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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) are a common problem among healthcare workers (HCWs). Although the factors related to NSSIs for HCWs are well documented by several studies in Ethiopia, no evidence has been reported about the magnitude of and factors related to NSSIs in hospitals in northwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out from January to March 2019 among 318 HCWs in three randomly-selected hospitals of the eight hospitals found in South Gondar Zone. Sample sizes were proportionally allocated to professional categories. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling methods using the monthly salary payroll for each profession as the sampling frame. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The outcome of this study was the presence (injured) or absence of NSSIs during the 12 months prior to data collection. A binary logistic regression model with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used for data analysis. Variables from the bi-variable analysis with a p-value ≤ 0.25 were retained into the multivariable analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables with a p-value less than 0.05 was declared as factors significantly associated with NSSIs. MAIN FINDINGS: The prevalence of NSSIs was 29.5% (95% CI: 24.2-35.5%) during the 12 months prior to the survey. Of these, 46.0% reported that their injuries were moderate, superficial (33.3%) or severe (20.7%). About 41.4% of the injuries were caused by a suture needle. Factors significantly associated with NSSIs were occupation as a nurse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.18-4.26), disposal of sharp materials in places other than in safety boxes (AOR = 3.93, 95% CI: 2.10-5.35), recapping of needles (AOR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.56), and feeling sleepy at work (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.14-4.41). CONCLUSION: This study showed that almost one-third of HCWs had sustained NSSIs, a proportion that is high. Factors significantly associated with NSSIs were occupation as a nurse, habit of needle recapping, disposal of sharp materials in places other than in safety boxes and feeling sleepy at work. Observing proper and regular universal precautions for nurses during daily clinical activities and providing safety boxes for the disposal of sharp materials, practicing mechanical needle recapping and preventing sleepiness by reducing work overload among HCWs may reduce the incidence of NSSIs.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26818, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397841

