted to address the late-stage CRC diagnoses in young individuals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/normas , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros/normas , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 645: 1003-1013, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248825

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria produce harmful toxins that have been associated with several acute conditions and chronic human diseases, like gastroenteritis, non-alcoholic liver disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aerosol from waterbodies appears to be a likely mechanism for exposure. We conducted a study of human biospecimens focused on the cyanobacterial aerosilization process by evaluating the extent to which cyanobacteria can invade the human respiratory tract. Our study suggests that humans routinely inhale aerosolized cyanobacteria, which can be harbored in the nostrils and the lungs. Using PCR, cyanobacteria were found at high frequencies in the upper respiratory tract (92.20%) and central airway (79.31%) of our study subjects. Nasal swabs were not predictive of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) when detecting inhaled cyanobacteria. Interestingly, we found no evidence that time of year was a significant factor for cyanobacteria positivity (BAL cytology p = 1.0 and PCR p = 1.0); (nasal swab cytology p = 0.051 and PCR p = 0.65). Additionally, we found that proximity to a waterbody was not a significant factor for cyanobacteria positivity in BAL and nasal swabs collected during cyanobacteria bloom season [May-October] (p = 0.46 and p = 0.38). These data suggest that cyanobacteria exposure may be a prevalent and chronic phenomenon not necessarily restricted to waterbodies alone. Sources of indoor exposure warrant future investigation. Given the widespread prevalence of cyanobacterial exposure in the airway, investigation of the aerosol spread of cyanotoxins, more specifically, is warranted. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that aerosol is a significant route for cyanobacteria exposure, and thus a likely route of transmission for cyanotoxin-associated human diseases.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Cianobactérias , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Humanos , Microcistinas
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