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1.
Vaccine ; 37(36): 5466-5473, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently shown to be effective against PCV13-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) in healthy adults aged ≥65 years, prompting many countries to re-assess adult immunization. In Canada, the potential benefits of adult PCV13 immunization were unclear given anticipated herd immunity from PCV13 childhood immunization introduced since 2010. This study describes the serotype distribution and clinical outcomes of Canadian adults aged ≥16 years, who were hospitalized with CAPSpn and IPD from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: Active surveillance for CAP and IPD was performed in adult hospitals across five Canadian provinces. IPD was identified when Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from sterile sites. Bacteremic and non-bacteremic CAPSpn were identified using blood culture, and sputum culture or PCV13-specific urine antigen detection (UADPCV13), respectively. Serotype was assigned using Quellung reaction, PCR, or UADPCV13. RESULTS: Of 6687 CAP cases where a test was performed, S. pneumoniae positivity decreased from 15.9% in 2011 to 8.8% in 2014, but increased to 12.9% in 2015. CAPSpn attributed to PCV13 serotypes followed a similar trend, dropping from 8.3% in 2010 to 4.6% in 2014, but increasing to 6.3% in 2015. The decline was primarily attributed to serotypes 7F and 19A, and the proportional increase to serotype 3. Similar trends were noted for bacteremic and non-bacteremic CAPSpn. Serious outcomes such as 30-day mortality, intensive care unit admission, and requirement for mechanical ventilation were prominent in CAPSpn and IPD cases, but remained unchanged over the study years. CONCLUSION: Herd immunity afforded primarily by serotypes 7F and 19A appears to be partly masked by a concomitant proportional increase of serotype 3. Despite evidence of herd immunity, these PCV13 serotypes remain persistent in Canadian adults hospitalized with CAPSpn, and represent between 5 and 10% of all CAP in this patient population.

2.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 178, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults are at high risk for influenza-related complications including worsening frailty and function. We surveyed older Canadians to explore the impact of influenza and determine how influenza knowledge influences vaccination decision-making. METHODS: We disseminated an online survey through a national polling panel. The survey included questions about the respondents' influenza vaccination practices and knowledge about influenza. Using validated measures, they reported their frailty and functional status prior to the 2016/17 influenza season, during illness (if applicable), and following the season. Regression analyses were used to examine predictors of poor functional outcomes. RESULTS: Five thousand and fourteen adults aged 65 and older completed the survey; mean age was 71.3 ± 5.17 years, 42.6% had one or more chronic conditions, 7.8% were vulnerable and 1.8% were frail. 67.9% reported receiving last season's influenza vaccine. Those who rarely/never receive the influenza vaccine were significantly less likely to correctly answer questions about influenza's impact than those who receive the vaccine more consistently. Of the 1035 (21.5%) who reported experiencing influenza or influenza-like illness last season, 40% indicated a recovery longer than 2 weeks, and one-fifth had health and function declines during this time. Additionally, 3.1% of those afflicted "never fully recovered". Older age, significant trouble with memory and having influenza/ILI were among the independent predictors of persistent declines in health and function. CONCLUSIONS: Given that frailty and function are important considerations for older adults' well-being and independence, healthcare decision-makers must understand the potential for significant temporary and long-term impacts of influenza to make informed vaccine-related policies and recommendations.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157595

