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1.
Acad Med ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges defined 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) that all graduating students should be ready to do with indirect supervision upon entering residency and commissioned a 10-school, 5-year pilot to test implementing the Core EPAs framework. In 2019, pilot schools convened trained entrustment groups (TEGs) to review assessment data and render theoretical summative entrustment decisions for class of 2019 graduates. Results were examined to determine the extent to which entrustment decisions could be made and the nature of these decisions. METHOD: For each EPA considered (4-13 per student), TEGs recorded an entrustment determination (ready, progressing but not yet ready, evidence against student progressing, could not make a decision); confidence in that determination (none, low, moderate, high); and the number of workplace-based assessments (WBAs) considered (0 - ≥15) per determination. These individual student-level data were de-identified and merged into a multischool database; Chi-squares tested the significance of associations between variables. RESULTS: The 2,415 EPA-specific determinations (for 349 students by 4 participating schools) resulted in a decision of ready (n = 997/2,415; 41.3%), progressing but not yet ready (n = 558/2,415; 23.1%), or with evidence against student progression (n = 175/2,415; 7.2%). No decision could be made for the remaining 28.4% (685/2,415), generally for lack of data. Entrustment determinations' distribution varied across EPAs (Chi-square P < .001) and, for 10/13 EPAs, WBAs availability was associated with making (vs. not making) entrustment decisions (each Chi-square P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: TEGs were able to make many decisions about readiness for indirect supervision; yet less than half of determinations resulted in a decision of readiness for entrustment to perform this EPA with indirect supervision." More work is needed at the 10 schools to enable authentic summative entrustment in the Core EPAs framework.

2.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S14-S21, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183597

RESUMO

The Core EPAs for Entering Residency Pilot project aimed to test the feasibility of implementing 13 entrustable professional activities (EPAs) at 10 U.S. medical schools and to gauge whether the use of the Core EPAs could improve graduates' performance early in residency. In this manuscript, the authors (members of the pilot institutions and Association of American Medical Colleges staff supporting the project evaluation) describe the schools' capacity to collect multimodal evidence about their students' performance in each of the Core EPAs and the ability of faculty committees to use those data to make decisions regarding learners' readiness for entrustment. In reviewing data for each of the Core EPAs, the authors reflected on how each activity performed as an EPA informed by how well it could be assessed and entrusted. For EPAs that did not perform well, the authors examined whether there are underlying practical and/or theoretical issues limiting its utility as a measure of student performance in medical school.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Comportamento Cooperativo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Documentação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Relações Interprofissionais , Anamnese , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Exame Físico , Projetos Piloto , Gestão da Segurança
4.
Acad Med ; 96(4): 486-489, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496430