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hypertension is the leading cause of increased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Despite adherence to therapies is the important determinant of treatment success to reduce apparent resistant hypertension, maintaining good adherence to antihypertensive medications remained the most serious challenge. Thus, this study aimed to assess adherence to antihypertensive medications among adult hypertensive patients in Dessie Referral Hospital.A cross-sectional study design was conducted among hypertensive patients during May and June 2020. The study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 4.4 and exported to SPSS version 25.0 software for data cleaning and analysis. Data were analyzed using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression at a 95% confidence interval (CI). A variable that has a P-value < .05 was declared as statistically significant. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to test goodness-of-fit and multicollinearity was tested.The overall good adherence to antihypertensive medications was 51.9%; 95% CI: (46.8-58.3%) and poor adherence was 48.1%. Factors associated with good adherence were: sex-female adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.31; 95% CI (1.06-2.52), occupational status-employed AOR = 2.24; 95% CI (1.33-3.72), good knowledge of the disease AOR = 2.20; 95% CI (1.34-3.72) and good self-efficacy AOR = 1.38; 95% CI (1.20-2.13).This study revealed that almost half of the hypertensive patients in Dessie Referral Hospital had good antihypertensive medication adherence. Sex, occupational status, knowledge, and self-efficacy were factors associated with good adherence. Therefore, health education should be given to patients on the importance of complying with medication and patients should be monitored by health extension workers.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Causalidade , Indicadores de Doenças Crônicas , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Fatores Sexuais
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have been conducted on COVID-19 knowledge, attitude and prevention practices among healthcare workers and the general population, there has not been any study among taxi drivers in Ethiopia, including Dessie City and Kombolcha Town, the lack of which hinders providing evidence-based interventions to this target group. Thus, this study was designed to contribute to proper planning of COVID-19 intervention measures among taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town during July to August, 2020. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire and an observational checklist. The collected data was checked, coded and entered to EpiData version 4.6 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 for data cleaning and analysis. The outcome variables of this study were good or poor knowledge, positive or negative attitude and good or poor frequent hand hygiene practices towards COVID-19. Bivariate (Crude Odds Ratio [COR]) and multivariable (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]) logistic regression analysis were employed to identify factors significantly associated with good knowledge, positive attitude and good frequent hand hygiene practices among taxi drivers. Significance level of variables was declared at a p < 0.05 from the adjusted analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: Out of the total 417 taxi drivers, 69.8% [95% CI: 65.2-73.9], 67.6% [95%CI: 63.1-72.2] and 66.4% [95% CI: 62.1-71.0] of the drivers had good knowledge, positive attitude and good frequent hand hygiene practices, respectively. Educational level (AOR = 7.55, 95% CI = 4.55-12.54), place of residence (AOR = 5.41, 95% CI = 1.4-20.08) and attitude towards COVID-19 prevention (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.02-2.74) were factors associated with good knowledge about COVID-19. Further, age of taxi drivers greater than 30 years (AOR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.76-5.13), educational level of secondary or above (AOR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.88-5.31), income (AOR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.48-7.61), and knowledge about COVID-19 (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.21-3.54) were factors associated with positive attitude towards COVID-19 prevention. In addition, attitude towards COVID-19 (AOR = 5.5, 95% CI = 3.40-8.88) and educational level (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.15-2.95) were the factors associated with good frequent hand hygiene practices. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the rates of good knowledge, positive attitude and good frequent hand hygiene practices were relatively low among taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. We strongly recommended providing training about COVID-19 prevention measures for taxi drivers that considers age, education status and attitude areas essential to improve their knowledge, attitude and frequent hand hygiene practices to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transportes , Adulto , Condução de Veículo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255824, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are the most common psychiatric complication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. They are associated with poor drug adherence, treatment failure, and increase the risk for suicide. There was limited evidence of depressive symptoms among HIV-positive patients in the study area. So, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among HIV-positive patients attending public health facilities of Dessie town, North-central Ethiopia, 2019. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 HIV-positive patients attending ART clinics in Dessie town, North-central Ethiopia, 2019. Samples were selected using systematic random sampling and the data were collected by using structured, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at a cut-off point of 5 was used to assess depressive symptoms. The data were entered by Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 25. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) along with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to measure the association. The level of significance was declared at a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULT: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among HIV positive patients was 15.5% (95% CI: (12.4%, 19.2%)). Age 40-49 years compared to 30-39 years (AOR = 2.96, 95% CI: (1.01, 8.68)), age ≥50 years compared to 30-39 years (AOR = 3.81, 95% CI: (1.05, 13.8)), having perceived stigma (AOR = 10.2, 95%CI: (4.26, 24.4)) taking medication other than Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: (1.25, 5.33)) and history of opportunistic infections (AOR = 5.17, 95% CI: (1.31, 20.4)) were factors associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was low compared to previous studies. Age, perceived stigma, taking medication other than ART, and history of opportunistic infections were factors associated with depressive symptoms. Health education and counseling programs should be strengthened and target older patients, patients who took medications other than ART, patients who experienced perceived stigma and patients with a history of history opportunistic infections.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247954, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out that urban taxi drivers and their passengers are at higher risk of transmitting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) due to frequent contact among many people. Facemask wearing is one of the preventive measures recommended to control the transmission of the virus. A lack of evidence of the proportion of facemask wearing among taxi drivers and associated factors in Ethiopia, including Dessie City and Kombolcha Town, hinders the design of targeted interventions to advocate for facemask use. This study was designed to address this gap. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town from July to August, 2020. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique after proportionally allocating the sample size from the total number of taxi drivers working in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. The data were collected by trained data collectors using a structured questionnaire and an on-the-spot observational checklist. The collected data were checked, coded and entered to EpiData version 4.6 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 for data cleaning and analysis. Bivariate (Crude Odds Ratio [COR]) and multivariable (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]) logistic regression analyses were employed using 95% CI (confidence interval). From bivariate logistic regression analysis, variables with p-value < 0.250 were retained into multivariable logistic regression analysis. Then, from the multivariable analysis, variables with p-value < 0.050 were declared as factors significantly associated with facemask wearing among taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. MAIN FINDINGS: The proportion of taxi drivers who wore a facemask was 54.68% [95%CI: 50.10-59.7%]. The majority (58.3%) of drivers were using cloth facemasks, followed by N95 facemasks (24.5%) and surgical facemasks (17.3%). Out of the total 417 taxi drivers, more than two-thirds (69.8%) of them had a good knowledge about COVID-19 and 67.6% of taxi drivers had a positive attitude towards taking precautions against transmission of COVID-19. Three-fourths (74.1%) of the taxi drivers believed that wearing a facemask could prevent COVID-19. More than half (52.5%) felt discomfort when wearing a facemask. Almost three-fourths (72.2%) of taxi drivers felt that the presence of local government pressure helped them to wear a facemask. We found that marital status [AOR = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.97-5.01], fear of the disease [AOR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.28-3.47], belief in the effectiveness of a facemask [AOR = 5.6, 95%CI: 3.1-10.16] and feeling government pressure [AOR = 3.6, 95%CI: 2.16-6.13] were factors significantly associated with wearing a facemask. CONCLUSION: We found that the proportion of facemask wearers among taxi drivers was relatively low in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. In order to increase that number, government bodies should work aggressively to encourage more taxi drivers to wear a facemask. We also recommend that government and non-government organizations work very closely together to implement strategies that promote facemask use, including increasing the availability of inexpensive facemasks, and monitoring and controlling facemask use.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Máscaras , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
6.
Integr Blood Press Control ; 13: 145-156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122940