RESUMO

Frail older adults are at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Frailty assessment is therefore important in clinical trials to understand the benefits and harms of interventions. However, consensus is lacking on how frailty should be assessed. We developed a prospectively specified index using a battery of formal tests and instruments and a retrospectively generated index using medical comorbidities and patient reported outcomes (PROs) within an adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) trial (NCT02979639). For both frailty indices (FIs), a total deficit score was calculated as the accumulation of deficits and participants were categorized as non-frail, pre-frail and frail. We assessed (1) the feasibility and validity of both FIs; (2) the impact of RZV vaccine reactogenicity by frailty status on Short Form-36 [SF-36] physical functioning (PF) scores. Of 401 participants, aged ≥50 years, 236 (58.9%) were categorized non-frail, 143 (35.7%), pre-frail, and 22 (5.5%) frail using the prospective FI. Corresponding numbers for the retrospective FI were 192 (47.9%), 169 (42.1%) and 40 (10.0%), respectively. Strong concordance was observed between the frailty status assessments (P < .001). The proportion defined as frail increased from 1.5%, to 10.4% in participants aged 50-59, and ≥70 years, respectively, for the prospective FI. Corresponding numbers for the retrospective FI were 3.7%, and 17.2%, respectively. RZV vaccination was associated with a transient, non-clinically meaningful, decrease on the SF-36 PF score in frail participants. Both frailty indices provided similar results. The retrospectively generated FI offers the advantage of being easier to incorporate into vaccine clinical trials of older adults.

4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many older adults in long-term care (LTC) experience acute health crises but are at high risk of transfer distress and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Residents often complete advance directives (ADs) regarding future care wishes, including directives for hospital transfers. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of, and adherence to, "no transfer to hospital" ADs in LTC, and to explore the circumstances leading to transfers against previously expressed directives. DESIGN: We conducted a mixed methods study in 10 nursing homes in Nova Scotia, Canada. A total of 748 resident charts and Emergency Health Services (EHS) database notes were reviewed from 3 time periods spanning implementation of a new primary care model, Care by Design (CBD). MEASURES: ADs were divided into those requesting transfer to hospital vs on-site management only, which were then analyzed in relation to actual hospital transfers. Reasons for EHS calls, management, and qualitative data were derived from the EHS database. Resident variables were obtained from LTC charts. Measures were compared between time periods. RESULTS: ADs were complete in 92.4% of charts. Paramedics were called for 80.5% of residents, and 73.6% were transferred to hospital, 51.3% of whom had explicit ADs to the contrary. The majority of those were transferred for fall-related injuries, followed by medical illness. Unclear care plans, symptom control, and perceived need for investigations and procedures all influenced transfer decisions. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The use of "no transfer to hospital" directives did not appear to impact the number of residents being transferred to acute care. Half of those transferred to hospital had explicit ADs to the contrary, largely driven by fall-related injury. The high incidence of injury-related transfers highlights an important gap in advance care planning. Clarifying transfer preferences for injury management in advance directives may lead to better end-of-life experiences for residents and improve effective resource utilization.

5.
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(3): 298-304, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801995

RESUMO

The Middle-East and Africa Influenza Surveillance Network (MENA-ISN), established in 2014, includes 15 countries at present. Country representatives presented their influenza surveillance programmes, vaccine coverage and influenza control actions achieved, and provided a list of country surveillance/control objectives for the upcoming 3 years. This report details the current situation of influenza surveillance and action plans to move forward in MENA-ISN countries. Data were presented at the 8th MENA-ISN meeting, organized by the Mérieux Foundation that was held on 10-11 April 2018 in Cairo, Egypt. The meeting included MENA-ISN representatives from 12 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) and experts from the Canadian Centre for Vaccinology, and the World Health Organization. Meeting participants concluded that influenza remains a significant threat especially in high-risk groups (children under-5, elderly, pregnant women and immunosuppressed individuals) in the MENA-ISN region. Additional funding and planning are required by member countries to contain this threat. Future meetings will need to focus on creative and innovative ways to inform policy and initiatives for vaccination, surveillance and management of influenza-related morbidity and mortality especially among the most vulnerable groups of the population.