RESUMO

Support of the U.S. health professions investigator workforce is critically important to the continued advancement of health care nationally. Physician-investigators comprise one segment of this health professions investigator workforce, which also includes investigators in the nursing, pharmacy, and dentistry professions, and others. Among physician health professionals in particular, the term "physician-investigator" has been described as encompassing physicians engaged in research in various ways including "clinical researchers" (physicians with clinical duties who do clinical, patient-centered research), "clinician-scientists" (physicians with clinical roles who perform research in laboratories or using computational tools), and "physician-scientists" (physicians focused on research with little or no clinical activity). Broadly defined, physician-investigators are included in various groups of researchers described in several articles recently published in Academic Medicine; these articles provide details on a range of approaches, with supporting outcomes data, being taken to train, support, and retain physicians in the health professions investigator workforce. The authors of this commentary examine selected literature, including several articles in this issue among others, along with Association of American Medical Colleges data, to offer observations about programs that train physician-investigators. Evidence-informed single-program approaches for early-career researchers can sustain continued research interest and foster the career development of the emerging physician-investigator workforce. Collaborative multi-institutional approaches offer the benefit of multisite work to power outcomes studies and to increase generalizability beyond a specific institutional program. System-wide institutional approaches may be particularly critical in supporting physician-investigators across all career stages. Although the articles discussed in this commentary are largely (although not exclusively) focused on various initiatives and programs designed to develop and sustain the physician-investigator workforce, such initiatives and programs may have value in addressing shared challenges of developing, supporting, and retaining the broader investigator workforce across all health professions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Escolha da Profissão , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Médicos/provisão & distribuição , Pesquisadores/educação , Pesquisadores/provisão & distribuição , Recursos Humanos/tendências , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Acad Med ; 96(4): 540-548, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if specialty, among other professional development and demographic variables, predicted MD-PhD program graduates' research engagement. METHOD: The authors merged the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) National MD-PhD Program Outcomes Survey database with selected data from the AAMC Student Records System, Graduation Questionnaire, and Graduate Medical Education (GME) Track Resident Survey. At the person level, they tested variables of interest for independent associations with MD-PhD graduates' research engagement using chi-square, Pearson correlations, and analysis of variance tests and logistic and linear regressions. RESULTS: Of 3,297 MD-PhD graduates from 1991-2010 who were no longer in GME training in 2015, 78.0% (2,572/3,297) reported research engagement. In models controlling for several variables, a neurology (vs internal medicine; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-3.86) or pathology (vs internal medicine; AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.33-2.68) specialty, full-time faculty/research scientist career intention at graduation (vs all other career intentions; AOR: 3.04; 95% CI: 2.16-4.28), and ≥ 1 year of GME research (vs no GME research year[s]; AOR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.96-3.06) predicted a greater likelihood of research engagement. Among graduates engaged in research, the mean percentage of research time was 49.9% (standard deviation 30.1%). Participation in ≥ 1 year of GME research (beta [ß] coefficient: 7.99, P < .001) predicted a higher percentage of research time, whereas a radiation oncology (ß: -28.70), diagnostic radiology (ß: -32.92), or surgery (ß: -29.61) specialty, among others, predicted a lower percentage of research time (each P < .001 vs internal medicine). CONCLUSIONS: Most MD-PhD graduates were engaged in research, but the extent of their engagement varied substantially among specialties. Across specialties, participation in research during GME may be one factor that sustains MD-PhD graduates' subsequent early- to midcareer research engagement.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/educação , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Surg ; 271(3): 590-597, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between participation in ≥1 year of research during general surgery residency and each of full-time academic-medicine faculty appointment and mentored-K and/or Research Project Grant (RPG, including R01 and other) awards. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Many surgeons participate in ≥1 year of research during residency; however, the relationship between such dedicated research during general surgery residency and surgeons' career paths has not been investigated in a national study. METHODS: We analyzed deidentified data through August 2014 from the Association of American Medical Colleges, American Board of Medical Specialties, and the National Institutes of Health Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination II grants database for 1997 to 2004 US medical-school graduates who completed ≥5 years of general surgery graduate medical education (GME) and became board-certified surgeons. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we identified independent predictors of faculty appointment and K/RPG award, reporting adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Of 5328 board-certified surgeons, there were 1848 (34.7%) GME-research participants, 1658 (31.1%) faculty appointees, and 58 (1.1%) K/RPG awardees. Controlling for sex, debt, MD/PhD graduation, and other variables, GME-research participants were more likely to have received faculty appointments (AOR 1.790; 95% CI 1.573-2.037) and federal K/RPG awards (AOR 4.596; 95% CI 2.355-8.969). CONCLUSIONS: Nationally, general surgery GME-research participation was independently associated with faculty appointment and K/RPG award receipt. These findings serve as benchmarks for general surgery residency programs aiming to prepare trainees for careers as academicians and surgeon-scientists.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Adulto , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
7.
Acad Med ; 94(2): 227-236, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Competing risk methodology was used to identify variables associated with promotion and attrition of newly appointed full-time instructors or assistant professors in U.S. MD-granting medical schools. METHOD: A national sample of U.S. MD-granting medical school graduates in calendar years 1997-2004 who received initial full-time instructor or assistant professor appointments from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012, was followed through December 31, 2013. Adjusted proportional subdistribution hazard ratios (aSHRs) measured the effects of demographic, educational, and institutional variables on promotion and attrition. RESULTS: The final study sample included 27,219 full-time instructors (n = 10,470) and assistant professors (n = 16,749). In all models (entire sample and stratified by initial rank), faculty who reported all other (vs. full-time faculty) career intentions at graduation and were underrepresented racial/ethnic minority (vs. white) faculty had lower aSHRs for promotion and greater aSHRs for attrition, whereas research-intensive (vs. non-research-intensive) medical school graduates, faculty at schools without a tenure track, and mentored K awardees had greater aSHRs for promotion and lower aSHRs for attrition. In all models, faculty with ≥ $100,000 (vs. no) debt at graduation had greater aSHRs for attrition. Among instructors, women had lower aSHRs for attrition than men, but among assistant professors, women had greater aSHRs for attrition. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds new knowledge about career trajectories of academic medicine faculty initially appointed as full-time instructors. Career development interventions and research mentoring during and after medical school and debt reduction programs could help increase academic medicine faculty retention and promotion.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
8.
J Investig Med ; 66(2): 340-350, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954846

