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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 525-534, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622331

RESUMO

Split-hand-split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition that occurs in 1 in 8500-25,000 newborns and accounts for 15% of all limb reduction defects. SHFM is heterogeneous and can be isolated, associated with other malformations, or syndromic. The mode of inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Seven loci are currently known: SHFM1 at 7q21.2q22.1 (DLX5 gene), SHFM2 at Xq26, SHFM3 at 10q24q25, SHFM4 at 3q27 (TP63 gene), SHFM5 at 2q31 and SHFM6 as a result of variants in WNT10B (chromosome 12q13). Duplications at 17p13.3 are seen in SHFM when isolated or associated with long bone deficiency. Tandem genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24 involving at least the DACTYLIN gene are associated with SHFM3. No point variant in any of the genes residing within the region has been identified so far, but duplication of exon 1 of the BTRC gene may explain the phenotype, with likely complex alterations of gene regulation mechanisms that would impair limb morphogenesis. We report on 32 new index cases identified by array-CGH and/or by qPCR, including some prenatal ones, leading to termination for the most severe. Twenty-two cases were presenting with SHFM and 7 with monodactyly only. Three had an overlapping phenotype. Additional findings were identified in 5 (renal dysplasia, cutis aplasia, hypogonadism and agenesis of corpus callosum with hydrocephalus). We present their clinical and radiological findings and review the literature on this rearrangement that seems to be one of the most frequent cause of SHFM.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

3.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 85-93, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184170

RESUMO

Syndromes caused by copy number variations are described as reciprocal when they result from deletions or duplications of the same chromosomal region. When comparing the phenotypes of these syndromes, various clinical features could be described as reversed, probably due to the opposite effect of these imbalances on the expression of genes located at this locus. The NFIX gene codes for a transcription factor implicated in neurogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. Microdeletions and loss of function variants of NFIX are responsible for Sotos syndrome-2 (also described as Malan syndrome), a syndromic form of intellectual disability associated with overgrowth and macrocephaly. Here, we report a cohort of nine patients harboring microduplications encompassing NFIX. These patients exhibit variable intellectual disability, short stature and small head circumference, which can be described as a reversed Sotos syndrome-2 phenotype. Strikingly, such a reversed phenotype has already been described in patients harboring microduplications encompassing NSD1, the gene whose deletions and loss-of-function variants are responsible for classical Sotos syndrome. Even though the type/contre-type concept has been criticized, this model seems to give a plausible explanation for the pathogenicity of 19p13 microduplications, and the common phenotype observed in our cohort.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 39(2): 281-291, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193635

RESUMO

We report five individuals with loss-of-function of the X-linked AMMECR1: a girl with a balanced X-autosome translocation and inactivation of the normal X-chromosome; two boys with maternally inherited and de novo nonsense variants; and two half-brothers with maternally inherited microdeletion variants. They present with short stature, cardiac and skeletal abnormalities, and hearing loss. Variants of unknown significance in AMMECR1 in four male patients from two families with partially overlapping phenotypes were previously reported. AMMECR1 is coexpressed with genes implicated in cell cycle regulation, five of which were previously associated with growth and bone alterations. Our knockdown of the zebrafish orthologous gene resulted in phenotypes reminiscent of patients' features. The increased transcript and encoded protein levels of AMMECR1L, an AMMECR1 paralog, in the t(X;9) patient's cells indicate a possible partial compensatory mechanism. AMMECR1 and AMMECR1L proteins dimerize and localize to the nucleus as suggested by their nucleic acid-binding RAGNYA folds. Our results suggest that AMMECR1 is potentially involved in cell cycle control and linked to a new syndrome with growth, bone, heart, and kidney alterations with or without elliptocytosis.

6.
J Med Genet ; 54(9): 613-623, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) cause intellectual disability (ID) and specific language impairment (SLI), with or without autistic features (MIM: 613670). Despite multiple case reports no specific phenotype emerged so far. METHODS: We correlate clinical and molecular data of 25 novel and 23 previously reported patients with FOXP1 defects. We evaluated FOXP1 activity by an in vitro luciferase model and assessed protein stability in vitro by western blotting. RESULTS: Patients show ID, SLI, neuromotor delay (NMD) and recurrent facial features including a high broad forehead, bent downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis and/or blepharophimosis and a bulbous nasal tip. Behavioural problems and autistic features are common. Brain, cardiac and urogenital malformations can be associated. More severe ID and NMD, sensorineural hearing loss and feeding difficulties are more common in patients with interstitial 3p deletions (14 patients) versus patients with monogenic FOXP1 defects (34 patients). Mutations result in impaired transcriptional repression and/or reduced protein stability. CONCLUSIONS: FOXP1-related ID syndrome is a recognisable entity with a wide clinical spectrum and frequent systemic involvement. Our data will be helpful to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations when interpreting next-generation sequencing data obtained in patients with ID and/or SLI and will guide clinical management.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(8): 930-934, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612834