7.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(2): 177-184, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some people with substantial Alzheimer's disease pathology at autopsy had shown few characteristic clinical symptoms or signs of the disease, whereas others with little Alzheimer's disease pathology have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. We aimed to examine whether frailty, which is associated with both age and dementia, moderates the relationship between Alzheimer's disease pathology and Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional analysis of data from participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a clinical-pathological cohort study of older adults (older than 59 years) without known dementia at baseline, living in Illinois, USA. Participants in the cohort study underwent annual neuropsychological and clinical evaluations. In the present cross-sectional analysis, we included those participants who did not have any form of dementia or who had Alzheimer's dementia at the time of their last clinical assessment and who had died and for whom complete autopsy data were available. Alzheimer's disease pathology was quantified by a summary measure of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic and diffuse plaques. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia was based on clinician consensus. Frailty was operationalised retrospectively using health variable information obtained at each clincial evaluation using the deficit accumulation approach (41-item frailty index). Logistic regression and moderation modelling were used to assess relationships between Alzheimer's disease pathology, frailty, and Alzheimer's dementia. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and education. FINDINGS: Up to data cutoff (Jan 20, 2017), we included 456 participants (mean age at death 89·7 years [SD 6·1]; 316 [69%] women). 242 (53%) had a diagnosis of possible or probable Alzheimer's dementia at their last clinical assessment. Frailty (odds ratio 1·76, 95% CI 1·54-2·02; p<0·0001) and Alzheimer's disease pathology (4·81, 3·31-7·01; p<0·0001) were independently associated with Alzheimer's dementia, after adjusting for age, sex, and education. When frailty was added to the model for the relationship between Alzheimer's disease pathology and Alzheimer's dementia, model fit improved (p<0·0001). There was a significant interaction between frailty and Alzheimer's disease pathology (odds ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·57-0·94; pinteraction=0·015). People with an increased frailty score had a weakened direct link between Alzheimer's disease pathology and Alzheimer's dementia; that is, people with a low amount of frailty were better able to tolerate Alzheimer's disease pathology, whereas those with higher amounts of frailty were more likely both to have more Alzheimer's disease pathology and for it to be expressed as dementia. INTERPRETATION: The degree of frailty among people of the same age modifies the association between Alzheimer's disease pathology and Alzheimer's dementia. That frailty is related to both odds of Alzheimer's dementia and disease expression has implications for clinical management, since individuals with even a low level of Alzheimer's disease pathology might be at risk for dementia if they have high amounts of frailty. Further research should assess how frailty and cognition change over time to better elucidate this complex relationship. FUNDING: None.

8.
Chest ; 155(1): 69-78, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-related hospitalizations among patients with COPD is not well described, and influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a national, prospective, multicenter cohort study including patients with COPD, hospitalized with any acute respiratory illness or exacerbation between 2011 and 2015. All patients underwent nasopharyngeal swab screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for influenza. The primary outcome was an influenza-related hospitalization. We identified influenza-positive cases and negative control subjects and used multivariable logistic regression with a standard test-negative design to estimate the vaccine effectiveness for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 4,755 hospitalized patients with COPD, 4,198 (88.3%) patients with known vaccination status were analyzed. The adjusted analysis showed a 38% reduction in influenza-related hospitalizations in vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals. Influenza-positive patients (n = 1,833 [38.5%]) experienced higher crude mortality (9.7% vs 7.9%; P = .047) and critical illness (17.2% vs 12.1%; P < .001) compared with influenza-negative patients. Risk factors for mortality in influenza-positive patients included age > 75 years (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 0.4-30.3]), cardiac comorbidity (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3-3.2]), residence in long-term care (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.5-4.5]), and home oxygen use (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.6-5.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination significantly reduced influenza-related hospitalization among patients with COPD. Initiatives to increase vaccination uptake and early use of antiviral agents among patients with COPD could reduce influenza-related hospitalization and critical illness and improve health-care costs in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.govNo.:NCT01517191; URL www.clinicaltrials.gov.