RESUMO

The size and diversity of the physician-scientist workforce are issues of national concern. In this retrospective, national cohort study of US medical school matriculants who graduated in 1997-2004, we describe the prevalence and predictors of federal F32, mentored-K, and R01 awards among physicians. In multivariable logistic regression models, we identified demographic, educational, and professional development variables independently associated with each award through August 2014, reporting adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (AOR (95% CI)). Among 117,119 graduates with complete data (97.7% of 119,906 graduates in 1997-2004), 509 (0.4%) received F32, 1740 (1.5%) received mentored-K, and 597 (0.5%) received R01 awards. Adjusting for all variables except US Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores, black (vs white) graduates were less likely to receive F32 (0.48 (0.28-0.82)), mentored-K (0.56 (0.43-0.72)), and R01 (0.48 (0.28-0.82)) awards; Hispanic graduates were less likely to receive mentored-K awards (0.68 (0.52-0.88)), and women less likely to receive F32 (0.81 (0.67-0.98)) and R01 (0.59 (0.49-0.71)) awards. After adding Step 1 scores, these race/ethnicity effects were not significant, but women (0.62 (0.51-0.75)) were still less likely to receive R01 awards. Graduates reporting both (vs neither) medical school research elective and authorship were more likely to receive F32 (1.89 (1.45-2.48)), mentored-K (2.48 (2.13-2.88)), and R01 (2.00 (1.54-2.60)) awards. Prior F32 (2.17 (1.46-3.21)) and mentored-K (28.08 (22.94-34.38)) awardees more likely received R01 awards. Findings highlight the need for research-experiential interventions along the medical education continuum to promote greater participation and diversity of US medical graduates in the federally funded, biomedical research workforce.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Acad Med ; 92(10): 1440-1448, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767497

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mentored K (K01/K08/K23) career development awards are positively associated with physicians' success as independent investigators; however, individuals in some racial/ethnic groups are less likely to receive this federal funding. The authors sought to identify variables that explain (mediate) the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award receipt among U.S. Liaison Committee for Medical Education-accredited medical school graduates who planned research-related careers. METHOD: The authors analyzed deidentified data from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Institutes of Health Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination II grants database for a national cohort of 28,690 graduates from 1997-2004 who planned research-related careers, followed through August 2014. The authors examined 10 potential mediators (4 research activities, 2 academic performance measures, medical school research intensity, degree program, debt, and specialty) of the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award receipt in models comparing underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM) and non-URM graduates. RESULTS: Among 27,521 graduates with complete data (95.9% of study-eligible graduates), 1,147 (4.2%) received mentored K awards (79/3,341 [2.4%] URM; 1,068/24,180 [4.4%] non-URM). All variables except debt were significant mediators; together they explained 96.2% (95%, CI 79.1%-100%) of the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award. CONCLUSIONS: Research-related activities during/after medical school and standardized academic measures largely explained the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award in this national cohort. Interventions targeting these mediators could mitigate racial/ethnic disparities in the federally funded physician-scientist research workforce.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pesquisadores/economia , Estados Unidos
12.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 16(2)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572179

