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2.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 158-160, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with epilepsy (PWE) exercise less than the general population and describe a lower level of fitness. Exercise improves comorbidities associated with epilepsy and may help seizure control. We aimed to record balance and reaction time in patients undergoing antiseizure drug (ASD) taper in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) to determine if there is a reversible, dose-dependent effect of these medications. METHODS: We tested 21 patients and 21 controls using a Wii Balance Board (WBB) and online reaction time test. The patients were recruited during an EMU stay and were tested before and after medication taper. Drug levels were also checked. Sway from center of pressure (COP) and speed of sway were tested with eyes open on two legs, eyes closed on two legs, and eyes open on one leg. Reaction time was tested. RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients on ASDs had more sway from COP (with eyes open on two legs: p = 0.0022 in the anterior-posterior axis and p = 0.022 in the medial-lateral axis using linear regression) and worse reaction time (p < 0.001 using linear regression, adjusted for age and gender). There was no difference in reaction time or sway from COP between trials 1 and 2, before and after stopping ASDs (p = 0.2 using a paired t test for reaction time and p = 0.08 using a paired t test for speed of sway with eyes closed). There was no relationship between time since last seizure or duration of seizures and balance or reaction time. DISCUSSION: Balance and reaction time in patients on ASD is impaired compared with controls. There is no immediate improvement in these measures following ASD withdrawal. This difference may result from vestibular or cerebellar effects. More research is needed to determine the individual effects of particular medications on balance and reaction time.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 782-788, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence is a major challenge in patient management. miRNAs functionally regulate tumor cell proliferation and invasion, and have strong potential as biomarkers because they are robust to degradation. The objective of this project was to identify reproducible prognostic miRNAs in resected non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor tissue that are predictive of the recurrent tumor phenotype. METHODS: We utilized patients diagnosed with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in three independent cohorts for a biomarker discovery/validation approach. Baseline tumor tissue from patients with the clinically challenging, non-muscle-invasive primary low stage (Ta), high grade, and T1 tumors (tumors extending into the lamina propria) comprised the discovery cohort (n = 38). We isolated the tumor tissue RNA and assessed a panel of approximately 800 miRNAs. RESULTS: miR-26b-5p was the top-ranking prognostic tumor tissue miRNA, with a time-to-recurrence HR 0.043 for levels above versus below median, (P adj = 0.0003). miR-26b-5p was related to a dose-response reduction in tumor recurrence, and levels above the median were also associated with reduced time-to-progression (P adj = 0.02). We used two independent longitudinal cohorts that included both low-grade and high-grade Ta and T1 tumors for validation and found a consistent relationship between miR-26b-5p and recurrence and progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that miR-26b-5p levels may be prognostic for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence, and can feasibly be assessed in baseline tumor tissue from a wide variety of clinical settings. IMPACT: Early identification of those non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor patients with refractory phenotypes would enable individualized treatment and surveillance.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
6.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 58: 25-32, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inadequate evidence to determine whether there is an effect of alcohol consumption on lung cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from the International Lung Cancer Consortium and the SYNERGY study to investigate this possible association by type of beverage with adjustment for other potential confounders. METHODS: Twenty one case-control studies and one cohort study with alcohol-intake data obtained from questionnaires were included in this pooled analysis (19,149 cases and 362,340 controls). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each measure of alcohol consumption. Effect estimates were combined using random or fixed-effects models where appropriate. Associations were examined for overall lung cancer and by histological type. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association between overall risk of lung cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages compared to non-drinkers, but the association was not monotonic. The lowest risk was observed for persons who consumed 10-19.9 g/day ethanol (OR vs. non-drinkers = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.91), where 1 drink is approximately 12-15 g. This J-shaped association was most prominent for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The association with all lung cancer varied little by type of alcoholic beverage, but there were notable differences for SCC. We observed an association with beer intake (OR for ≥20 g/day vs nondrinker = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Whether the non-monotonic associations we observed or the positive association between beer drinking and squamous cell carcinoma reflect real effects await future analyses and insights about possible biological mechanisms.