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world which affects over one billion people due to severe complications and inadequate control. Even though lifestyle modification is one of the most effective ways to prevent and control hypertension, only little emphasis has been given for it compared with treating hypertension with medication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess adherence to lifestyle modifications and associated factors among hypertensive patients attending Dessie referral hospital. Materials and Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 301 hypertensive patients during May and June, 2020. The study participants were selected with a convenient sampling technique due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured face to face interviewer-administered questionnaire and checked, cleaned and entered into Epi data version 4.4 and exported to SPSS version 25.0 software for analysis. The associations between independent variables and dependent variable were analyzed using binary logistic regression models. Results: A total of 301 respondents participated in the study yielding a response of 100%. The overall adherence in this study was only 23.6%. Independent predictors of adherence to lifestyle modifications were divorced (AOR=0.35; 95% CI (0.13-0.94)) and widowed (AOR=0.27; 95% CI (0.10-0.75)), secondary school education (AOR=4.85; 95% CI (1.54-15.22)), no regular income (AOR=0.22; 95% CI (0.08-0.65)) or monthly income of ≥3000 ETB (AOR=5.58; 95% CI (2.46-12.66)), having co-morbidities (AOR=2.37; CI (1.23-4.57)), good knowledge about the disease (AOR=1.83; CI (0.92-3.65)) and good self-efficacy (AOR=3.64; CI (1.75-7.55)). Conclusion and Recommendations: The overall adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications was very low. The independent predictors were marital status, educational level, monthly income, having co-morbidities, knowledge and self-efficacy. Therefore, multifaceted and collaborative implementation of strategies about lifestyle modifications for hypertension prevention and control are needed to address barriers at the patient, provider, system and community levels.