RESUMO

Do summer laboratory research apprenticeships during high school have an impact on entry into MD/PhD programs? Apart from the nearly decade-long span of time between high school and matriculation into an MD/PhD program, young people have many life-shaping experiences that presumably impact their education and career trajectories. This quantitative study (n = 236,432) examines the connection between early laboratory research apprenticeship experiences at the high school level and matriculation into one of the more rigorous educational programs for scientific research training. The span of time covered by this analysis reaches across more than a decade, examining the potential importance of research experiences during the precollege years in the educational trajectory of young people. Intertwined with this question on research experiences is a second major concern regarding diversity in the life sciences research corps. Diversity in this wide-ranging discipline refers specifically to the underrepresentation of Blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latino/as, and American Indians/Alaska Natives among the ranks of research scientists. Thus, this study includes analyses that specifically focus on research apprenticeships of Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latino/as and their entrance into MD/PhD programs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas
14.
Med Educ Online ; 21: 30941, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The authors sought to identify variables associated with MD-PhD program graduates' academic medicine careers. METHODS: We analyzed data for a national cohort of MD-PhD program graduates from 2000 to 2005, using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full-time academic medicine faculty appointment through 2013. RESULTS: Of 1,860 MD-PhD program graduates in 2000-2005, we included 1,846 (99.2%) who had completed residency training before 2014. Of these 1,846 graduates, 968 (52.4%) held full-time faculty appointments. Graduates who attended schools with Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) funding (vs. no MSTP funding; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.74) and participated in ≥1 year of research during residency (vs. no documented research year; aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.50-2.28) were more likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Asian/Pacific Islander (aOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93) and under-represented minority (URM; aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.98) graduates (each vs. white graduates), graduates who reported total debt of ≥$100,000 (vs. no debt) at graduation (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88), and graduates in surgical practice (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84) and other practice (aOR, 0.66, 95% CI, 0.54-0.81) specialties (each vs. 'medicine, pediatrics, pathology, or neurology') were less likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Gender was not independently associated with likelihood of full-time faculty appointment. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of all MD-PhD program graduates in our study had full-time faculty appointments. Our findings regarding variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointments can inform the design of strategies to promote academic medicine career choice among MD-PhD program graduates. Further research is warranted to identify other factors amenable to intervention, in addition to those included in our study, which will foster the further development of a diverse academic medicine physician-scientist workforce nationally.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Med Educ Online ; 20: 27231, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26109082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prevalence of college laboratory research apprenticeship (CLRA) participation among students considering medical careers and to examine the relationship between CLRA participation and medical-school acceptance among students who applied to medical school. METHODS: We used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of: 1) CLRA participation in a national cohort of 2001-2006 Pre-Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) Questionnaire (PMQ) respondents and 2) among those PMQ respondents who subsequently applied to medical school, medical-school acceptance by June 2013, reporting adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Of 213,497 PMQ respondents in the study sample (81.2% of all 262,813 PMQ respondents in 2001-2006), 72,797 (34.1%) reported CLRA participation. Each of under-represented minorities in medicine (URM) race/ethnicity (vs. white, aOR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), Asian/Pacific Islander race/ethnicity (vs. white, aOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.17-1.22), and high school summer laboratory research apprenticeship (HSLRA) participation (aOR: 3.95; 95% CI: 3.84-4.07) predicted a greater likelihood of CLRA participation. Of the 213,497 PMQ respondents in the study sample, 144,473 (67.7%) had applied to medical school and 87,368 (60.5% of 144,473 medical-school applicants) had been accepted to medical school. Each of female gender (vs. male, aOR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.16-1.22), URM race/ethnicity (vs. white, aOR: 3.91; 95% CI: 3.75-4.08), HSLRA participation (aOR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19), CLRA participation (aOR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.09-1.15), college summer academic enrichment program participation (aOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21-1.31), and higher MCAT score (per point increase, aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.30-1.31) predicted a greater likelihood of medical-school acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: About one-third of all PMQ respondents had participated in CLRAs prior to taking the MCAT, and such participation was one of the several variables identified that were independently associated with medical-school acceptance.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Critérios de Admissão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
16.
J Best Pract Health Prof Divers ; 8(1): 1036-1048, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019874