8.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(12): 2100-2105, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with significantly less effective treatment and poorer survival than early-stage colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: Identify and assess patient characteristics, demographic factors, and lifestyle factors that are associated with late-stage colorectal cancer at diagnosis. APPROACH: We linked two longstanding statewide, population-based registry databases: the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry and the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry, to assess the associations between patient characteristics and late-stage CRC diagnoses. The State Cancer Registry provided information on cancer stage and the Colonoscopy Registry provided detailed information on patient characteristics and lifestyle factors, allowing these factors to be analyzed in relation to colorectal cancer stage. KEY RESULTS: The risk of late-stage CRC diagnosis was highest among those diagnosed at a young age (< 50 years old) (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.27-2.58). Those with Medicaid were also at increased risk, particularly < 65 years of age (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.05-5.26). A family or personal history of polyps and/or CRC was associated with early stage at diagnosis (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Public health outreach and screening efforts should focused on patients at risk of late-stage CRC to encourage earlier diagnosis and prevention. Underserved patients have a lower rate of CRC screening and an increased risk of late-stage CRC, emphasizing the critical need to reach these populations. Further investigation of susceptibility characteristics and the effectiveness of non-invasive early screening techniques is warranted to address the late-stage CRC diagnoses in young individuals.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 645: 1003-1013, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248825

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria produce harmful toxins that have been associated with several acute conditions and chronic human diseases, like gastroenteritis, non-alcoholic liver disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aerosol from waterbodies appears to be a likely mechanism for exposure. We conducted a study of human biospecimens focused on the cyanobacterial aerosilization process by evaluating the extent to which cyanobacteria can invade the human respiratory tract. Our study suggests that humans routinely inhale aerosolized cyanobacteria, which can be harbored in the nostrils and the lungs. Using PCR, cyanobacteria were found at high frequencies in the upper respiratory tract (92.20%) and central airway (79.31%) of our study subjects. Nasal swabs were not predictive of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) when detecting inhaled cyanobacteria. Interestingly, we found no evidence that time of year was a significant factor for cyanobacteria positivity (BAL cytology p = 1.0 and PCR p = 1.0); (nasal swab cytology p = 0.051 and PCR p = 0.65). Additionally, we found that proximity to a waterbody was not a significant factor for cyanobacteria positivity in BAL and nasal swabs collected during cyanobacteria bloom season [May-October] (p = 0.46 and p = 0.38). These data suggest that cyanobacteria exposure may be a prevalent and chronic phenomenon not necessarily restricted to waterbodies alone. Sources of indoor exposure warrant future investigation. Given the widespread prevalence of cyanobacterial exposure in the airway, investigation of the aerosol spread of cyanotoxins, more specifically, is warranted. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that aerosol is a significant route for cyanobacteria exposure, and thus a likely route of transmission for cyanotoxin-associated human diseases.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3221, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104567

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.

11.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 937-950, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide interaction analysis was carried out to identify genomic loci, genes or gene sets that modify the susceptibility to lung cancer given occupational exposure to the radioactive gas radon. METHODS: Samples from 28 studies provided by the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled with samples of former uranium miners collected by the German Federal Office of Radiation Protection. In total, 15,077 cases and 13,522 controls, all of European ancestries, comprising 463 uranium miners were compared. The DNA of all participants was genotyped with the OncoArray. We fitted single-marker and in multi-marker models and performed an exploratory gene-set analysis to detect cumulative enrichment of significance in sets of genes. RESULTS: We discovered a genome-wide significant interaction of the marker rs12440014 within the gene CHRNB4 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.60, p = 0.0386 corrected for multiple testing). At least suggestive significant interaction of linkage disequilibrium blocks was observed at the chromosomal regions 18q21.23 (p = 1.2 × 10-6), 5q23.2 (p = 2.5 × 10-6), 1q21.3 (p = 3.2 × 10-6), 10p13 (p = 1.3 × 10-5) and 12p12.1 (p = 7.1 × 10-5). Genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term "DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair" (GO:0006307; p = 0.0139) or the gene family HGNC:476 "microRNAs" (p = 0.0159) were enriched with LD-blockwise significance. CONCLUSION: The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among uranium miners. Furthermore, lung cancer susceptibility is related to the functional capability of DNA damage signaling via ubiquitination processes and repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks by the single-strand annealing mechanism.

12.
Muscle Nerve ; 2018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mercury is a neurotoxic metal that is potentially a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Consumption of methylmercury contaminated fish is the primary source of US population exposure to mercury. METHODS: We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure levels of mercury in toenail samples from patients with ALS (n = 46) and from controls (n = 66) as a biomarker of mercury exposure. RESULTS: Patients with ALS had higher toenail mercury levels (odds ratio 2.49, 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.80, P = 0.024) compared with controls, adjusted for age and sex. We also estimated the amount of mercury consumed from finfish and shellfish and found toenail mercury levels elevated overall among patients with ALS and controls in the top quartile for consumption (P = 0.018). DISCUSSION: Biomarker data show that ALS is associated with increased with mercury levels, which were related to estimated methylmercury intake via fish. Replication of these associations in additional populations is warranted. Muscle Nerve, 2018.