9.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421692

RESUMO

ABSTRACTBackground:How cognitive impairment and frailty combine to impact on older adults' Quality of Life (QoL) is little studied, but their inter-relationships are important given how often they co-occur. We sought to examine how frailty and cognitive impairment, as well as changes in frailty and cognition, are associated with QoL and how these relationships differ based on employment status and social circumstances. METHODS: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe data, we employed moderated regression, followed by simple slopes analysis, to examine how the relationships between levels of health (i.e., of frailty and cognition) and QoL varied as a function of sex, age, education, social vulnerability, and employment status. We used the same analysis to test whether the relationships between changes in health (over two years) and QoL varied based on these same moderators. RESULTS: Worse frailty (b = -1.61, p < .001) and cognitive impairment (b = -0.08, p < .05) were each associated with lower QoL. Increase in frailty (b = -2.17, p < .001) and cognitive impairment (b = -0.25, p < .001) were associated with lower QoL. The strength of these relationships varied depending on interactions with age, sex, education, social vulnerability, and employment status. Higher social vulnerability was consistently associated with lower QoL in analyses examining both static health (b = -3.16, p < .001) and change in health (b = -0.66, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Many predictors of QoL are modifiable, providing potential targets to improve older adults' QoL. Even so, the relationships between health, cognition, and social circumstances that shape QoL in older adults are complex, highlighting the importance for individualized interventions.

10.
Drugs Aging ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411283

RESUMO

Influenza can lead to serious illness, particularly for older adults. In addition to short-term morbidity and mortality during the acute infection, recovery can be prolonged and often incomplete. This may lead to persistent declines in health and function, including catastrophic disability, which has dramatic implications for the well-being and support needs of older adults and their caregivers. All of this means that prevention of infection and effective treatment when illness has occurred are of paramount importance. In this narrative review, we discuss the effectiveness of influenza vaccines for the prevention of influenza illness and serious outcomes in older adults. We review evidence of vaccine effectiveness for older adults in comparison with younger age groups, and also highlight the importance of frailty as a determinant of vaccine effectiveness. We then turn our attention to the question of why older and frailer individuals have poorer vaccine responses, and consider changes in immune function and inflammatory responses. This sets the stage for a discussion of newer influenza vaccine products that have been developed with the aim of enhancing vaccine effectiveness in older adults. We review the available evidence on vaccine efficacy, effectiveness and cost benefits, consider the potential place of these innovations in clinical geriatric practice, and discuss international advisory committee recommendations on influenza vaccination in older adults. Finally, we highlight the importance of influenza prevention to support healthy aging, along with the need to improve vaccine coverage rates using available vaccine products, and to spur development of better influenza vaccines for older adults in the near future.

11.
BMC Geriatr ; 18(1): 231, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the population is aging, the number of persons living with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) is expected to increase. This review seeks to answer two research questions from the perspectives of older adults with MCC, their caregivers and their health care providers (HCPs): 1) What are the health and social care needs of community-dwelling older adults with MCC and their caregivers? and 2) How do social and structural determinants of health impact these health and social care needs? METHODS: We conducted a scoping review guided by a refinement of the Arksey & O'Malley framework. Articles were included if participants were 55 years or older and have at least two chronic conditions. We searched 7 electronic databases. The data were summarized using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies were included in this review: 28 studies included participants with MCC; 12 studies included HCPs; 5 studies included caregivers. The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to good. Five main areas of needs were identified: need for information; coordination of services and supports; preventive, maintenance and restorative strategies; training for older adults, caregivers and HCPs to help manage the older adults' complex conditions; and the need for person-centred approaches. Structural and social determinants of health such as socioeconomic status, education and access influenced the needs of older adults with MCC. CONCLUSION: The review highlights that most of the needs of older adults with MCC focus on lack of access to information and coordination of care. The main structural and social determinants that influenced older adults' needs were their level of education/health literacy and their socioeconomic status.