RESUMO

Sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) is a group of conditions in which individuals have an abnormal number of sex chromosomes. SCA, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, XYY syndrome, and Triple X syndrome are associated with a large range of neurological outcome. Another genetic event such as another cytogenetic abnormality may explain a part of this variable expressivity. In this study, we have recruited fourteen patients with intellectual disability or developmental delay carrying SCA associated with a copy-number variant (CNV). In our cohort (four patients 47,XXY, four patients 47,XXX, and six patients 47,XYY), seven patients were carrying a pathogenic CNV, two a likely pathogenic CNV and five a variant of uncertain significance. Our analysis suggests that CNV might be considered as an additional independent genetic factor for intellectual disability and developmental delay for patients with SCA and neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Trissomia/genética , Cariótipo XYY/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Cariótipo XYY/diagnóstico
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(6): 907-925, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575647

RESUMO

Yin and yang 1 (YY1) is a well-known zinc-finger transcription factor with crucial roles in normal development and malignancy. YY1 acts both as a repressor and as an activator of gene expression. We have identified 23 individuals with de novo mutations or deletions of YY1 and phenotypic features that define a syndrome of cognitive impairment, behavioral alterations, intrauterine growth restriction, feeding problems, and various congenital malformations. Our combined clinical and molecular data define "YY1 syndrome" as a haploinsufficiency syndrome. Through immunoprecipitation of YY1-bound chromatin from affected individuals' cells with antibodies recognizing both ends of the protein, we show that YY1 deletions and missense mutations lead to a global loss of YY1 binding with a preferential retention at high-occupancy sites. Finally, we uncover a widespread loss of H3K27 acetylation in particular on the YY1-bound enhancers, underscoring a crucial role for YY1 in enhancer regulation. Collectively, these results define a clinical syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of YY1 through dysregulation of key transcriptional regulators.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Acetilação , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Hemizigoto , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Fator de Transcrição YY1/química
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(8): 2268-2274, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599093

RESUMO

We report the clinical and molecular cytogenetic characterization of four unrelated patients from France and Spain, carrying 2p14 microdeletions and presenting with intellectual disability and dysmorphisms. 2p14 microdeletions are very rare. Seven patients have been reported so far harboring deletions including 2p14p15 and encompassing OTX1, whose haploinsufficiency is frequently associated with genitourinary defects. To date, only one patient has been reported carrying a more proximal 2p14 microdeletion which does not include OTX1. Here, we report three further patients carrying proximal 2p14 microdeletions not including OTX1 and one patient carrying a more distal 2p14p15 microdeletion including this gene, providing new insights into the associated phenotypic spectrum. First, our study and a review of the literature showed that 3/4 patients carrying proximal 2p14 microdeletions had sensorineural hearing loss, suggesting the presence of a previously unreported deafness-causing gene in this chromosomal region. Second, one patient developed a progressive cardiomyopathy, suggesting that a cardiac follow-up should be systematically warranted even in the absence of congenital heart disease. We speculate that ACTR2 and MEIS1 might respectively play a role in the pathogenesis of the observed deafness and cardiomyopathy. Third, we observed other previously unreported features such as glaucoma, retinopathy, and mild midline abnormalities including short corpus callosum, hypospadias and anteriorly placed anus. Finally, the patient carrying a 2p14p15 deletion including OTX1 had normal kidneys and genitalia, thus confirming that OTX1 haploinsufficiency is not invariably associated with genitourinary defects. In conclusion, our study contributes significantly to delineate the phenotypic spectrum of 2p14 microdeletions.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 Relacionada a Actina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Meis1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , França , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/complicações , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Espanha
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(6): 1690-1693, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398607

RESUMO

Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is caused by the loss of 11p13 region including PAX6 and WT1. We report novel findings in a 28-month-old boy with aniridia, Wilm's tumor, congenital hypothyroidism, and sublingual thyroid ectopia. He was found to have a mosaic 5.28 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 11p13 deleting PAX6 and WT1. In order to clarify the mechanism underlying his thyroid dysgenesis, sequence analysis of candidate thyroid developmental genes was performed. We identified a FOXE1: c.532_537delGCCGCC p.(Ala178_Ala179del) variant that predisposes to thyroid ectopia. Taken together, this is the first report of mosaic 11p13 deletion in association with thyroid dysgenesis. We also propose a model of complex interactions of different genetic variants for this particular phenotype in the present patient.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Disgenesia da Tireoide/genética , Síndrome WAGR/genética , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Fenótipo , Disgenesia da Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Síndrome WAGR/fisiopatologia , Proteínas WT1/genética
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(6): 694-701, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422132