13.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494817744394, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360010

RESUMO

AIMS: United States' (US) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and treatment practices seek to reduce mortality. We examined the survival of US patients compared with patients in the virtually unscreened Norwegian population. METHODS: We compared short-term survival after CRC between the US and Norway using relative survival (RS) and excess mortality (EMR) analyses. The CRC patients were aged 50 and older diagnosed in the US (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry, 2004, N=9511) and in Norway (Cancer Registry of Norway, 2003-2005, N=8256). RESULTS: Death occurred within three years for 39% of the CRC patients. Stage distributions were more favorable for US patients. Stage-specific survival was similar for localized and regional cancers, but more favorable for US distant cancers. In multivariate models of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics, patients (especially below age 80) in the US experienced longer survival (EMR 0.9, CI 0.8-0.9). Stage-specific analyses showed, however, that survival for localized cancers was relatively shorter in the US than in Norway (EMR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.8), but longer for distant cancers (EMR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8). CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced survival for US CRC patients likely reflects a screening-related earlier diagnostic stage distribution, as well as prioritized life extension for patients with metastatic cancers, reflecting vastly different health care systems in the two countries. CRC screening is currently under consideration in Norway. For survival outcomes, the current findings do not discourage such an implementation. Other screening-related aspects such as feasibility and cost-benefit are, however, also relevant and warrant further research within a socialized health system.

14.
Radiology ; 287(2): 563-569, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361247

RESUMO

Purpose To determine whether inclusion of an epidemiologic statement in radiology reports of lumbar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging influences downstream health care utilization in the primary care population. Materials and Methods Beginning July 1, 2013, a validated epidemiologic statement regarding prevalence of common findings in asymptomatic patients was included in all lumbar MR imaging reports at a tertiary academic medical center. Data were collected from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014, and retrospective analysis was completed in September 2016. The electronic medical record was reviewed to capture health care utilization rates in patients for 1 year after index MR imaging. Of 4527 eligible adult patients with low back pain referred for lumbar spine MR imaging during the study period, 375 patients had their studies ordered by in-network primary care providers, did not have findings other than degenerative disease, and had at least one follow-up encounter within the system within 1 year of index MR imaging. In the before-and-after study design, a pre-statement-implementation cohort was compared with a post-statement-implementation cohort by using univariate and multivariate statistical models to evaluate treatment utilization rates in these groups. Results Patients in the statement group were 12% less likely to be referred to a spine specialist (137 of 187 [73%] vs 159 of 188 [85%]; P = .007) and were 7% less likely to undergo repeat imaging (seven of 187 [4%] vs 20 of 188 [11%]; P = .01) compared with patients in the nonstatement group. The intervention was not associated with any change in narcotic prescription (53 of 188 [28%] vs 54 of 187 [29%]; P = .88) or with the rate of low back surgery (24 of 188 [13%] vs 16 of 187 [9%]; P = .19). Conclusion In this study, inclusion of a simple epidemiologic statement in lumbar MR imaging reports was associated with decreased utilization in high-cost domains of low back pain management. © RSNA, 2018.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/economia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Neurol ; 264(8): 1763-1767, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711998

RESUMO

A recent population-based analysis demonstrated lower risk of the lethal degenerative neuromuscular disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with history of the use of 'antineoplastic agents' and 'immunosuppressants'. To see if this finding was generalizable to other ALS cohorts, we examined associations between use of these agents and ALS risk in an independent case-control study of n = 414 ALS patients and n = 361 controls in an Eastern US population. Controls were sampled from the general population and among non-neurodegenerative disease patients. A history of chemotherapy treatment was significantly associated with a decreased ALS risk (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.89, P = 0.026). We did not observe an association between risk of ALS and immunosuppressant therapy use (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.50-1.02, P = 0.23). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and smoking. Our results support the prior report for chemotherapy treatment and lead to further discussion of the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos , Imunossupressores , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1126-1132, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604730

RESUMO

Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
17.
Int J Cancer ; 141(2): 309-323, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440542