12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204043

RESUMO

Influenza vaccination is an important public health intervention for older adults, yet vaccination rates remain suboptimal. We conducted an online survey of Canadians ≥ 65 years to explore satisfaction with publicly-funded standard-dose influenza vaccines, and perceptions of the need for a more effective product. They were provided with information about currently approved influenza vaccines, and were asked about their preferences should all formulations be available for free, and should the recently approved high-dose (HD) vaccine for seniors be available at a cost. From March to April 2017, 5014 seniors completed the survey; mean age was 71.3 ± 5.17 years, 50% were female, and 42.6% had one or more chronic conditions. 3403 (67.9%) had been vaccinated against influenza in the 2016/17 season. Of all respondents, 3460 (69%) were satisfied with the standard-dose influenza vaccines, yet 3067 (61.1%) thought that a more effective vaccine was/may be needed. If HD was only available at a cost, 1426 (28.4%) respondents would consider it, of whom 62.9% would pay $20 or less. If all vaccines were free next season, 1914 (38.2%) would opt for HD (including 12.2% of those who previously rejected influenza vaccines), 856 (17.1%) would choose adjuvanted vaccine, and 558 (11.1%) standard-dose vaccine. 843 (16.8%) of respondents were against vaccines, 451 (9.0%) had no preference and 392 (7.8%) were uncertain. Making this product available through publicly funded programs may be a strategy to increase immunization rates in this population.

13.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 10: 394-401, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094326

RESUMO

Introduction: Frailty and dementia appear to be closely linked, although mechanisms remain unclear. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of the association between frailty and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in humans. Methods: Three databases, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase, were searched for articles using the following search terms: "frail elderly", "Alzheimer's disease", "dementia biomarkers" and their synonyms. Inclusion was limited to original research in humans published before 2017, which included a frailty measure and AD biomarker (fluid markers, neuroimaging, and neuropathology). Results: Five hundred twenty-two articles were identified and screened; 10 were included. Most were cross-sectional (n = 6), measured the frailty phenotype (n = 6), and included people with dementia (n = 7). Biomarkers examined were postmortem AD pathology (n = 3), brain atrophy (n = 5), and in vivo fluid markers (n = 2). Eight studies reported that increased frailty was associated with at least one biomarker abnormality. Discussion: Evidence is limited and suffers from design limitations but suggests that frailty and AD biomarkers are closely linked. Longitudinal research examining multiple biomarkers and frailty is warranted.

14.
BMC Fam Pract ; 19(1): 73, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls and the resulting complications are common among frail older adults. We aimed to explore risk factors and potential prevention strategies for falls in elderly residents of Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCF). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study design using data from the Care by Design (CBD) study, within Nova Scotia's Capital District Health Authority. This observational time series cohort study collected data before, during and after the implementation of CBD, a new model of coordinated primary care in LTCF. Here, we analyzed data collected after the implementation of CBD (September 1, 2011- February 28, 2012). RESULTS: Falls were frequent; 56.2% of our sample of 395 residents fell at least once. In univariate analyses, male gender (p = 0.009), dementia (p = 0.005), and use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or Selective Serotonin-Norepinepherine Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI/SNRI) (p = 0.084) showed statistically significant associations with having fallen. Benzodiazepine use appeared to be protective for falls (p = 0.058). In a fully adjusted multivariable linear regression model, dementia (ß coefficient 0.96, 95% CI: 0.83,1.84; p = 0.032), visual impairment (ß 0.84, 95% CI: 0.13,1.56; p = 0.021), and use of any PIMs (ß 0.34, 95% CI: 0.037,0.65; p = 0.028) were associated with increased risk of having fallen. Benzodiazepine use remained associated with reduced numbers of falls (p = 0.009), and SSRI/SNRI use was associated with increased numbers of falls (p = 0.007). Male gender was associated with increased falls in the model which excluded frailty (p = 0.022), though gender lost statistical significance once frailty was added to the model (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample of LTCF residents, falls were common. Cognitive impairment, male gender, visual impairment, PIM use and use of SSRI/SNRI medications were associated with increased risk of falls, while benzodiazepine use appeared to be associated with a decreased risk of having fallen. Falls remain an important problem among LTC residents. Screening for falls during patient encounters is recommended, along with further research to identify risk factors and target interventions.