RESUMO

There is a critical need for enhanced health-professions workforce diversity to drive excellence and to improve access to quality care for vulnerable and underserved populations. In the current higher education environment, post-baccalaureate premedical programs with a special focus on diversity, sustained through consistent institutional funding, may be an effective institutional strategy to promote greater health professions workforce diversity, particularly physician-workforce diversity. In 2014, 71 of the 200 programs (36%) in a national post-baccalaureate premedical programs data base identified themselves as having a special focus on groups underrepresented in medicine and/or on economically or educationally disadvantaged students. Three post-baccalaureate premedical programs with this focus are described in detail and current and future challenges and opportunities for post-baccalaureate premedical programs are discussed.

18.
Acad Med ; 89(10): 1398-407, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25006709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MD-PhD scientists are a successful, but small and fairly homogenous group of biomedical researchers. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify predictors of MD-PhD program enrollment to inform evidence-based strategies to increase the size and diversity of the biomedical research workforce. METHOD: Using deidentified data from all 2001-2006 Pre-Medical College Admission Test Questionnaire (PMQ) respondents, they developed multivariate logistic regression models to identify demographic, experiential, and attitudinal variables associated with MD-PhD program enrollment at matriculation compared with all other MD program enrollment at matriculation and with not enrolling in medical school by August 2012. RESULTS: Of 207,436 PMQ respondents with complete data for all variables of interest, 2,575 (1.2%) were MD-PhD program enrollees, 80,856 (39.0%) were other MD program enrollees, and 124,005 (59.8%) were non-medical-school matriculants. Respondents who were black (versus white), were high school and college laboratory research apprenticeship participants, and highly endorsed the importance of research/finding cures as reasons to study medicine were more likely to be MD-PhD program enrollees, whereas respondents who highly endorsed the status of medicine as a reason to study medicine were less likely to be MD-PhD program enrollees than either other MD program enrollees or non-medical-school matriculants. CONCLUSIONS: MD-PhD program directors succeed in enrolling students whose attitudes and interests align with MD-PhD program goals. Continued efforts are needed to promote MD-PhD workforce diversity and the value of high school and college research apprenticeships for students considering careers as physician-scientists.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Admissão Acadêmica , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Preceptoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Washington
19.
Acad Med ; 89(1): 84-93, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24280845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe educational outcomes for a national cohort of students who enrolled in MD-PhD programs at medical school matriculation (MD-PhD matriculants). METHOD: The authors used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with overall MD-PhD program attrition (MD-only graduation or medical school withdrawal/dismissal) compared with MD-PhD program graduation among the 1995-2000 national cohort of MD-PhD matriculants at medical schools with and without Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) support. RESULTS: Of 2,582 MD-PhD matriculants, 1,885 (73.0%) were MD-PhD graduates, 597 (23.1%) were MD-only graduates, and 100 (3.9%) withdrew/were dismissed from medical school by July 2011. MD-PhD matriculants at non-MSTP-funded schools (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.41) and who had lower Medical College Admission Test scores (< 31 versus ≥ 36: AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.20-2.14; 31-33 versus ≥ 36: AOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.70) were more likely to leave the MD-PhD program; matriculants who reported greater planned career involvement in research (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.84) and matriculated more recently (AOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96) were less likely to leave the MD-PhD program. Gender, race/ethnicity, and premedical debt were not independently associated with overall MD-PhD program attrition. CONCLUSIONS: Most MD-PhD matriculants completed the MD-PhD program; most of those who left were MD-only graduates. Findings regarding variables associated with attrition can inform efforts to recruit and support students through successful completion of MD-PhD program requirements.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Educação Médica , Escolaridade , Faculdades de Medicina , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Bull Sci Technol Soc ; 33(3-4): 76-84, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166928

RESUMO

This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, academic and emotional interactions from family and teachers in various stages essentially affected students' persistence in the biomedical science field. In addition, co-mentorship among peers, departmental environment, and volunteer experiences were other essential factors. This study also found related experiences among women and underrepresented minority students that were important to their academic pursuit.

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