RESUMO

16q24 deletion involving the ANKRD11 gene, ranging from 137 kb to 2 Mb, have been associated with a microdeletion syndrome characterized by variable cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms with dental anomalies, brain abnormalities essentially affecting the corpus callosum and short stature. On the other hand, patients carrying either deletions encompassing solely ANKRD11 or its loss-of-function variants were reported in association with the KBG syndrome, characterized by a very similar phenotype, including mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, short stature and macrodontia of upper incisors, with inter and intrafamilial variability. To assess whether the haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11-flanking genes, such as ZFPM1, CDH15 and ZNF778, contributed to either the severity of the neurological impairment or was associated with other clinical features, we collected 12 new cases with a 16q24.2q24.3 deletion (de novo in 11 cases), ranging from 343 kb to 2.3 Mb. In 11 of them, the deletion involved the ANKRD11 gene, whereas in 1 case only flanking genes upstream to it were deleted. By comparing the clinical and genetic features of our patients with those previously reported, we show that the severity of the neurological phenotype and the frequency of congenital heart defects characterize the deletions that, besides ANKRD11, contain ZFPM1, CDH15 and ZNF778 as well. Moreover, the presence of thrombocytopenia and astigmatism should be taken into account to distinguish between 16q24 microdeletion syndrome and KBG syndrome. The single patient not deleted for ANKRD11, whose phenotype is characterized by milder psychomotor delay, cardiac congenital malformation, thrombocytopenia and astigmatism, confirms all this data.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Caderinas/genética , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 463-479, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283832

RESUMO

Subtelomeric 1q43q44 microdeletions cause a syndrome associating intellectual disability, microcephaly, seizures and anomalies of the corpus callosum. Despite several previous studies assessing genotype-phenotype correlations, the contribution of genes located in this region to the specific features of this syndrome remains uncertain. Among those, three genes, AKT3, HNRNPU and ZBTB18 are highly expressed in the brain and point mutations in these genes have been recently identified in children with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In this study, we report the clinical and molecular data from 17 patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions, four with ZBTB18 mutations and seven with HNRNPU mutations, and review additional data from 37 previously published patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions. We compare clinical data of patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions with those of patients with point mutations in HNRNPU and ZBTB18 to assess the contribution of each gene as well as the possibility of epistasis between genes. Our study demonstrates that AKT3 haploinsufficiency is the main driver for microcephaly, whereas HNRNPU alteration mostly drives epilepsy and determines the degree of intellectual disability. ZBTB18 deletions or mutations are associated with variable corpus callosum anomalies with an incomplete penetrance. ZBTB18 may also contribute to microcephaly and HNRNPU to thin corpus callosum, but with a lower penetrance. Co-deletion of contiguous genes has additive effects. Our results confirm and refine the complex genotype-phenotype correlations existing in the 1qter microdeletion syndrome and define more precisely the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with genetic alterations of AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU in humans.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Humanos
14.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 377-386, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251352

RESUMO

Impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome system activity involving ubiquitin ligase genes UBE3A, UBE3B, and HUWE1 and deubiquitinating enzyme genes USP7 and USP9X has been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental delays. To date, only a handful of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involving TRIP12, encoding a member of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases family on chromosome 2q36.3 have been reported. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we have identified, respectively, five deletion CNVs and four inactivating SNVs (two frameshifts, one missense, and one splicing) in TRIP12. Seven of these variants were found to be de novo; parental studies could not be completed in two families. Quantitative PCR analyses of the splicing mutation showed a dramatically decreased level of TRIP12 mRNA in the proband compared to the family controls, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. The shared clinical features include intellectual disability with or without autistic spectrum disorders, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Our findings demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 plays an important role in nervous system development and function. The nine presented pathogenic variants further document that TRIP12 haploinsufficiency causes a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Finally, our data enable expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of ubiquitin-proteasome dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Facies , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(2): 435-443, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862890

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations and deletions of the SOX2 gene are known to cause uni- and bilateral anophthalmia and microphthalmia as well as related disorders such as anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome. Thus, anophthalmia/microphthalmia is the primary indication for targeted, "phenotype first" analyses of SOX2. However, SOX2 mutations are also associated with a wide range of non-ocular abnormalities, such as postnatal growth retardation, structural brain anomalies, hypogenitalism, and developmental delay. The present report describes three patients without anophthalmia/microphthalmia and loss-of-function mutations or microdeletions of SOX2 who had been investigated in a "genotype first" manner due to intellectual disability/developmental delay using whole exome sequencing or chromosomal microarray analyses. This result prompted us to perform SOX2 Sanger sequencing in 192 developmental delay/intellectual disability patients without anophthalmia or microphthalmia. No additional SOX2 loss-of-function mutations were detected in this cohort, showing that SOX2 is clearly not a major cause of intellectual disability without anophthalmia/microphthalmia. In our three patients and four further, reported "genotype first" SOX2 microdeletion patients, anophthalmia/microphthalmia was present in less than half of the patients. Thus, SOX2 is another example of a gene whose clinical spectrum is broadened by the generation of "genotype first" findings using hypothesis-free, genome-wide methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Exoma , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
17.
Nat Genet ; 48(11): 1359-1369, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668656