15.
Vaccine ; 36(16): 2166-2175, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada. A test-negative design was employed: cases were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for influenza; controls were PCR-negative for influenza and were matched to cases by date, admission site, and age (≥65 y or <65 y). All cases and controls had demographic and clinical characteristics (including influenza immunization status) obtained from the medical record. VE was estimated as 1-OR (odds ratio) in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients × 100%. The primary outcome was VE of TIV for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalization; secondary outcomes included VE of TIV for preventing influenza-related intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, and influenza-related death. RESULTS: Overall, 3394 cases and 4560 controls were enrolled; 2078 (61.2%) cases and 2939 (64.5%) controls were ≥65 y. Overall matched, adjusted VE was 41.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 34.4-48.3%); corresponding VE in adults ≥65 y was 39.3% (95% CI: 29.4-47.8%) and 48.0% (95% CI: 37.5-56.7%) in adults <65 y, respectively. VE for preventing influenza-related ICU admission/mechanical ventilation in all ages was 54.1% (95% CI: 39.8-65.0%); in adults ≥65 y, VE for preventing influenza-related death was 74.5% (95% CI: 44.0-88.4%). CONCLUSIONS: While effectiveness of TIV to prevent serious outcomes varies year to year, we demonstrate a statistically significant and clinically important TIV VE for preventing hospitalization and other serious outcomes over three seasons. Public health messaging should highlight the overall benefit of influenza vaccines over time while acknowledging year to year variability. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/história , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação
16.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 26(4): 318-324, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Polypharmacy is both common and harmful for frail residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF). We aimed to study rates of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) before and after the implementation of a new model of coordinated primary care in LTCF, 'Care by Design (CBD)'. METHODS: This was an observational before/after study in 10 LTCFs in Halifax, NS, Canada. Chart reviews were conducted for 529 LTCF residents for whom medication use was available. Both regularly scheduled and PRN medications were included but topical, inhaled and other non-systemic agents were excluded. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of more than 10 medications. PIMs were identified using Beers Criteria. KEY FINDINGS: Mean age of LTCF residents was older pre- versus post-CBD (85.7 versus 82.1 years; P = 0.0015). The burden of polypharmacy was high, but decreased significantly from 86.8% pre-CBD to 79.5% post-CBD (P = 0.046). The mean number of medications per resident decreased from 16.7 (SD 5.6) pre- to 15.5 (SD 6.2) post-CBD (P = 0.037). Residents with dementia were taking fewer medications both overall and following the implementation of CBD (mean 15.9, SD 0.6 pre-CBD versus 14.4, SD 0.4 post-CBD; P = 0.04). PIM rates were high and showed no change with CBD (86.2% versus 81.1%, P = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy was the norm of this sample of LTCF residents. Implementation of coordinated care through the CBD model was associated with a small decrease in polypharmacy but not overall use of PIMs. Further targeted efforts are required to substantially reduce both polypharmacy and PIMs in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Polimedicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/métodos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
17.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(2): 232-240, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consideration of cost determinants is crucial to inform delivery of public vaccination programs. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the average total cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in Canadians prior to, during, and 30 days following discharge. To analyze effects of patient/disease characteristics, treatment, and regional differences in costs. METHODS: Study utilized previously recorded clinical characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of laboratory-confirmed influenza patients admitted to hospitals in the Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS), Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN), from 2010/11 to 2012/13. Unit costs including hospital overheads were linked to inpatient/outpatient resource utilization before and after admissions. RESULTS: Dataset included 2943 adult admissions to 17 SOS Network hospitals and 24 Toronto Invasive Bacterial Disease Network hospitals. Mean age was 69.5 years. Average hospital stay was 10.8 days (95% CI: 10.3, 11.3), general ward stays were 9.4 days (95% CI: 9.0, 9.8), and ICU stays were 9.8 days (95% CI: 8.6, 11.1) for the 14% of patients admitted to the ICU. Average cost per case was $14 612 CAD (95% CI: $13 852, $15 372) including $133 (95% CI: $116, $150) for medical care prior to admission, $14 031 (95% CI: $13 295, $14 768) during initial hospital stay, $447 (95% CI: $271, $624) post-discharge, including readmission within 30 days. CONCLUSION: The cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza was higher than previous estimates, driven mostly by length of stay and analyzing only laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. The true per-patient cost of influenza-related hospitalization has been underestimated, and prevention programs should be evaluated in this context.