7.
Sleep Disord ; 2020: 6125845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523782

RESUMO

Background: Chronic illnesses have a negative impact on the quality of sleep; however, patients with chronic illness do not bring sleep issues while they are coming to a health institution for a follow-up. As a result, poor sleep quality among patients with chronic illness is often unrecognized and untreated, and it results to a negative impact on the prognosis of chronic illness. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed from February 22, 2018, to April 6, 2018. The total sample size was 396. The study employed a stratified random sampling technique, and study participants were selected by systematic sampling. The data were collected by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire which is a validated and standardized tool. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 25; text, tables, and figures were utilized for data presentation. By considering a 95% confidence level and P value of 0.05, binary logistic regression and Kruskal-Wallis test were enrolled. Results: The prevalence of poor sleep quality among diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure patients was 36.5%. The odds of being a poor sleeper are increased when age increased. Patients who have poor perception towards the prognosis of their illness were four times more likely to be a poor sleeper compared to patients with good perception (AOR = 4.21, 95%CI = 1.94-9.13, P = 0.001). Patients who have anxiety were four times more likely to be a poor sleeper compared with patients without anxiety (AOR = 3.69, 95%CI = 2.19-6.20, P = 0.001). The educational level and residence were other factors associated with sleep quality. There was a statistically significant difference of sleep quality between patients with diabetes and hypertension, and diabetes and heart failure (F (2, 384) = 10.92, P = 0.004). Conclusion and Recommendations. In this study, over one-third of patients had poor sleep quality. Age, educational level, residence, perception towards prognosis of illness, and anxiety were factors associated with sleep quality. All health care providers should assess and provide advice about sleep hygiene and influencing factors. Assessment of sleep quality for every diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure patients in every visit should be incorporated in the care package.

8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 13: 869-878, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273738

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis remains a serious global public health problem. It mainly affects the lungs, and occurs in every part of the world. The link between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus is essential to inform programs and policies, yet there is a scarcity of information in our study area. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among diabetic patients at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: This institutionally based retrospective cohort study was undertaken among 433 diabetic patients of Debre Markos Referral Hospital between January 2013 and December 2017. All eligible diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using Stata version 14. The survival time of diabetic patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and survival time among different categorical variables compared using the log-rank test. Both bivariate and multivariate Coxproportional-hazard regression models were fitted to identify independent predictors of tuberculosis among diabetic patients. Results: Among the cohort of 43326 (6%) developed tuberculosis during follow-up. The overall tuberculosis-incidence rate was 2.4 per 100 with 95% CI. The total time allotted to follow up the study participants was 1,101.5 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, history of alcohol consumption (adjusted incidence ratio 4, 95% CI 1.2-13; P=0.02) and history of tuberculosis (12, 95% CI 3-39; P=0.01) significantly increased the risk of tuberculosis, but normal body-mass index and above (≥18.5 kg/m2) was associated with a rate reduction (0.34, 95% CI 0.14; P=0.80; 0.03) forincidence of tuberculosis. Conclusion: In this study, we found a high rate of tuberculosis among diabetic patients. Factors significantly linked with increased risk of tuberculosis included history of alcohol consumption, history of tuberculosis, and low body-mass index. Early screening and treatment for tuberculosis is highly recommended at diabetes mellitus follow-up for patients with these risk factors.

9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 13: 237-245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099430

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia, and are caused by a complex interaction of genetics and environmental factors. Diabetes mellitus produces change in the blood vessels and therefore affects almost every part of the body. Methods: A hospital-based unmatched case control study was conducted from February 2018 to April 2018 at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. Data were collected from 204 individuals, 136 controls and 68 cases using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and patient chart. Data were entered into EPI-data 3.1 software and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Descriptive analysis including mean, median and proportions was carried out. In bivariate analysis, variables below 0.25 significance level were selected for multivariable analysis. For multivariable analysis, a backward model was selected and 95% confidence interval variables with P-values below 0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as significant variables. Results: Of the total respondents, 68 were cases and 136 were controls, with an overall response rate of 98.55%. Of these respondents, 57.4% and 57.8% were males and type 1 diabetic patients, respectively. This study found that ages of 38-47 (AOR= 5.60 (1.62-19.38)) and >47 (AOR=4.81 (1.32-17.5)), income of 1000-1499 (AOR=3.10 (1.05-9.08)), self-reported drug adherence (AOR=5.146 (1.651-16.04)), FBS of 70-130 mg/dL 0.095 (0.022-0.414) and ≥131 mg/dL (0.05 (0.011-0.223)) and type 1 diabetic mellitus (AOR=4.73 (1.765-12.72)) were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus complications. Conclusion and Recommendations: The study identified important determinants of diabetic complications. Poor glycemic control, poor adherence, and income were found to be modifiable determinants; on the other hand, age and type of diabetic mellitus are non-modifiable determinants of diabetic complications. Clinicians should implement a comprehensive care plan that will address patients' adherence and glycemic control problems.

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