RESUMO

TSHZ3, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor, was recently positioned as a hub gene in a module of the genes with the highest expression in the developing human neocortex, but its functions remained unknown. Here we identify TSHZ3 as the critical region for a syndrome associated with heterozygous deletions at 19q12-q13.11, which includes autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In Tshz3-null mice, differentially expressed genes include layer-specific markers of cerebral cortical projection neurons (CPNs), and the human orthologs of these genes are strongly associated with ASD. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Tshz3 show functional changes at synapses established by CPNs and exhibit core ASD-like behavioral abnormalities. These findings highlight essential roles for Tshz3 in CPN development and function, whose alterations can account for ASD in the newly defined TSHZ3 deletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neocórtex/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19 , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Neocórtex/embriologia , Neurogênese/genética , Sinapses/genética
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(10): 502-6, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27633570

RESUMO

There are no published reports of patients harboring microdeletions involving the 7p22.1 region. Although 7p22.1 microdeletions are rare, some reports have shown microduplications encompassing this region. In this study, we report five patients with overlapping deletions of the 7p22.1 region. The patients exhibited clinical similarities including non-specific developmental delay, short stature, microcephaly, and other distinctive features. The shortest region of overlap within the 7p22.1 region includes five genes, FBXL18, ACTB, FSCN1, RNF216, and ZNF815P. Of these genes, only ACTB is known to be associated with an autosomal dominant trait. Dominant negative mutations in ACTB are responsible for Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1. We analyzed ACTB expression in immortalized lymphocytes derived from one of the patients and found that it was reduced to approximately half that observed in controls. This indicates that ACTB expression is linearly correlated with the gene copy number. We suggest that haploinsufficiency of ACTB may be responsible for the clinical features of patients with 7p22.1 microdeletions.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Nanismo/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Actinas/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Nanismo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(3): 540-554, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27569545

RESUMO

Rare mutations, including copy-number variants (CNVs), contribute significantly to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Although their importance has been established in families with only one affected child (simplex families), the contribution of both de novo and inherited CNVs to ASD in families with multiple affected individuals (multiplex families) is less well understood. We analyzed 1,532 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) to assess the impact of de novo and rare CNVs on ASD risk in multiplex families. We observed a higher burden of large, rare CNVs, including inherited events, in individuals with ASD than in their unaffected siblings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7), but the rate of de novo events was significantly lower than in simplex families. In previously characterized ASD risk loci, we identified 49 CNVs, comprising 24 inherited events, 19 de novo events, and 6 events of unknown inheritance, a significant enrichment in affected versus control individuals (OR = 3.3). In 21 of the 30 families (71%) in whom at least one affected sibling harbored an established ASD major risk CNV, including five families harboring inherited CNVs, the CNV was not shared by all affected siblings, indicating that other risk factors are contributing. We also identified a rare risk locus for ASD and language delay at chromosomal region 2q24 (implicating NR4A2) and another lower-penetrance locus involving inherited deletions and duplications of WWOX. The genetic architecture in multiplex families differs from that in simplex families and is complex, warranting more complete genetic characterization of larger multiplex ASD cohorts.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Oxirredutases/genética , Penetrância , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Irmãos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Regiões não Traduzidas/genética , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW
20.
Epilepsia Open ; 1(3-4): 140-144, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588938

RESUMO

We report on a child, aged 47/12 years, with borderline intelligence quotient, normal brain magnetic resonance imaging, and focal epilepsy. The polysomnographic electroencephalogram recording revealed asynchronous central spikes at both brain hemispheres resembling the features observed in focal idiopathic epileptic syndromes. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed a 32-kb partial deletion of the DEP domain-containing protein 5 (DEPDC5) gene, involved in a wide spectrum of inherited focal epileptic syndromes. The parental origin of the deletion could not be fully ascertained because the pregnancy had been achieved through anonymous egg donation and insemination by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, we demonstrate that the deletion, shared by all alternatively spliced isoforms of DEPDC5, produces a transcript presumably generating a DEPDC5 protein missing the entire DEP domain. Our findings suggest that partial deletion of DEPDC5 may be sufficient to cause the focal epilepsy in our patient, highlighting the importance of the DEP domain in DEPDC5 function. This study expands the phenotypic spectrum of DEPDC5 to sporadic forms of focal idiopathic epilepsy and underscores the fact that partial deletions, albeit probably very rare, are part of the genetic spectrum of DEPDC5 mutations.

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