18.
BMJ Open ; 7(12): e018247, 2017 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People are living longer; however, they are not necessarily experiencing good health and well-being as they age. Many older adults live with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), and complex health issues, which adversely affect their day-to-day functioning and overall quality of life. As a result, they frequently rely on the support of friend and/or family caregivers. Caregivers of older adults with MCC often face challenges to their own well-being and also require support. Currently, not enough is known about the health and social care needs of older adults with MCC and the needs of their caregivers or how best to identify and meet these needs. This study will examine and synthesise the literature on the needs of older adults with MCC and those of their caregivers, and identify gaps in evidence and directions for further research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature using the updated Arksey and O'Malley framework. The literature will be identified using a multidatabase and grey literature search strategy developed by a health sciences librarian. Papers, reports and other materials addressing the health and social care needs of older adults and their friend/family caregivers will be included. Search results will be screened, independently, by two reviewers, and data will be abstracted from included literature and charted in duplicate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review does not require ethics approval. We anticipate that study findings will inform novel strategies for identifying and ascertaining the health and social care needs of older adults living with MCC and those of their caregivers. Working with knowledge-user members of our team, we will prepare materials and presentations to disseminate findings to relevant stakeholder and end-user groups at local, national and international levels. We will also publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 805, 2017 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network was established to monitor seasonal influenza complications among hospitalized Canadian adults and to assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against severe outcomes. Here we report age- and strain-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing severe outcomes during a season characterized by mixed outbreaks of four different influenza strains. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, test-negative case-control study evaluated the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in the prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza-hospitalization in adults aged ≥16 years (all adults) and adults aged 16-64 years (younger adults). The SOS Network identified hospitalized patients with diagnoses potentially attributable to influenza during the 2011/12 influenza season. Swabs collected at admission were tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) or viral culture to discriminate influenza cases (positive) from controls (negative). VE was calculated as 1-odds ratio (OR) of vaccination in cases versus controls × 100. RESULTS: Overall, in all adults, the unadjusted and adjusted VEs of TIV against influenza-hospitalization were 41.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 26.0, 54.3), and 42.8% (95% CI: 23.8, 57.0), respectively. In younger adults (16-64 years), the unadjusted and adjusted VEs of TIV against influenza-hospitalization were 35.8% (95% CI: 4.5, 56.8) and 33.2% (95% CI: -6.7, 58.2), respectively. In the all adults group, adjusted VE against influenza A/H1N1 was 72.5% (95% CI: 30.5, 89.1), against A/H3N2 was 86.1% (95% CI: 40.1, 96.8), against B/Victoria was 40.5% (95% CI: -28.9, 72.6), and against B/Yamagata was 32.3% (95% CI: -8.3, 57.7). The adjusted estimate of early season VE (from November 1 to March 11) was 54.4% (95% CI: 29.7-70.4), which was higher than late season (from March 11 to May 25) VE estimate (VE: 29.7%, 95% CI: -5.3, 53.1). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TIV was highly effective against A viruses and moderately effective against B viruses during a mild season characterised by co-circulation of four influenza strains in Canada. Findings underscore the need to provide VE assessment by subtype/lineage as well as the timing of vaccination (early season vs late season) to accurately evaluate vaccine performance and thus guide public health decision-making. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191. Registration was retrospective and the date of registration was January 17, 2012.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/patogenicidade , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135914

RESUMO

Being able to identify socially frail older adults is essential for designing interventions and policy and for the prediction of health outcomes, both on the level of individual older adults and of the population. The aim of the present study was to adapt the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) to the Dutch language and culture for those purposes. A systematic cross-cultural adaptation of the initial Social Vulnerability Index was performed following five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, a Delphi procedure, and a test for face validity and feasibility. The main result of this study is a face-valid 32 item Dutch version of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI-D) that is feasible in health care and social care settings. The SVI-D is a useful index to measure social frailty in Dutch-language countries and offers a broad, holistic quantification of older people's social circumstances related to the risk of adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Linguagem , Países Baixos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Populações Vulneráveis
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