RESUMO

Many clinical features of lung cancer are different in women and men. Sex steroid hormones exert effects in nonreproductive organs, such as the lungs. The association between menstrual and childbearing factors and the risk of lung cancer among women is still debated. We performed a pooled analysis of eight studies contributing to the International Lung Cancer Consortium (4,386 cases and 4,177 controls). Pooled associations between menstrual or reproductive factors and lung cancer were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were done for menopause status, smoking habits and histology. We found no strong support for an association of age at menarche and at menopause with lung cancer, but peri/postmenopausal women were at higher risk compared to premenopausal (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.93). Premenopausal women showed increased risks associated with parity (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.93) and number of children (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.21-6.93 for more than 3 children; p for trend 0.01) and decreased with breastfeeding (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.98). In contrast, peri/postmenopausal subjects had ORs around unity for the same exposures. No major effect modification was exerted by smoking status or cancer histology. Menstrual and reproductive factors may play a role in the genesis of lung cancer, yet the mechanisms are unclear, and smoking remains the most important modifiable risk factor. More investigations in large well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of gender differences in lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Menstruação , História Reprodutiva , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257124

RESUMO

Although serrated polyps were historically considered to pose little risk, it is now understood that progression down the serrated pathway could account for as many as 15%-35% of colorectal cancers. The sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is the most prevalent pre-invasive serrated lesion. Our objective was to identify the CpG loci that are persistently hyper-methylated during serrated carcinogenesis, from the early SSA/P lesion through the later cancer phases of neoplasia development. We queried the loci hyper-methylated in serrated cancers within our rightsided SSA/Ps from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry, using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k panel to comprehensively assess the DNA methylation status. We identified CpG loci and regions consistently hyper-methylated throughout the serrated carcinogenesis spectrum, in both our SSA/P specimens and in serrated cancers. Hyper-methylated CpG loci included the known the tumor suppressor gene RET (p = 5.72 x 10-10), as well as loci in differentially methylated regions for GSG1L, MIR4493, NTNG1, MCIDAS, ZNF568, and RERG. The hyper-methylated loci that we identified help characterize the biology of SSA/P development, and could be useful as therapeutic targets, or for future identification of patients who may benefit from shorter surveillance intervals.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Pólipos do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Ilhas de CpG , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Int J Cancer ; 140(9): 1976-1984, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120396

RESUMO

It is not clear whether alcohol consumption is associated with lung cancer risk. The relationship is likely confounded by smoking, complicating the interpretation of previous studies. We examined the association of alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in a large pooled international sample, minimizing potential confounding of tobacco consumption by restricting analyses to never smokers. Our study included 22 case-control and cohort studies with a total of 2548 never-smoking lung cancer patients and 9362 never-smoking controls from North America, Europe and Asia within the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) and SYNERGY Consortium. Alcohol consumption was categorized into amounts consumed (grams per day) and also modelled as a continuous variable using restricted cubic splines for potential non-linearity. Analyses by histologic sub-type were included. Associations by type of alcohol consumed (wine, beer and liquor) were also investigated. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk with evidence most strongly supporting lower risk for light and moderate drinkers relative to non-drinkers (>0-4.9 g per day: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.70-0.90; 5-9.9 g per day: OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99; 10-19.9 g per day: OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.96). Inverse associations were found for consumption of wine and liquor, but not beer. The results indicate that alcohol consumption is inversely associated with lung cancer risk, particularly among subjects with low to moderate consumption levels, and among wine and liquor drinkers, but not beer drinkers. Although our results should have no relevant bias from the confounding effect of smoking we cannot preclude that confounding by other factors contributed to the observed associations. Confounding in relation to the non-drinker reference category may be of particular importance.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Neurodegener Dis ; 17(2-3): 110-116, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data provide support for the concept that potentially modifiable exposures are responsible for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate environmental and occupational exposures as risk factors for sporadic ALS. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of ALS among residents of New England, USA. The analysis compared questionnaire responses from 295 patients with a confirmed ALS diagnosis to those of 225 controls without neurodegenerative illness. RESULTS: Self-reported job- or hobby-related exposure to one or more chemicals, such as pesticides, solvents, or heavy metals, increased the risk of ALS (adjusted OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.64-3.89). Industries with a higher toxicant exposure potential (construction, manufacturing, mechanical, military, or painting) were associated with an elevated occupational risk (adjusted OR 3.95; 95% CI 2.04-8.30). We also identified increases in the risk of ALS associated with frequent participation in water sports, particularly waterskiing (adjusted OR 3.89; 95% CI 1.97-8.44). Occupation and waterskiing both retained independent statistical significance in a composite model containing age, gender, and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to a growing body of literature implicating occupational- and hobby-related toxicant exposures in ALS etiology. These epidemiologic study results also provide motivation for future evaluation of water-body-related risk factors.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England , Fatores de Risco
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